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HISTORY OF MUSIC.
A BRIEF HISTORY OF MUSIC.
(Continued from page 53.)
-“ Dear Music, that can touch,
MUSIC OF IN DOSTAN.
attendant Pagnis, complains of slighted The instrumental part of the music of || love, or bewails the pains of absence. SriIndostan is rather noisy, from the constant raga patronizes tbe dewy season, wbich is use of drums of all sizes, and of trumpets the time of delight, that ushers in the and pipes, even from that so large as to re- spring, the fragrant, and the flowery quire a man to bear the mouth-piece on his time over which Hiodoła, or Vasanta, preshoulder while it is played by another, to sides. When the oppressive heats come the smallest reed. They have the double on, the soft and languid melody of Diapaca pipe, which is seen in antique sculptures, but sympathizes with the fevered feelings, which is not remarkable for the sweetness while the refreshing season of the new of its tones. There are several instruments rains bestows a double pleasure when acof the guitar and lute kind, some of which companied by the sweet strains of Megha. are formed of hollow gourds, by way It is extraordinary that when we conof sounding boards; and from a triangular | sider music as being one of the dearest ob. harp or lyre, the tones are charming. Therejects of sense to all mankind, that we is also an instrument played with a bow, should find the Chinese, who have so long something like a dancing master's kit; the been a civilized people, still without ang strings of which are of iron or brass wire, eminent composers or performers. Dr. and the fingers used for fretting the strings || Burvey is of opinion that " there is a are armed with thimbles of metal: the physical defect in the intellects or organitones from this instrument are not replele zation of all the souls of men, except in with that mellowness we find in Europe. Europe; and that a perfect ear, and the
Yet there is little doubt but what the power of delighting it, are local.”—This, ancient music of ludostan was infiuitely we think, is advancing too much, and superior to the modern. They ascribed giving too much praise to oue quarter of the such a divine art, as well they might, to l globe at the expence of another. Had this the Gods aloue; and the Bramins, at this learned writer on the art of music asserted time, suppose it 10 have been communicat- | that Europe contains more unremitting ed to man by Brahma himself. The pas. || industry amongst her inhabitants, we toral people in the weighbourhood of Mat- should be more ready to accede to his hura, delighted in singing the loves and opinion. adventures of their hiero, Chrisna, who The English, in themselves, do not form was bimself the patron of music, and is a very musical nation : and the number of often represented dancing while he plays volumes in the British Museum of music, ou a need. The scale of the Hindoos com lias no proportion to those on the other prehends seven sounds, called sa, ri, ya, arts. ma, pa, dha, ni, and in the octave they In the music book of Prince Henry, afterreckou twenty-two quarters and thirds. wards Henry VIII. in the Pepys collection,
The six chief modes are personified as at Cambridge, are several of bis compobeautiful youths, the genii of music, and sitions; and Anne of Boleyo, while she presiding over the six seasons. Bhairava is resided in France, collected and learned a lord of the cheerful, dry, or autumnal great number of them. In the British scasos, and his strains invite the dancer Museum is a very beautiful MS. consisting to accompany them. Malava rules the of French songs of the fifteenth century, cold and melancholy months, and with his l in three or four parts; and the most capital
collection of Josquin's works are also in words; and the plain song of the Romish the British Museum.
church in the principal hymns and reA very curious and valuable musical | sponses in the Common Prayer, remained MS. is preserved, which once belonged to nearly the same, as may be seen in the Te Dr. Robert Fayrfax, an eminent English Deum laudamus. It seems, too, as we may composer in the reigns of Henry VII. || safely conclude, that the chief part of such and VIII.: it was afterwards in the pos- || portions of scripture, or hymns of the session of General Fairfax, and in the year || church, as have been set by Englislı mu1787 was the property of Mr. White, of | sicians to Latin words, were produced beNewgate-street. It consists of a collection fore the Reformation, or, at least, in the of very ancient English songs, the music of time of Queen Mary. When Queen Eli. which have been carefully preserved. The zabeth ascended the throne, a school of writing is clear and intelligible; though, counterpoint, equal to any in Europe, was from the time in which it was written, the founded. want of modern punctuation in some parts, Before the Reformation as there was but renders it difficult to be ascertained. one religion so there was but one kind
In the year 1512, the third of Henry VIII. | of ecclesiastical music, which was plain a memorandum is made that three minstrels | chant; and this kind of sacred music was were retained as a part of the Earl of | all derived, in the middle ages, from the Northumberland's household, viz. a taberet, | church of Rome. a luyte, and a rebec. Every minstrel, if a Henry was, however, as we have said taberet, to be paid four pounds, and every || before, not ooly a judge but an encourager luyte and rebec, thirty-three shillings and of music. Beside the household baud on fourpence.
