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and this, surely, falls but little void of all holy affections and exshort of a denial of their Divine ercises. The sacred writers uniinspiration.

formly denominate all those saints 2. The language in which the or renewed persons, who have any inspired writers describe the mor. true love to God, any true repental state of unrenewed men, proves

ance for sin, any true faith in that their hearts are void of holi-Christ, any self-denial, or any othness. The sacred writers uniform-er holy exercise, in any degree.

, ly represent unrenewed men, as We never find them stating the being spiritually deaf, spiritually quantity of holiness, which one blind, and spiritually dead. But, must have, in order to be a saint. as it would not be proper to repre- They say, without the least qualisent those as naturally deaf, blind fication, “ He that loveth, is born and dead, who can hear and see, of God.” We may justly conand have even some feeble remains clude, therefore, that in the view of animal life; so neither would it of the inspired writers, the hearts be proper to represent those as of all unrenewed men are utterly spiritually deaf, blind and dead, void of every holy affection and who have some spiritual sense and exercise. And indeed, if there be discernment of spiritual things, any conceivable difference between and some degree of spiritual life. saints and sinners, between the It is as absurd to say that a man regenerate and unregenerate, it

, is spiritually dead, who has some must lie in this, that saints have holy affections of heart, as to say, some holiness of heart, whereas sinthat a man is naturally dead, who ners have none. For, there is breathes and moves, and has the not a just man upon earth, that use of his senses and mental fac- doeth good and sinpeth not.' Every ulties. When, therefore, the pro- saint has sinful affections and es, phet, speaking of unrenewed men, ercises, more or less, intermixed says, 1. Hear, ye deaf; and look, with his holy ones.

But, if saints ye blind, that ye may see-Bring have some sinful exercises, interforth the blind people that have mixed with their holy ones; and eyes, and the deaf that have ears;" sinners have some holy exercises, his words imply, that they are void intermixed with their sinful ones; of that spiritual discernment, which how is it possible to point out any consists in holy affections of heart. real and essential difference be--And when the apostle says to tween them? If we say, that a saint saints, “ You hath he quickened, is one who has more holy exercises who were dead in trespasses and than others; we only express a comsins;" his words imply, that before parative and not an essential differtheir regeneration, they were en- ence between them; which is as retirely destitute of that spiritual ally the difference between one saint life, which consists in holy love to and another, as it is supposed to be, God and men. But, what saints between a saint and a sinner. If were, before their regeneration, we say, again, that a saint is one, sinners are now.

who has more holy exercises than It may be added,

sinful ones; this does not mark any 3. That the manner in which the essential difference between saints sacred writers distinguish unre- and sinners: and upon this supponewed persons from the regene- sition, none, but the Searcher of rate, sinners from saints, affords hearts, could ever tell, who are conclusive evidence, that the hearts saints and who are sinners; and of men, in their natural state, are He, only by a direct revelation

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from heaven. If, therefore, the rive all their moral qualities. The sacred writers are correct, in mak- actions of men, therefore, are good ing an essential distinction be- or bad, as their hearts are holy or tween saints and sinners, it must sinful. Since, then, the hearts of be true, that the hearts of unrenew- unrenewed men are void of holi. ed men are entirely void of every ness and full of evil; it follows, holy affection and exercise.

that all their actions are sinful and Kaving attempted thus briefly to displeasing to God. And so they establish the truth deduced from are represented to be, in the scripour text, I shall now ask your at-tures of truth. In the fourteenth tention to a few, plain inferences, Psalm, we read; “ They are corwhich seem, unavoidably, to fol- rupt; they have done abominable low, from what has been said. works; there is none that doeth INFERENCES.

good. The Lord looked down 1. If the hearts of men are nat- from heaven upon the children of urally void of holiness, then they men, to see if there were any that are full of sin. As the heart is did understand and seek God.voluntary, all its exercises have a They are all gone aside; they are moral quality. There are but two together become filthy; there is sorts of moral exercises, holy and pone that doeth good, no, not one." sinful. And as the affections and Solomon says, that the plowing feelings of the heart, always ex- of the wicked is sin, and his prayer tend to all the moral objects in abomination.' In his epistle to the view of the understanding; so the Romans, Paul writes—** We have heart of every person may be said before proved both Jews and to be always full of holiness or full Gentiles, that they are all under of sin. Since, therefore, the hearts sin; as it is written, “There is of unrenewed men, are wholly des- noue righteous; no, not one; there titute of holy affections and exer- is none that understandeth; there cises, they must, of course, be full is none that seeketh after God. of sinful 'affections and exercises. They are all gone out of the way, Accordingly, we have this account they are together become unprofitof fallen man, in Genesis: “God able, there is none that doeth good, saw that the wickedness of man no, not one. Their throat is an was great in the earth, and that open sepulchre; with their tongues every imagination of the thoughts they have used deceit; the poison of his heart, was evil, only evil, of asps is under their lips: whose. continually." Solomon writes ; mouth is full of cursing and bitter* The heart of the sons of men is ness: their feet are swift to shed full of evil.” To which the apos- blood: destruction and misery are tle adds; “ The carnal mind is in their ways: and the way of enmity against God." Hence, peace have they not known." To

