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"This account has an air of probability; it places "Menes about 1400 years before the Olympiads, near "200 years after the flood, and it agrees well with the "Mosaic history.
"We have, by this means, a series of profane history, "from the first man to the first Olympiad, agreeing with "the Scripture. Sanchoniatho begins his history with "Protogonus (Adam) and brings it down to Thoth, the "second king of Egypt. Eratofthenes begins his catalogue "with Menes (MisorJ and Athothes (Thoth) which is "connected with the Olympiads.
"This is what I take to be an improvement on the '< subject; a discovery that has hitherto escaped the in"quifitiveness of all other learned men."
This quotation, from a man who was well acquainted with the bishop's views and genius, must have great force in confirming the real fense of what that heathen's, SanchoniathoS) true meaning was; and the fagacious methods he made use of to investigate the matter of his fragment, when he was first struck with the hint, mentioned above, soon broke through the difficulty and obscurity that seemed, at first sight, to veil it.
One part of the consideration, that opened the way to his enquiry, was, that because thofe who were deified in one place, were not owned with the fame honour in all places, and some of their relations were still known, and not deified any where, he thought the difficulty of finding out their gods not altogether insuperable. "Thus, "(fays he) in that place from Eupolemus, which I before "quoted from Eusebius, Canaan not being any where
O "deified, "deified, his name is left unchanged; and his being owned "the son of Cronus, leads us to know that Cronus is Ham, u who was his father. And so Meftraim's, or Misraim s "dncUotric, being not so much regarded at Babylon, left "his name unchanged there; which was a key to let me "into this whole history, still taking it in conjunction "with divers other things.
"This observation, fays he, gives a fatisfactory account "why all the deified persons, we meet with in this history, "are found under other names here than in Moses's books: "Elioun for Lamech, Our anus for Noah, Cronus for "Ham, IJiris or OJiris for Misraim, Sydyc for Shew, &c. "yet their natural relations, fathers and children, owned "in this history, are certain marks which determine them "to be the fame persons: for theiame reason, Protogonus "must be Adam. No other person can be the first man, "and be just ten generations before Noah."
These judicious observations, by which this great man found so many interesting truths, were seconded by others, relating to a comparison of what Sanchoniatho delivers concerning the times of certain of his deities, with the line of Shem, which was the particular care of Moses. He therefore lays it down as a postulate for his foundation, that the sons of Cain may be rationally concluded, in their several succeeding generations, to live about the fame number of years before the flood, that the sons of Set/is line attained to; and in like manner after the flood, that the descendants from Ham and 'Japhet lived about as long as the descendants of Shem downwards to Abraham s time, or farther, to the time of the deliverance from the Egyptian bondage.' "This
"This postulate is rational, fays the bishop, because "we find just ten generations in Cains line recorded by "our Sanchoniatho, to reach to the time of Quranus, or "Noah; and an eleventh generation suppofed by him "fynchronal to Cronus, or Ham; and besides, it has << been always agreed that such temporal favours, as length "of life, are dispofed of by Providence much alike, to the "good and to the bad.
Now though this heathen author, in his fragment, intended only to record the line of Ham, in order to aggrandize the idolatrous religion, which he professed himself, and very likely was as willing to conceal every thing that related to the True God, as Hermes or Thoth was, whose theogony he followed, as copied by the Cabiri, who were the amanuenses of that prince; yet he has just mentioned the two brothers of Ham, Sbem by the name Sydyc, and yaphet by that of Nereus; this latter he mentions, in a very brief manner, as having concerns in the affairs of Ouranus: affirming, that this line was not derived from Cronus, but that it was cotemporary with him. He intimates, that this Nereus was the first of his line; that from him Pontus descends, with whom Typhon is joined: from Pontus descends Pojtdon, whom the Latins call Neptune, and a famous woman for songs, called Sidon. It is well proved from Scripture, and the strongest reasoning by our bishop, that this Nereus is Japhet, and the others his descendants, to whom I refer the reader; my business being only to shew briefly how the names given by the Greek writers to the patriarchs, may be known to signify the fame whom Moses calls by the Scripture names,
O 2 to
to the further elucidation of what is intended in this work.
Thus far, I flatter myself, this end is thoroughly answered, as to what regards the first patriarchs; and it would seem sufficient to fatisfy every candid enquirer into antiquity, that the connection I have made, in this arduous research, is unravelled in a manner, which indeed is' hardly to be doubted; because the authorities are good, and the deductions from them natural and easy. But as, in matters of so high antiquity, too much cannot be faid in confirmation of the above chain of history, there is yet: a number of anecdotes concerning some of the fucceflbrs of the first patriarchs, which I shall now draw from both sacred and profane history, of no less credit than those I have already produced, on their accounts.
It will, however, be necesiary first to return to our enquiry after the Pelasgians, since we have begun with them in this chapter. Too much cannot be offered to the reader upon their account, because they will become principal evidences, for the truth of what we imagine to be the state of the cafe, with respect to the origin of the languages of Europe: and by proving that both Celts and Scythians were first Pela/gianst we shall be able to ascertain what is offered in a suture chapter, that the Gomer'ians and Scythians or Magogians spoke the fame language, though there is now some small difference in its present state in Ireland, Scotland and Wales.
The Phœnicians and Egyptians began very early to attempt sending colonies to neighbouring countries; and as they both sprung from the fame ancestors, the sons of I Ham,
Ham, they must have had much the fame œconomical dispositions to improve their commercial and other interests. Maritime countries seem to be the first objects of their intentions; and where could they find any places so likely to answer their ends, as the isles of Eli/ha, Greece, now inhabited by the Pelasgians, the issue of Gomer, and many of the descendants of Magog.
We are informed, by Strabo and Dion. Halic. that they sent colonies thither, and began to disturb the Pelafgians two generations, or sixty years, before the wars of Troy; and from that time continued to intrude, by successive numbers, till they had well nigh replaced the original inhabitants, and had subdued the maritime parts. It was then they became a mixed people, consisting of Pelasgians, Phœnicians and Egyptians; and from that time the æra of the Greek tongue may be dated. - All was Pelasgian -before the incursions of Phœnicians and Egyptians, and the gradual combination of the languages of these with the Pelafgian begat the Greek, called afterwards the Helenian tongue, in complaisance to Deucalion s son, who, at his arrival there, found this language forming; while the Pelasgians enjoyed their own, unchanged, in the other parts of Greece, AJia Minor, in the country of the 'Trojans, Scythia, and all the neighbouring islands in the Mediterranean Sea, and all over Horace, &c.
It may, from hence, be easily seen, that the people of all these countries were the fame, descended from Japhet, through Gomer, Magog, and his other sons, and spoke the fame language wheresoever they dwelt, until the incursion mentioned into Greece, which was, in time, called Celtic^ Gaulish, &c. Ihucyd.