his establishment, he had supernumerary Henry VIII. in his youth, made music a
musicians in his service: the number of serious study; he had a finished education, singing boys in his chapel are not specified, and was eminent as a musician. He com
but there is an account of the allowance posed two entire masses, which were al- || made them for their maintenance, and also ways sung in the King's chapel. He ex for their teaching. ercised himself daily in shooting, singing, In the sixteenth century, music certainly dancing, wrestling, throwing the bar, was looked on as the best regale that could playing on recorders, flutes, virginals, set- l be given to any foreign Prince, or person ting of songs to music, and learning of of high rank. The Emperor Charles V. ballads.
was entertained here with music during Great attention was paid to choral mu. his meals. sic when this Prince succeeded his father It was in the reign of Edward VI. that on the throne of Great Britain, before his metrical psalmody, in the same manner as breach with the sovereign Pentiff of Rome. || it is yet sung in our parochial churches, Six singing boys, and six gentlemen of the commenced ; and which was versified by choir, always made a part of the royal re- Sternhold aud Hopkins. Sternhold was tinue. And Henry could not only perform groom of the robes to Henry VIII. and the music of others, but was sufficiently afterwards of the bedchamher to Edward skilled in counterpoint to compose several
VI. He was then accounted a most excel. pieces, as may be seen by an anthem in lent poet.
reign it was reckoned a requisite accom all used the same kind of chant as ca. plishment for a gentleman to sing a part in thedrals (styled the plain chant), with the full pieces then in vogue, and not only | English words; but during the reign of for a private gentleman, but even for nobles || Mary, ecclesiastical music was again transand Princes.
ferred to Latin words. The gloomy PriuWhen Henry VIII. resolved to emanci cess herself was a performer on the virgipate bimself from the control of the Pope, nals, an instrument resembling the spinnet, he made no other change in ecclesiastical aud also on the lute. Queen Catharine of music than merely adapting it to English | Arragon, her mother, after her separation
ANECDOTES OF ILLUSTRIOUS FEMALES.
from the King, writes to her, to “suffer || private concert: to which may be added cheerfully, keep her heart clean," and after instrumental productions, styled fancies, recommending the outward duties of her composed chiefly for lutes and viols: they religion, the injured Queen desires her to were very insipid, and the lovers of good recreate herself with “ her virginals and music can never feel their loss. her lute."
Prince Henry was said to be a lover of Fuller informs us, that, on Mary's coming music, and a performer; but if this idea is to the crown, she caused a solemn dirge, in only formed from the list of musicians on Latin, to be chanted on the day her royal his establishment, it may be erroneous: it brother's body was buried at Westminster. was a matter of dignity and ancient cus
During the long and prosperous reign of tom for a Prince of Wales to have minElizabeth, choral music became as eminent strels and musicians in his service; no par. in England as in any other part of Europe. ticular records prove that this Prince had Elizabeth had been taught music at a very !! any real passion for music, neither can any early age: her voice, though shrill, was memorials be found of his ever availing sweet, and she touched the lute with taste himself of the advantage of his musical and skill.
band in honouring them with his comOn the accession of James I. to the throne | mands in any signal manner to prove their of England, the polite arts did not make talents. any very rapid progress. Though Rizzio, We are told by Riccobini that James I. in the time of his unfortunate mother, no on his coming to the throne, in 1803, grantdoubt introduced much improvement in the ed a licence to a company of players, in national music of Scotland, yet we find | which Interludes are included; but an inJames, neither from nature nor education, || terlude then was only another word for a as taking much pleasure in music. Early, | play. Masques were not mentioned in the however, in his reign, the gentlemen be- | patent: they were performed in the houses longing to the Chapel Royal obtained an of the nobility on very festive occasions, increase of ten pounds to their annual | the machinery and decorations being too stipend, so that the King shewed himself | expefisive for the Theatres ; indeed the desirous of encouraging the sons of har- | characters were generally represented by mony. But anthems, masques, madrigals, the first personages in the kingdom: when songs, and catches, seem to comprise the court, the King, Queen, and Princes of whole of our vocal music at that time, the blood often performed in them. eitber for the church, the stage, or the
(To be continued.)
