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244

HISTORY OF MUSIC.

ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF MUSIC.

(Continued from page 197.)

In the reign of Charles 1. the Psalms || cheerful: had he lived at a later age his were paraphrased by Mr. George Sandys, || genius would, no doubt, have expanded in an ancestor of Lord Sandys, and better ver works of invention, elegance, and taste. sified than they ever were before, or have | But the harmony in old tunes, especially been since; they were set by Henry Lawes, for keyed instruments, was then crowded whose melodies were much inferior to the into what the fingers could possibly grasp, poetry, which deserved better: they were and all the rapid divisions of time they set in three parts by bim and his brother could execute. Indeed the melodies of all to very florid counterpoint,

the rest of Europe had no other model than Since that time the parochial tunes have the chants of the church till the cultivation been so firmly established that it would be of the musical drama. difficult to prevail on the whole nation In the Monthly Miscellany of one of our to admit new melodies, by whomsoever || numbers, we gave a description of Queen composed. Some of our diligent orgauists, | Elizabeth's Virginal Book. There is anhowever, compose, and prevail on the other manuscript collection of Bird's comcongregation to have new tunes, both to positions now in existence, which is Lady the old and new version.

Neril's Music Book. It is a thick quarto, In the time of Elizabeth, though choral very splendidly bound and gilt, with the music had been cultivated by several able i family arms beautifully emblazoned and harmonists before Tallis and Bird, yet few illuminated on the first page, and the ini of those compositions, anterior to those two tials H. N. at the lowest left hand corner. masters, have been preserved. Tallis was The music is well written in large bold Bird's master, and one of the greatest mas characters, with great weatness, ou fourters in Europe during the sixteenth cen staved paper, of six lives, by Jo. Baldwive,' tury. He was born in the early part of the a singing man of Windsor, and a celebrated reign of Henry VIII.: he was organist of copyist in Queen Elizabeth's time. The that monarch's royal chapel, as he was of notes, both white and black, are of the that of Edward VI., Queen Mary, and lozenge form. Lady Nevil was Bird's Queen Elizabeth. In the reign, however, scholar, and lie composed several pieces of Heury and his daughter Mary, when the expressly for her Ladyship. Roman Catholic religion prevailed, the It will be some gratification, no doubt, organ was usually played by monks. to the curious reader, who reflects that

The melody of the cathedral service was those royal fingers are now mouldered into first adjusted to English words by Mar dust which formerly touched the keys of beck, but it was Tallis that enriched in harmony, often played over the following with harmony: this barmony is adinirable. Il celebrated airs with infinite skill, a few of This venerable musician died in Novem. which we wow present to our fair readers, ber, 1585, and was buried in the old parish as they stand in the Virginal Book of the church of Greenwich, in Kent: but the ouce renowned Elizabeth:- The Marck old church liaving been pulled down in the before the Battel ; The Hunt's upp; Will year 1720, no memorial remains of any you walk the woods søe wylde; The Mayillustrious character interred there before don's Songe, composed in 1590; Huve with that period.

you 10 Wa'singham; The Carman's Whistle; Bird, that admirable scholar of Tallis, Hugh Ashton's Grounde; and Sellinger's shewed a superiority of composition to Rounde. every other competitor both in texture and Morley, another celebrated musician, design : his melodies were lively, and are, composed the music to the burial service, even at this time, regarded, as airy and I as it still continues to be sung at West,

HISTORY OF MUSIC.

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minster Abbey on solemn occasions; he Instrumental music had made but a small was the first who composed the burial || progress towards that perfection to which service music after the reformation: it is it has since arrived. The lute and the grand and pleasing, and causes the words virginal were the only two instruments for to be well expressed. The sentence, “ He i which any tolerable music had, as yet, fleeth as it were a shadow,” is exquisitely || been composed. The violin was but little fine.

known, for, indeed, many of the English The English were not at first taught to were ignorant both of its form and name. admire Italian music by the sweetness of Viols of different kinds, with six strings, the language to wbich it was set, but by and fretted like the guitar, were admitted Italian madrigals, literally translated into into chamber concerts; at those that were Euglish, adjusted to original music, and public their sound was too feeble.