2. It follows, that all the actions which the apostle adds, in the of unrenewed men, are sinful.-eighth chapter of the same epistle, The heart is the seat of moral ac- " The carnal mind is enmity against tion. The motions of the bodily God; for it is not subject to the organs, are actions, only as they law of God, neither indeed can be; are connected with choice and so then, they that are in the flesh volition. Whenever men act as cannot please God.” To which rational, accountable creatures, we may subjoin the words of the their actions flow from their hearts. great Teacher sent from God, • A From the feelings and exercises of corrupt tree bringeth not forth good the heart, the actions of men de- ! fruit-An evil man, out of the evil


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treasure of the heart, bringeth appeared strange to thousands, forth evil things.' Hence, besides Nicodemus.

3. There is propriety in saying, But, if the hearts of all sinners that unrenewed men are totally are totally unholy; it is not difficult depraved. By this phrase, it is to see, that they must experience a not meant, that the material organs change of heart, in order to be reof the body, or the natural faculties ceived to heaven; for “Without of the mind are depraved. But, holinesss, no man shall see the the meaning is, that every thing in Lord.” The moral sinner needs unrenewed men, which is of a mor- precisely the same change of heart, al nature, is depraved. And the as the vicious sinner; the pharisaitruth of this directly and necessa- cal professor needs precisely the rily follows from what has been same change of heart, as the proadvanced. For, if the hearts of fane infidel. No sinner is qualified unrenewed men are not only void to endure the presence of the holy of holiness, but full of evil; and if God, or to join in the einployments all their actions, which flow from and partake of the enjoyments of their hearts, are, consequently, the heavenly world, without a radsinful and offensive to God; then ical change of heart. their moral depravity is total; and 5. We may infer, from what has there can be no reasonable objec- been said, that the doctrine of unition to the use of the term. If it versal salvation is groundless. If, be said that this term is not found as Arminians hold, there were in saered scripture, the same may some holiness in the heart of every be said of the term morality, and man by nature, it would be diffiof many others in common use. cult to refute the doctrine of the If we may never use a word, which Universalists; for, according to the is not found in scripture, then we scriptures, the exercise of holiness, must never explain scripture, or in any degree, is connected with tell in what sense we understand salvation. Upon supposition, that it. The scriptures can never be none of mankind is destitute of hoexplained by barely repeating the liness, it seems as easy to prove words and phrases of the sacred from scripture, that all will be sav. writers. It is presumed, that no ed, as to prove that any will be one will object to the use of the saved. Besides, as the sentiment term total depravity, who is willing that there is some holiness in the to admit the true and scriptural hearts of men by nature, denies idea, as expressed by the evangel- the essential difference between ical poet, that in their natural saints and sinners; if it were true, state,

it would seem difficult to see, as • The hearts of men are all unclean, Dr. Paley suggests, why the con

• And all their actions guilt.' dition of the least sinner, in the " 4. If there is no holiness in the world to come, should be worse hearts of unrenewed men; we may than that of the least saint. And hence learn, why all sorts of sin- hence it is, that Arminians so easiners need to be regenerated, in ly slide into the notion, that all order to be admitted into heaven. mankind will be saved. This was the emphatick declara- But if, as we have seen, there is tion of our Lord, “Verily, verily, an essential difference between I say unto you, Except a inan (avý saints and sinners; if the hearts of man) be born again, he cannot see sinners are void of holiness and the kingdom of God." This has full of sin; it must follow, that all




who die unrenewed, will be ex- in their flesh there dwelleth no cluded from heaven. The essen- good thing.' Let them, therefore, tial difference between the moral with God's perfect and upright characters of saints and sinners, servant of old, abhor themselves, furnishes a good reason for the and ever remember, with the aposwide separation, which, as the tle, that they are saved by grace.' word of God in forms us, will be 7. We infer from what has been

made between them, at the day of said, that the condition of unreE judgment.

