## Complexities: Women in MathematicsSophie Germain taught herself mathematics by candlelight, huddled in her bedclothes. Ada Byron Lovelace anticipated aspects of general-purpose digital computing by more than a century. Cora Ratto de Sadosky advanced messages of tolerance and equality while sharing her mathematical talents with generations of students. This captivating book gives voice to women mathematicians from the late eighteenth century through to the present day. It documents the complex nature of the conditions women around the world have faced--and continue to face--while pursuing their careers in mathematics. The stories of the three women above and those of many more appear here, each one enlightening and inspiring. The earlier parts of the book provide historical context and perspective, beginning with excursions into the lives of fifteen women born before 1920. Included are histories of collective efforts to improve women's opportunities in research mathematics. In addition, a photo essay puts a human face on the subject as it illustrates women's contributions in professional associations. More than eighty women from academe, government, and the private sector provide a rich mélange of insights and strategies for creating workable career paths while maintaining rewarding personal lives. The book discusses related social and cultural issues, and includes a summary of recent comparative data relating to women and men in mathematics and women from other sciences. First-person accounts provide explicit how-tos; many narratives demonstrate great determination and perseverance. Talented women vividly portray their pleasure in discovering new mathematics. The senior among them speak out candidly, interweaving their mathematics with autobiographical detail. At the beginning of a new century, women at all stages of their careers share their outlooks and experiences. Clear, engaging, and meticulously researched, |

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FROM THE TWENTIETH CENTURY | 3 |

In Her Own Words | 4 |

Remembering Olga Taussky Todd | 6 |

Being Julia Robinsons Sister | 8 |

Euphemia Lofton Haynes | 18 |

Marjorie Lee Browne | 19 |

Cora Ratto de Sadosky | 24 |

Fifty Years in Mathematics | 27 |

Research and Teaching at Liberal Arts Colleges | 212 |

Sustaining a Research Program | 213 |

Are Student Ratings Unfair to Women? | 215 |

Rules for Academic Success | 218 |

OUTSIDE THE ACADEMY | 221 |

Government and Administration | 222 |

Citations | 227 |

Computer Science | 228 |

Emmy Noether | 30 |

FROM EARLIER TIMES | 38 |

My Grandmother Grace Chisholm Young | 39 |

Like Mother Like Daughter | 46 |

Charlotte Angas Scott | 48 |

Sonia Kovalevsky | 52 |

Elizaveta Fedorovna Litvinova | 54 |

Ada Byron Lovelace | 60 |

Sophie Germain | 68 |

Christine Ladd Franklin and Mary Fairfax Somerville | 74 |

Joining Together | 77 |

Women and Mathematical Ability | 79 |

The Presidents Perspectives | 80 |

Activities and Awards | 98 |

AWM in the 1990s | 105 |

Women Preside | 115 |

What Is It and What Should It Be? | 116 |

Across Borders | 121 |

Women Invited as Speakers at ICMs | 122 |

ICM Activities on Women in Mathematics | 124 |

International Views on Education | 128 |

Crossing Ocean and Equator | 131 |

Voices from Six Continents | 134 |

COMPLEXITIES PHOTO ALBUM | 148 |

Pathways in Mathematics | 151 |

A DUAL TRIUMPH | 177 |

Black and Female | 178 |

In Remembrance | 181 |

How I Decided to Pursue a PhD in Mathematics | 184 |

A Double Dose of Discrimination | 186 |

Prejudice and Isolation or Cooperation and Support? | 188 |

INSIDE THE ACADEMY | 191 |

Moment Maps in Stable Bundles | 193 |

Honors and Awards | 195 |

Gung and Hu Award Conferred on Schafer | 196 |

Spikes Honored as Administrator and Educator | 197 |

Chauvenet Prize Awarded to Birman | 199 |

Expository Writing | 200 |

Country School to Grad School | 202 |

The Real World of the 1930s | 204 |

Two Mentors | 205 |

Alice B Dickinson | 207 |

Increasing Minority Representation in Mathematics | 208 |

Aerospace | 230 |

Oil Industry | 232 |

Publishing | 235 |

National Security Agency | 236 |

Biomedical Research | 238 |

Communications Industry | 240 |

HAVING A LIFE | 243 |

How I Became a Mathematician | 244 |

Is Geography Destiny? | 248 |

Making a Choice | 251 |

Universities and the TwoBody Problem | 253 |

Lifestyle Discussions | 256 |

The TwoCity Existence | 257 |

Spatial Separation in Family Life | 258 |

Tenure Track Mommy Track | 260 |

Celebration | 265 |

Problems Including Mathematical Problems from My Early Years | 267 |

Looking Back Looking Ahead | 272 |

Olga Taussky and Class Field Theory | 281 |

Numbers Matrices and Commutativity | 292 |

The Taussky Todd Celebration | 308 |

A Mathematician at NIST Today | 314 |

What Use Is Statistics for Massive Data? | 328 |

Math with an Attitude | 340 |

Into a New Century | 347 |

A Brief Mathematical Biography | 349 |

Challenges | 354 |

Mathematics in My Century | 356 |

Thought Problems | 358 |

Outreach and Variety | 361 |

Demographic Trends and Challenges | 364 |

Me a Mathematician? | 370 |

My Path toward Mathematics | 372 |

A Cautionary Tale | 381 |

Role Models and Mentors | 385 |

An Energetic Career | 388 |

For the Love of Mathematics | 390 |

Mortals and Morals | 393 |

Afterword | 397 |

Photo Credits | 399 |

401 | |