We published by N. Yonge, 1588. The editor | may easily judge of the poor state of music was au Italian merchant, who having op- || in Henry VIII.'s time, in the year 1530, portunities of obtaining from his corres when Holinshed informs us of a masque pondents the newest and best compositions | being given at. Cardinal Wolsey's palace, from the Continent, had them frequently where the King was entertaiued with a performed at his house for the entertain concert of drums and files. This music meyt of his musical friends. These being I was, however, soft compared with that of chiefly selected from the works of Pales- | bis daughter Elizabeth, who used, accordtrina, Luca Marenzio, and other celebrated ing to Henxner, to be regaled during dine masters on the Continent, gave birth to ner with twelve trumpets, and two kettlethat passion for madrigals which afterwards drums; which, together with fifes, cornets, became so prevalent.

and side.drums, made the ball riug for half Lyric poetry was in a wretched state in

an hour together. England at the time these madrigals were The lute, of which the shape and sound translated; and making allowance for that, are now scarcely known, was the favourite these sowels were really tolerably exe instrument for two centuries. Congreve cuted, even before Spencer or Shakespeare. celebrates the playing of Mrs. Arabella The Italians, themselves, bad but little Hunt on this instrument; and Sir Thomas rhythm or mielody in their music; but still Wyatt left us a Sonnet to his Lute, which their poetry, having been longer cultivated, we published among our Fugitive Poetry, was far superior to ours: their traits of in a preceding Number. melody were better marked and more airy. Choral compositions, madrigals, and songs The following is a specimen of a very fa in that style, always of many parts, formed vourite madrigal, called The Nightingale: the only vocal music in favour in the time “ Bui iny poore hart with sorrowes over swelling, of Clizabeth. The art of singing only con* Through bondage vyle, binding my freedom sisted in keeping tune and time: taste, short,

rhythm, accent, and grace, were not to be “ No pleasure takes in these his sports excel-found. The music was grounded on church ling,

music, where the innovations of taste would « Nor of his song receiveth no confort."

offend; therefore the modulations of the In 1597, Yonge published a second col- | sixteenth century, though they had a fine lection of madrigals, and the following and solemn effect in the chureh music of Bacchanalian soug is not devoid of wit and that time, are not accommodated to the húmour:

moderu student, as the 'most agreeable

keys in music are precluded. lu our ca« The wine that I so deerly got,

thedral service some

of the words are “Sweetly sippiug, my eyes hath bleared; “ And the more I am bar'd the por,

uttered too rapidly, while others are pro“ The more to drink my thirst is steered. tracted to an unreasonable length; there is “ But since my heart is cheered,

a certain degree of simplicity in choral “ Mangre ill luck and spiteful slanders, " Mine eyes shall not be my commanders;

music that is requisite to render. it the " For I maintain, and ever shall,

voice of devotion, which seems to demand " Better the windows bide tlie dangers,

a full, clear, and articulate pronunciation “ Thad to spoil batli boase and all."

of the different words.

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During the sixteenth century, at the ap It seems that the records of the Pontifical pearance of Palestina's works, the stalians chapel were destroyed at the burning of certainly gave instructions in counterpoint Rome, in 1527, by the army of the Emperor to all the rest of Europe. Gafforis of Lodi Charles V. which has caused much confu. shone eminent, and opened a school of mu. sion in the entry of the composers and sing. sic in his native town, whence he formed ers' names, till the time of Palestina. many excellent scholars. In the year 1501 Among them we find not only Netherland. he wrote a work which, though difficult, | ders but Spaniards. became absolutely requisite for the under We are iuformed by Tassoni, that James standing the ancient authors. Two dia. the First, King of Scotlaud, was not only a logues on music, by Dentice, a Neapolitan || composer of sacred music, but that he was gentleman, were published at Rome, in the inventor of a new species of plaintive 1553. Their subject turns on musical pro- | melody, different from all others; in which portions, and on the modes of the ancients. it is said he was imitated by the Prince of It appears by this dialogue, that vocal per Venosa, who embellished music with many formers were not then accompanied by a admirable inventions. Our present great band, but each sang to his own instrument. theorists, and best writers on music, declare The author says,

“ There are very few themselves, however, incapable of discovermusicians who sing to their instruments ing the least similarity between the Calethat have entirely satisfied me; as they donian airs and the madrigals of the Prince have almost all some defect of intonation, || of Venosa, who was perpetually straining utterance, accompaniment, execution of di- | at original expression and modulation ; his visions, or manner of diminishing and swel- || panegyrists, perhaps, were more dazzled ling the voice occasionally; in which par.

by his rank than his merit. ticulars both art and nature must conspire

The Lombard school furnishes an ample to render a performer perfect.”

list of eminent musicians, whose composi. It may be seen by this conversation that tions are still extant. Father Costanzo much art and refinement were expected | Porta was the author of eighteen different from vocal performers besides the mere works for the church; he died in 1601, In singing in time and tune: and that the his faculty he very much resembled our cultivation of music in Naples was ex