ANECDOTES OF ILLUSTRIOUS FEMALES.
THE COUNTESS OF GRAMMONT.
enlarged mind. It was always said of this The maiden name of this lady was Ha- lady that she had so much wit that it had milton, and she was one of the beauties a kind of magnetic influence, and whoever that adorned the court of Charles II. The came near her seemed, in some degree, to Count de Grammont, before his marriage have imbibed it from her. She united with her, used always to say, she was one every duty as a wife to the knowledge she of the best creatures in the whole world. || had, too fatally for her peace, of those inShe had the air and carriage of a Queen, | discretions of her husband, which such a and all those manners which are only to mind as hers could not fail to despise. be gained by a sojournment in a brilliant and polite court. Her wit was poignant, her erudition profound, and her character About the summer of 1778, the Countess and manners most exemplary and amiable. of Northesk rested at an ion in Litchfield, That reserve, so natural to Englishwomen, i on her way to Scotland, whither she was which by many foreigners is mistaken for going by the shortest possible stages. She pride, was ternpered by an enlightened and had been a year in England for the benefit
CHARACTERS OF CELEBRATED FRENCH WOMEN.
of her health, and wasting rapidly away, |: hectic. Her eyes were lucid and full of the advice of the most eminent physicians of intelligence; if they were sometimes deadLondon and Bath having been ineffectual.ened by the languor of disease, they were Her Ladyship told the mistress of the inn re-illumined by every observation to which at Litchfield, that she was going home to she listened, whether to the powers of die: the woman replied, “ I wish, Madam, lettered excellence, science, or art: her you would send for our Doctor," meaning friendly physician constantly assuring her Dr. Darwin, the celebrated author of the that she should not die thus prematurely if Botanic Garden. Lady Northesk gave her he could prevent it. consent.
He gave her but little medicine, and The Doctor pressed her to remove with made her live on vegetables, milk, and her daughter and attendants to his house. | fruit; and she gathered strength from day The invitation was accepted; Lady North- to day, pursuing her journey to Scotland, esk reposed on a couch, during the day, in a convalescent full of hope. Dr. Darwin's parlour, drawing, with dif Lady Northesk might have lived to an ficulty, that breath which seemed often on old age, the blessing of her family and the verge of evaporation. She was thin, friends, had she not perished by the dread. even to transparency; her cheeks, at times, | ful accident of setting fire to her clothes. sutfused with a flush, beautiful though
CHARACTERS OF CELEBRATED FRENCH WOMEN.
THE COMTESSE DE CHARLUS.
Archbishop de Reims, Le Tellier; and Tais lady was of a family which, though without heeding what she was about, being noble, could not boast much of its ancientry. | always accustomed to give way to all her Her face, her figure, her carriage, her slut- | accustomed rudeness of behaviour, she set tishness, and whole behaviour, were so fire to her head-dress. The Archbishop, coarse and disgusting, that she might have who saw her bead in a blaze, snatched off been thought to trace her descent from her cap, and threw it on the ground. Mathose women who cry fish in the streets. dame de Charlus, neither seeing nor feeling The strongest trait in the character of this the fire, turned towards the Archbishop in Countess was her unequalled avarice; for a trausport of rage, and threw an egg, she would dress herself like a common which she was holding in her hand, right beggar, and take any thing that was given in his face, making use of all those terms of her. She was, besides, uncommonly ad- opprobrium which might naturally be exdicted to gaming; excessively proud, vul- : pected froin a character like hers. It can gar, and even brutal in her behaviour to be easily conceived what a spectacle such a her equals. Que night, when she was very woman must preseut to the illustrious comold, grey, and almost bald-headed, she sup- pany assembled at the Hotel de Conti, with ped at the Princess de Conti's, that she her bead despoiled of its artificial covering, might sit down after supper to play all and animated by the most furious passion; night. At that time the ladies wore their while M. de Reinies, whose face was rehead-dresses of so ridiculous a height that markably broad, was varnished all over the King was seriously displeased with with the yolk of an egg. A peal of laugh. them; and though his Majesty had taken ter shook the salle à manger ; but nothing all possible pains to make them alter this burt Madame de Charlus so much as to see disfiguring fashion, it still continued to pre- the Archbishop laugh as heartily as the vail. The women, who were old, wore a others, and putting up with the chastisement kind of tête ready curled and elevated in she bestowed on him in boxing his ears, by false hair, and which, without being other laughing yet more heartily than before. wise attached to their heads, they put on as Madame de Conti could scarce bring her to men put on their wigs. The Countess de herself, or prevent her by all her kindness Cbarlus was placed at table next to the" from grumbling the whole night.
