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the postboys, of the true Dutch make, syf- ,,ed the Dutchman thought a King of Great fered his horses to go at a very gentle pace, Britain a much less consequential person. while with his flint and steel he was strik- than a magistrate of Amsterdam, made ing fire to light his pipe. The King, who | George burst into a fit of laugliter, and he wished to get to his journey's end as expe- suffered his driver to go his own pace, ditiously as possible, called out to the fel- \ without giving him any further trouble. low to drive faster. The Dutchman, without deigning even to look back at his Majesty, just laid his whip across the off horse, A wine merchant, residing in the Domand continued to smoke his pipe. The Platz, at Saltzburg, infected with revoluKing, out of all patience at the phlegm of tiqvary principles, and wishing to ingra: the driver, called out in a great passiou to tiate bimself into favour with the French, him, and threatened to cane him if he did gave them a hearty welcome, and on their not drive faster: upon this the postillion, arrival presented them with several hogs: taking his pipe from his mouth, and very beads of wine, for which lie would receive deliberately striking it upon his thumb nail no recompence. This act of liberality was to get out the dust, turned to the King, appreciated as it deserved.

When the and with all the sangfroid imaginable said, || enemy were compelled to quit the town, " I am going at a very good pace; and I they returned the kindness of the wine could not drive your Majesty faster if you | nierchant by staving several hogsheads of was even the Burgomaster of Amsterdum." wine and overflowing the streets with their This curious insinuation, that plainly shew. W contents !


JOHN HOWARD, THE PHILANTHROPIST. moirs of such a man have topics of interest,

Jp ever a model of benevolence appeared | not merely for the people among whom he in a form all human, it was ju that of Mr. was born, but for every assemblage of soHoward. The history of his life is full of ciety, who revere and would wish to imivariety. His was not a theoretic benevo- tate bis illustrious virtues. The view of lence, confined to the contemplations of his the character and public services of Mr. own mind, or to the sanctuary of his own Howard, writteu by his friend Dr. Aikin, family. Attached, as he was, with all the and published soon after his death, contains fervour of his five nature to the dearer much authentic information. It is, howcharities of home, he still had a bosom large ever, if we may be allowed the metaphor, enough for all mankind. He felt for their but a miniature of that great man, and the miseries, and, as far as his single exertious want of a full length portrait has long been could go, he laboured to relieve them. He lainented by the friends of Howard, and of visited them in prisons, in hospitals, in cot- ! humanity. That desideratum Mr. Baldwin tages, at home and abroad. No personal Brown, of the Temple, has undertaken to inconvenience, no pecuniary expence, no supply. He has, with great labour, and, pursuit of business or of pleasure had we may add, with remarkable skill, compower to retard him in his singular career. piled from various sources a large quarto He traversed many countries, and in all volume, in which the early life of Mr. left proofs of bis godlike mind. Distinc- ! Howard, as far as it is known, the numertions of language, of faith, and of manners, ous benevolent occupations of his maturer were to bis view no grounds of peculiar years, and the retirement of his season of sympathy or aversion. None were aliens declive, are described in an ample and to his mind who wore the human form. ' satisfactory manner. The author, in his The world was his country: and wherever preface, recounts the names of several recalamity bowed down his fellow creature, spectable and learned persons who gave he loved to be near him, to cousole him, ! him new and useful materials for his underand, if possible, to rescue him. The me taking, and expresses himself as particularly No. 117.-Vol. XVIII.




indebted to his brother-in-law, the Rev.,, wholesale grocer in the city. But his fae Thomas Raffles, of Liverpool, with whom ther dying before his apprenticeship exthe idea of the work originated. We have pired, bis ill state of health, combined with no reason, therefore, to doubt the authen a distaste for a line of life upon which he, ticity of any part of these memoirs; and as no doubt, entered in compliance with a the book may not possibly reach the hands | parent's wishes, rather than to gratify his of many of our readers, we are sure they own inclination, he gladly embraced the will be gratified with some account of the opportunity afforded by his coming of age, volume.