English composer Tallis, and flourished at quisite, and held in the highest estimation. the same time, in the reign of Henry VIII. During the sixteenth century the musical His style is rather artificial aud elaborate. theorists of Italy employed themselves in

The oldest melodies to Italian words are subtle divisions of the scale; this mania || preserved at Florence : they consist of a also extended itself to practical musicians, collection of sacred songs: for the performwho were desirous of astonishing the world ance of which a society subsisted so late as by their superior skill and science: the 1789, and may still subsist; and which inquiry was vain, and only served to im- || society was formed in 1910. pede the progress of modern music. In The Carnival songs were sung through 1555, Vincentino published a work at Rome | the streets of Florence in the time of Lowith the following title, Ancient Music re renzo the Magnificent. At that gay and duced to Modern Practice, to which he add- | happy period the organist of the Duomo, ed an account of a newly invented instru at Florence, stood high in the Prince's fament for the most perfect performance of vour, and was beloved by all his fellow music, with many musical secrets.

citizens. His name was Antonio SquarThe change in musical modes has con- || cialuppi; and in the year 1770, his monutinued to our time, and will, no doubt, || ment was seen in the cathedral of Florence, continue. For, as Dr. Burney remarks, 1) erected by his fellow citizens to his me“ Melody being a child of fancy and inna mory. The illustrious Tuscan, Lorenzo il gination, will submit to no theory, or laws || Magnifico, is said to have died in the act of of reason or philosophy; and, therefore, playing on the lute, in 1494. like love, will always continue in child

(To be continued.) hood."

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HISTORICAL AND SELECT ANECDOTES.

847

HISTORICAL AND SELECT ANECDOTES.

It is re

PRUSSIA.

ANECDOTE OF BONAPARTE.

Three Rivers. Both of them were private When General Bonaparte took Berlin, soldiers at home; but in Canada they acnothing would satisfy him but he must quired handsome properties by hard and sleep in the royal palace; and such was

honest industry, and their children have the height of his vanity that nothing would intermarried with the most wealthy and content him but the royal nuptial bed itself! respectable inhabitants of the province. Even his Mamaluke was placed on another They are hospitable to all strangers, esperoyal couch, in the room adjoining to his;cially to the Scotch, but will not call them which was the same the Emperor Alex- | by any other name than North Britons, as ander occupied when he visited Berlin. having been born since the Union with The French General and his associates | England, which they deplore as the exstript the palace of all the best paintings, tinction of their nation. They also live on and the very throne, in the audience room, the best terms, and never meet without a could not escape the capidity of this mag- hearty shake of the hand, but daily jeer Danimous conqueror; it was entirely strip- each other, the one on the signal defeat of ped of the gold and silver ornaments with the rebels at Culloden, and the other on bis which it was richly decorated.

friend's abandonment of their legitimate

Prince, to serve the recreants.
ANECDOTE OF THE PRESENT KING OF markable that Macdonald, the soldier of

Stuart, dresses in the English fashion of The Great Frederic was one day writing last century, and that Sinclair, the soldier at his table, when his Majesty, the present of Cumberland, most religiously adheres to King of Prussia, then about three years of the costume of a Highland laird of the age, was playing at ball in Frederic's apart- seventeenth century. They are each about ment; the ball accidentally fell upon the

one hundred years of age, and are very fine old King's inkstand, and upset it. Fre- specimens of the hard features and athletic deric was angry with the little Prince, and forms of the Highlanders at the days of ordered him to Coventry in a corner of the other years. Sinclair, especially, with his room; the Prince refused to submit, and decorated bonnet and ample plaid, seated when asked why he did not obey? he re

at the door of his neat and hospitable manplied, " The descendant of Frederic will sion, quaffing the Indian leaf, is an object dever consent to be punished for such a of peculiar interest to every person who trifle."

visits the beautiful village of the Three

Rivers; and when they depart this life, THE TWO HIGILANDERS.

there will be a blank in its society that no THERE are now, or at least were a few addition can fill to equal advantage. years ago, living at the village of Three Rivers, Canada, two venerable Highlanders,

ANECDOTE OF GENERAL IRETON. who fought in the opposite armies at the The famous General Ireton, who took battle of Culloden, which terminated the so active a part in the persecution and Scotch rebellion of 1745.6. Their names

death of King Charles l. was unquestionare Sinclair and Macdonald. The latter ably the most artful, dark, and deliberate fought under the banners of the Pretender, man of all the republicans, by whom he and on the final defeat of the unfortunate was revered as a soldier, a statesman, and Charles Edward, escaped from Scotland, a saint; when he died, his body was laid and ultimately settled in Canada. Sinclair in state in Somerset-House. fought in the regiment called the Fraser was hung in black, and an escutcheon was Highlanders, attached to the royal forces. placed over the gate of this palace, with This corps formed a part of Wolfe's army, this motto :-Dulce est pro patria mori ; which invaded Canada, and on the peace which a wag thus Englished—“ It is good of 1763, he left the regiment and settled at || for his country that he is dead."