HISTORICAL AND SELECT ANECDOTES.
HISTORICAL AND SELECT ANECDOTES.
ANECDOTE OF THE MARQUIS DE SOUVRE. taken in like manner.-—" Well, but there
Louis XV. was strongly suspected, || must be more than two-who next?" was during the time of the scarcity of bread in asked—Lieutenant Burgett," was the rehis kingdom, to have been at the head of a ply, and carried by a similar vote.-—“We corn speculation. A little time before the want a represeutative in the British campdeath of the Marchioness de Pompadour, who shall be onr representative? who the mob followed the King's carriage with shall be taken prisoner?"- All eyes were the reiterated and distressing cries of immediately turned to Captain Perry; who “ Bread, Sire, bread!"—The guard was being quite in his déshabille, had excited unable to quell the tumult, and the King some raillerý.-" Captain Perry shall be returned to Versailles, stung to the quick.
our representative," was the unanimous A creature of Madame de Pompadour, see | reply, and unanimous vote. Captain Perry ing the distress of the King, broke silence, | immediately retired, and in a few minutes and told his Majesty he was very much sur
returned shaved and cleanly dressed ; and, prised at the want of reason as well as in a jocular tone, asked whether be now justice in the people, in their cries for bread, I made an' appearance suitable for their rewhen they were seated on immense heaps | presentative? The order for forming the of wheat in the market-place, and that line of battle came: the different gentlebread was at a very moderate price indeed. men repaired to their different posts. The
The Marquis de Souvre, shocked at such dreadful conflict commenced. The first a violation of truth, took his gloves and
officer that fell in the 9th regiment was his hat, and seemed in a violent hurry to Captain Hull, fighting at the head of his get to the door.-"Where are you going company; the second, Lieutenant Turner; in such haste ?" said the King.--" Sire,”
the third, Lieutenant Burgett; whilst replied Souvre, “ if you will permit me, I Captain Perry, as if fully to complete the am going to hang my scoundrel of a maltre previous prediction, was taken prisoner by d'hôtel, who makes me pay double the the enemy, and carried captive into the price for bread that this honest man tells British camp! So striking a coincidence you it is sold at."
of circumstances rarely occurs;
and these incidents have frequently been the subject
of conversation and remark among the ABOUT two hours previous to the ever American officers, since the battle of memorable battle of Bridgewater, news | Bridgewater. had arrived in the camp of the 9th Ameri. can regiment, that the British were advan ANECDOTE RELATIVE TO HEYLIN. cing. A number of the officers of the 9th, Soon after the celebrated Heylio had among whom were Captain Hull, Lieu- published his Geography of the World, be tenants Turner and Burgett, aud Captain accepted an invitation to speud a few David Perry, had assembled togetber in a weeks with a gentleman who lived on the little squad; were chatting in a friendly New Forest, Hampshire, with directions and jocular manner, and were comment where his servant should meet him to coning upon the news they had heard of the duct him thither. As soon as he was joinapproach of the enemy. One of the com ed by the gentleman's servant they struck pany observed—“ Well, we shall have off into the thick part of the forest; and warm work to-day: some of us shall be after riding for a considerable time, Mr. killed—who shall they be?"-Another, in Heylin asked if that was the right road! the same tone of jocularity, replied, “ Cap- and to his great astonishment received for tain Hull," and held up his hand. ; The answer that the conductor did not know, company all joined in holding op their but he had heard there was a very year cut hands, and Captain Hull amongst the rest. to his master's house through the thicket; * Who next?" rejoined another; “ Lieu- and he certainly thought, as Mr. Heylig tenant Turner," was the reply, and the vote had written the Geography of the World,