to make arrangements with his master for The time of Mr. Howard's birth, singular the purchase of the remainder of his time. as it may seem, the author, with all his By his father's will he was not to come into anxious research, was not able to ascertain the possession of his fortune until he reached precisely. From the best information, it his twenty-fourth year, and then he became appears that the philanthropist was born entitled to the sum of seven thousand about the year 1727, at Clapton, in the pounds, in addition to the whole of his faparish of Hackney, the well known village ther's landed property, his plate, furniture, adjoining to London. His father having pictures, and the moiety of his books, beamassed a considerable fortune in the busi- sides being named sole residuary legatee in ness of an upholsterer, which he carried on the event of his attaining to the age prein Long-lane, Smithfield, removed to Clap- scribed for the full enjoyment of so ample ton, where he lived in retirement. The an inheritance. His sister, who with himboy, soon after bis birth, was sent to Car- self constituted the whole of the testator's dington, near Bedford, to be nursed by a family, on reaching the same age, was to cottager there, who lived upon a small receive the sum of eight thousand pounds farm of his father's. This farm was then as her portion of his personal estate, tothe only property his father liad in that gether with the other moiety of his books, village, but it afterwards became the fa- and pearly the whole of the jewels and vourite residence of Mr. Howard, when, | wardrobe of her mother and her stepby the increase of his patrimony, he was mother. enabled to purchase in its neighbourhood. The executors of this will were Mr. LauMr. Howard's father was a dissenter, of rence Channing, the husband of the testaCalvinistic principles, or rather an Inde tor's sister; Mr. Ive Whitbread, of Cardpendent, and of course he entrusted the

ington, his first cousin; and Mr. Lewin education of his son to a tutor professiug Cholmley, a Blackwell-ball factor, who those religious opivions which he himself was one of his most intiinate friends, and entertained, but of whose qualifications for also some distant relation to his first wife, bis office Mr. Howard, late in his after the mother of the children whose persons life, expressed no very high opinion. From i and property were committed to the joint the care of this tutor, whose academy was guardianship of these gentlemen, until they at Hertford, young Howard was removed | attained the age of twenty-one. But as the (though it does not appear at what age) || subject of these memoirs, even at an early to a school of a superior description in period of bis life, was remarkable for pruLondon, which was under the direction | dence and discretion, a considerable part of of Mr. John Eames. Amongst his fellow the management of the estate to which he pupils there, was the late celebrated Dr. was the sole heir, was entrusted to his more Price. The subject of these memoirs having | immediate management, particularly the been destined by his father for a commercial | superintendence of those repairs in the life, paid less attention to the Greek or Ro- l house at Clapton, which the parsimony of man page than he did to arithmetic, and its late possessor had rendered necessary. hence it is easy to account for the incorrect- | He went there for this purpose every other ness of style in his writings, and for his day; and a venerable old man, who had very superficial acquaintance with foreign been gardener to liis father for many years, langnages. After he left school, he was and who continued in that situation until the apprenticed to Mr. Newnhiam, grandfather son let the house, would, in the year 1790, to the late Alderman Newnham, a large!) when he had attained the age of ninety



years, take great pleasure in relating, as an never suffered himself, for a moment, to be instance of his young master's punctuality || diverted from carrying it into effect, even and goodness of disposition, that he never by the most attractive of those objects failed to be at the long buttressed wall, || which formerly possessed all their most 'which separated the garden from the roaci, | powerful influence upon his curiosity and just as the baker's cart was going past, his taste. when he would purchase a loaf, throw it How long he continued absent from his over the wall, and, on entering the garden, | native country is uncertain, though it was good-humouredly say, “ Harry, look among most probable not more than a year or two. the cabbages, you will find something for Soon after his return, the delicate state of your family."-To some readers (says the his health induced him to take lodgings at anonymous anthor of the life of Mr. How- Stoke Newington, where he lived a life of ard, npon whose authority this early proof leisure, though not of idleness, spending of his kindness to his iuferiors, and consi

his time in the manner in which a man of deration for the wants of the industrious fortune, whose religious principles and napoor, is here inserted) this anecdote may tural inclination alike prevented his plungappear trifling: others will be pleased ing into any of the fashionable dissipations with the first traces of youthful benevo of the day, may be supposed to spend it. lence in a character, which, at a more ad- | Some considerable portion of his leisure vanced period of life, became the admi- || hours he there devoted to the improvement ration of the world. It is for the latter of his mind, and engaged, amongst other description of persons alone, I would add, I pursuits, in the study of some of the less that these memoirs are written.