The room

248

HISTORICAL AND SÉLECT ANECDOTES.

ANECDOTE OF KING CHARLES I. AND

LORD FALKLAND.

is said to have farnished the author of a

sentimental comedy with the situation in King Charles I. being at Oxford during

which he has placed two persons of the the civil wars, went one day to visit the drama. During the late reigu, when the public library. Among other books he Prince of Wales held his court at Kew, a was shewn a very beautiful impression of young lady of the name of Malyn was des. Virgil. Lord Falkland, who waited on perately iu love with the heir apparent : his Majesty, thinking to amuse him, pro and she took such pains to make him know posed bis consulting the Sortes Virgiliana it, that it would have been impossible it on his fortune. It is well known our an should bave escaped bim. She walked the cestors were much addicted to this sort of gardens early and, late, constantly crossed superstition. The King smiled, and open- || him in his perambulations, and once, oh ed the book, and tlie first passage that oc

seeing him alone in one of those little excurred was this" Et bello audacis," &c. cursions ou the banks of the river, she fell Æneid, lib. iv. Which runs in English

down as if in a fit, which being perceived thus :-“ That, conqnered by a warlike | by the Prince, he ran to her, raised her up, people, driven from his states, separated and inquired the reason of her disorder. from his sou Ascanius, he should be forced || After a flood of tears, she was open, .or to go and beg foreign succour, that he weak enough, to disclose the affection she should see his associates massacred before had conceived for his Highness; and as his eyes; that, after making a shameful her person was attractive, she did not hepeace, he should neither enjoy his kingdom | sitate to confess a compliance with every nor his life; that he should meet with an wish that the royal youth might expect untimely death; and that his body should from such a declaration. After a modest for ever be deprived of a sepulchre."— The salute, he begged her to returú home to her King shewed much uneasiness at this pre- || friends, consoling her in the best nlanner diction, and Falkland perceiving it, was in his imaginatiou could suggest; and proa hurry to consult himself the lot, in hopes | mised the next morning to send her his of hitting upon some passage that did not thoughts on the matter, and a plan for her relate to his situation, and might divert his

conduct in future. He was as good as his Majesty's i boughts to other objects. word; for a messenger was sent the next

Opening the book himself, he found the day with the folowing uote:-“ Your regrets of Evander for the untimely death | beauty of person and frankness of temper of his soul :-" Nou hæc, 0 Pallas, dederas," have charmed me: so fair an outside can&c. Æneid, lib. xii.-"O Pallas, thou didst not but cherish the chastest ideas; the repromise not to expose thyself imprudently / gard of an amiable woman cannot but prove to the danger of war. Is it thus thou hast agreeable to the most exalted statious. The kept thy promise? Well did I know how situation of us both require we should nip much the passion of its glory in its birth in the bud those rising passions which can animates a young man, and how far the have their evd only in disgrace. Au bopleasure of signalizing himself in a first nourable connection is impossible; and I battle may hurry him. Lamentable essay! could never think of contributing to injure Fatal inition in the science of arms! Alas! one whose ouly fault is her being too all the Gods have been deaf to my solicita lovely:"--It is added of the Prince, that he tions." --- Lord Falkland was Secretary of immediately left Richmoud, and for two Siate, was present at the first battle of monilis avoided the place. The captivaled Newberry, and vigorously charging the female soon forgot ber hopeless passion rebel cavalry, was killed at the age of and was afterwards married to a Captain thirty-four."

of foot.

ANECDOTE OF FREDERIC PRINCE OF ANECDOTE OF A DUTCH POSTILLION.

WALES, FATHER OF GEORGE III. George II. in one of his trips to Hano. The following circumstance, not so ge ver, was passing through Holland; and not nerally kuown as many actions of the dis- | having his owu horses with hiny, he had tinguished personage of whom it is told are," his carriage drawn by post-horses : one of

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