newed sinners is very dangerous. 6. If what has been said be true; They are void of holiness, full of then saints have reason to be hum- sin, unfit for heaven, and fitted for ble. They were by nature . chil- destruction. And though their dedren of wrathi, even as others.' It pravity is seated in their hearts, was not because they were better and is therefore voluntary and inthan others, that they were made excusable; yet it will remain, unthe happy subjects of renewing til they die in their sins, unless grace. They were totally deprav- their hearts shall be renewed by ed, and did nothing but sin and the Holy Spirit; which they have offend God, till renewed by the no reason to expect: for, as they Holy Spirit: as the apostle says to are averse from all the feelings the Ephesians, “ You hath he and exercises of the new heart,

66 , quickened, who were dead in tres- and therefore never use means to passes and sins." Well, then, get it; so they resist the strivingg may all saints adopt the words of of the Spirit, and by their continuthe same apostle, “ Not by works al sinning provoke God to with of righteousness, which we have hold from them his renewing grace. done, but according to his mercy Such is the real state of all un. hath he saved us, by the washing renewed sinners. Their case of regeneration and renewing of would be hopeless, if God were the Holy Ghost, which he shed not able to raise the dead, and da us abundantly through Jesus quicken whom he will. Their case Christ."

would be hopeless, were it not for But, not only were the hearts of this glorious truth, against which saints void of holiness, before they their hearts never fail to rise, that were born of God; they are often God hath mercy on whom he will void of holiness since. Even now, have mercy.'

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importance to claim a serious and

attentive consideration. ON THE SABBATH.

The word Sabbath originally No. 1.

means rest. The Sabbath is a day Though professed Christians of rest from the ordinary labourg have generally been agreed as to and pursuits of life, for the purpose the obligation which men are un- of worshipping God, and attendder, to observe a Sabbath; yet they ing, in a special manner, to the duhave differed respecting the ground ties and exercises of Religion. of the obligation, the day to be As the light of nature teaches kept, the time when it begins,

and men, that there is a God; so it the manner of keeping it. The teaches them, that it is their duty | subject is, confessedly, of sufficient to worship Him, and perform reli

gious services. And if God ought | enth day, God ended his work to be worshipped, then there ought which I le had made; and He rest to be some particular portion of ed on the seventh day from all his time set apart for that purpose.- works, which He bad made. And As there are but a few of mankind, God blessed the seventh day, and who have sufficient leisure, amidst sanctified it; because that in it he the ordinary cares and concerns of had rested from all his works, life, to attend to the duties of Re- which God created and made." It ligion; it is necessary, that there is very evident from this passage, should be a cessation of labour, that it is the will of God, that manfor this end, as well as for kind. in all ages, should observe a the rest and refreshment of the weekly Sabbath. It is expressly body. It is also obvious, that there said, that God blessed the seventh should be some fixed and stated day and sanctified it: and the reaportion of time set apart for Divine son assigned, is, that, after the six worship; that those, who belong to days' work of creation, He rested, the same society or community, on the seventh day, from all his may not interrupt and disturb one work, which He had made. God another. And, without doubt, might have created the universe in there is some particular proportion six seconds, as well as in six days, of time, better suited, in the nature if He had seen fit. It is not to be of things, than any other, to answer supposed, that He was fatigued the purposes of a Sabbath. The with the work of creation. When stated seasons of rest and devotion, it is said, He rested, the meaning may be too far asunder, so as not is merely, that He ceased. And to afford sufficient refreshment to thus He taught all men, by his Dithe laborious part of mankind, nor vine example, to labour six days, give sufficient opportunity for re- and rest on the seventh, devoting ligious worship; or they may be too it to God and religion. near ,

Dr. Paley, and others, who necessary employments and avo- deny the perpetual obligation of cations of life. But, though there the Sabbath, labour to make it apis, unquestionably, a certain pro-pear, that, as Moses wrote this portion of time, best suited, in the passage in the second chapter of nature of things, to the important Genesis, after the giving of the purposes of a Sabbath; yet reason Law on Mount Sanai, his meaning alone is not able to discover, pre- must be, not that God blessed and cisely, what that proportion of time sanctified the seventh day then, is, whether one day in six, or one immediately upon the creation; but day in seven, or one in eight. To that God blessed and sanctified the teach men their duty in this re- seventh day, at the time of giving spect, as well as in a thousand the Law, for this reason, because others, there was need of a Divine He made the world in six days, and Revelation. Accordingly, God rested on the seventh. had no sooner finished the work of But, to this it may be replied: creation, than he separated and First, That to take this to be the sanctified a seventh part of time, to the meaning of Moses, is to supbe observed as a holy Sabbath. Of


that he wrote very immethodthis the sacred Historian gives us ically, and in a way calculated to an account in the second chapter of deceive his readers; which is not Genesis. 6. Then the heavens and easily reconciled with the infallithe earth were finished, and all bility of an inspired penman. But, the host of them. And on the sey- Secondly, Admitting that Moses


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