abstruse branches of natural philosophy, The interest of the money bequeathed to and of the theory of medicine; of which hiṁ by his father, was sufficient to enable he acquired sufficient knowledge to be of him, soon after leaving the warehouse of the most essential service to him in his fuMr. Newnham, to set out upon his travels ture travels, upon those errands of mercy, to France and Italy, where he met with which exposed him, in so peculiar a manobjects much more congenial to his taste ner, to the danger of infection from conthau the hogsheads and the ledgers, which tagious diseases. From the example of his he most cheerfully left behind him in Wat | parents, and the care bestowed upon his ling-street. In this tour he either acquired, education, he had early imbibed those prinor strengthened that taste for the fine arts, | ciples of piety, which never forsook him which induced him, during his earlier tra- | during the whole course of his active and vels (for in bis latter ones he bad more most useful life. From principle, from hadoble objects to attend to), not only to em bit, and from education, he was a dissenter; brace with eagerness every opportunity of

as it respects church disciplive, an indepencontemplating with the eye of an ardent, dent-in doctrine, a moderate Calvinist. if not of an enthusiastic admirer, the most | The congregation with which he first asso. finished specimen of the magic skill of) ciated in church fellowship was that of the their ablest professors, in ancient and in independent denomination, then under the modern times, but, as far as bis compara- | pastoral care of the Rev. Meredith Towntively limited means would allow, of be- send, now under that of the Rev. Thomas coming himself the possessor of some of the Mitchell, formerly of Leicester. Or this productions of their creative genius. Itchurch he was regularly admitted a memmust have been during these travels that he ber, but at what precise period of life I obtained those paintings of the foreign | have not been able to ascertain; the earlier masters, and other works of art, collected records of the proceedings of the church upon the Continent, with which he after. still flourishing there, if any such were at wards embellished his favourite seat at that time kept, having been mislaid or deCardington; for when he had once entered || stroyed; and notwithstanding his subseupon the execution of his great scheme of quent residence in distant parts of the universal benevolence, it so completely ab. country, he seems never to have dissolved sorbed all the energies of his mind that he | the connexion. Whilst regularly worship



ping with this congregation, he set on foot || induced, from a grateful recollection of her a subscription for the purchase of a house kindness, contrasted with the utter want for the residence of the minister, to which of it in his former residence, to make her 'he himself generously contributed upwards an offer of his hand in marriage, though of fifty pounds. But his liberality was not she was twice his age, extremely sickly, confined to those to whom he was bound and very much his inferior in point of for'by the tie of Christian fellowship, in this tune. Against this unexpected proposal religious association. During the period of the lady made many remonstrances, prinliis life in wbich he resided at Stoke New-cipally upon the ground of the great disington, he gave away a very considerable parity in their ages; but Mr. Howard portion of his income in deeds of charity to being firm to his purpose, the union took those who appealed to his benevolence, or place, it is believed, in the year 1752, he 'whom his ever active philanthropy sought being then in about the twenty-fifth year out as fit objects of his bounty ;-remem- of his age, and his bride in her fifty-second. bering, as he did, in the distribution of all || Upon this occasion he behaved with a libehis alms, the words of the Lord Jesus, rality which seems to have been inberent how that he said “it is more blessed to give in his nature, by settling the whole of his 'than to receive."

wife's little independence upon her sister. His medical attendants considering his The marriage thus singularly contracted, constitution much inclinable to the con was productive of mutual satisfaction to the sumptive, put him upon a very rigorous parties who entered into it. Mrs. Howard dietetic regimen, which is said by one of was a woman of excellent character, amihis biographers to have “laid the founda- | able in her disposition, sincere in her piety, tion of that extraordinary abstemiousness endowed with a good mental capacity, and and indifference to the gratifications of the forward in exercising its powers in every palate which ever after so much distin- || good word and work. Her husband, 'guished him.” He was also, about this time, whilst she lived, uniformly expressed hima frequent visitant at Bristol hot-wells, and self happy in the choice he had made; and made several excursions to different parts when, between two and three years after of the kingdom for the benefit of his health, || their marriage, the connexion was dissolved which was then suffering under the conti- by her death, he was a sincere mourner for nued depression of a species of nervous the loss he had sustained in her removal. fever, and of a general weakness of the She was buried in a vault, in the churchwhole system. But notwithstanding these yard of St. Mary's, Whitechapel; where precautions, he was attacked with a severe Mr. Howard caused a bandsome tomb-stone fit of illness, whilst lodging in the house to be erected to her memory, bearing the of Mrs. Sarah Loidore, a widow lady of following simple, but appropriate inscripsmall independent property, residing in tion:Church-street, Newington, to whose apart

Here lies the Body ments he had removed in consequence of

OF SARAH HOWARD, not meeting with the attention he thought

Wife of John HOWARD, Esquire, of

Stoke Newington, he had a right to expect from the person

In the County of Middlesex, beneath whose roof he had taken up his

Who died the 10th of November, 1755, abode, as a lodger, on 'his first coming to

Aged 54, live in this village. Whilst here, he ex In hopes of a joyful Resurrection, perienced, on the part of his landlady, so Thró' the merits of JESUS CURIST. many marks of kind altention during his

(To be continued.) sickness, that, upon bis recovery, he was




JOURNALS, &c. &c.

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HANNIBAL, BUON APARTE, Scipio, AND of a state-its' wealth, honour, freedom, WELLINGTON.

and tranquillity, are at the mercy of every The first place in the admiration of ambitious and powerful neighbour, unless mankind has been uniformly assigned to it cultivate the military art, and confer emiillustrious warriors. The traditions and nept rewards on such as excel in it. It poetry of uncivilized nations elevate them would be a most pernicious error to try to far above the standard of humanity; and, undervalue the species of talent necessary in periods of the highest culture, they are to national defence; and the more a people usually honoured more than other men. It are rich and well governed, the higher they has been attempted particularly in our age, ought to rate an art, by which the advan. to repress this feeling, but without any ma tages of their situation may be protected terial effect; and it would be a most alarm- against external violence. A meretricious ing symptom of the times, had the attempt humanity has been working itself into consucceeded. A nation, which meets great

sequence in our time; which will account services with envy or even lukewarmness, for the horror its followers affect to feel has undergone an alarming change in its against war, however just or unavoidable; character, or, at least, has vo right to cal whilst they appear to be utterly insensible culate upon the duration of its power. It is to the long train of misery and disgrace at the same time evident that no community

that might arise from a timid and inglorious is secure against the visitations of war; course of policy and, until the political millennium arrive,

The choice of war or peace does not de. when, of course, ambition and violence are pend upon any community. Its repose is to have an end, the man, who is able to generally affected by the character of a excite and direct the energies of his country neighbouring government; and it has no is entitled to a very high place in her esti- other means of averting the effects of injusmation. It is the abuse of great talents for || tice or envy, but by being always prepared war, by wbich humanity is outraged, and to meet and retaliate an aggression. The has filled the world with desolation. But

more it abounds in wealth, the more it prothe misapplication of genius of every kind vokes rapacity; and even its freedom may has always produced great crimes : and are be a ground of quarrel. Should it combine great powers of mind, because they may be with these advantages a want of proficiency turned to bad purposes, to be considered as in the science of war, it would incur an rather pernicious than useful? Such an in- | additional risk of invasion. It is well ference will have the assent of very few; || known that there are perilous emergencies, and, indeed, the highest veneration is due with which courage alone, or even the to those talents for war, by which the glory | highest patriotism, is not competent to cope. of a country is raised, and its security con

Even martial institutions are not in every firmed. No system of policy, however en instance a sufficient protection ; and it is larged and humane, can have a permanent genius alone, or the phenomenon of a great character, when it is liable to be disturbed | general, that can save the state from the from abroad; and a perfect pacific system unspeakable calamities of conquest. Rome, would have the splendour and frailty of a

when her love of country, courage, and palace of ice, which melts under the fierce fame in war were at their highest point of sun of invasion. We are far from advo- || elevation, ran great risk of having her name

cating war as preferable to peace; but what expunged from the list of nations, because we insist upon is this, that, without skill in she could not oppose to the Carthaginian the former, there is no security for repose. || leader one of as consummate ability. Had As long as aggression is possible, and go-Scipio, who changed the fortunes of the vernments are ambitious, the best interests war, appeared at its commencement, what

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