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RGO ingruentùm fævit adhuc furor
Aufoniæ minitata cladem!
Et refonus ferit aftra clamor.
Italia, interitumque ploras.
Ibat agros, rapidique ad inftar Torrentis, Urbes, Ruricolas, Pecus, Demerfit uno funere, gentibus
Crudele devictis minatus
Excidium, Dominæque Romæ ;
Fulminat Aufonios per Agros,
Protinus intremuere collo.
Qin, luce functi, magnanimum Ducum He-
Strepitumque minafque Gradivi.
Tales Alumnos non fibi Romula
Ingens Gigantis terrifici velut
Morte etiam potuit fub ipfà
Affimilis, negat ipfa regni
Bella virum tolerare robur.
Mole fuâ ruitura tecta,
Et Fana fœdo fenta fitu Deum,
Nequitiæ malefana Cultrix!
Prældet, invigilatque portis,
Fulmina præc pare belli.
Roma jaces, et inane Nomen !"
Haud vana formido Iscens
Immemores vetat elle netri; Neu forte fidens viribus et novis Auctus triumphis Ga'lus, in Anglicas Irrumpat oras, atque inermes. Comune adgrediatur Vibes
15 feet high, itsepiftyle to have halfa dia- it has had no experience, and fuch are meter for its height; and, as he gives very few indeed; for common obferto the Ionic column, of which he is in vation teaches us, from our infancy, that place treating, eight diameters and to make a due allowance for those an half, the epiftyle then is one feven- parts of objects that we cannot fee teenth of the height of column; and as when we perceive they are only proa good medium dongft the various perly obftructed from our fight by heights for the whole entablature, in other objects or fituations. For exthe works of the antique, is two dia- ample, in the fituation in the cafe juti meters, it follows this little column mentioned; when the eye at 20 feet gives one quarter of its own height, diftance looks up to an entablature Go and feven and a half minutes over for feet high, before the perfon gives the height of its entablature; but in an judgment of the proportion this entaIonic column of 60 feet high, accord-blature bears to the height of its coing to our matter's rule, the epiliyle is to have in height one ninth of the whole column, and this will give four ninths for the height of its entablature, which is almoft half the column, and common fenfe feems to forbid fuch an
enormous height; yet, fays our mafter, the eye looking up (he means in a very near station) will fee a proportion apparently like the entablature of the little column, by reafon of the great height above the eye. And this is true, for it will be found at a ftation diftant from the two columns 20 feet, and 5 feet above the ground, the eye will receive an angle from the height of the little entablature of about 8 degrees; and looking up at this fiation to the large entablature, it will receive an angle even fomething lefs, and of courfe the apparent height fomething lefs, as the angle is but about 6 degrees; but the eve being moved to a flation of 80 feet diftance, it will then receive an angle of about 11 degrees, and of courfe the apparent height is almost double to that which appeared before; and removed to a fill more diftant ftation, it will perceive it to be what it really is, enormoufly out of proportion. From this one experiment, which may ftand for a thoufand, it is evident to demonftration that fuch changes of proportions, to defeat the natural effects of the optics, is ufelefs in regard to the end propofed, fince no firucture, according to this document, can ever appear to be duly proportioned except in one fingle point of view, and in every other will its members appear deformed and difgufting to all who have any knowledge of the laws of fymmetry. Inftead, then, of adopting thefe rules for the changes of proportions, we may fafely conclude, against our malier, that the eye, duly difpofed, will not deceive us in the judgment it forms; except in fuch cafes wherein
lumn, perceiving the final apparent height of it in fo near a fiation, he naturally retires to a more difiant point, wherein he knows by experience he can difcern the matter with more accuracy and this proves he was not deceived by the apparent height, and judged it to be of a different height to what the angle on his eye made it appear. In like manner when he approaches to a range of columns on a continued ftylobate, and perceives the height and projecture of the cornice above his eye, he expects not to fee the bafes of the columns thus obftructed;
yet this would not induce him to conclude, as Baldus fuggefted, that they funk into a trench, or that they were any ways improperly fituated; on the contrary were they really raifed into fight, in the fiation he then food in, he would have naturally concluded that they were improperly thus raifed. And the fame reafoning obtains against that other precept of our matier for changing the attitude of fiatues and the faces of the members of architecture, ordering the facias of epiftyles to overhang, and fiatues to bend forward in order that they may appear to be perpendicular and upright; whereas it is known by experience that in these and in all other changes of the faine kind, the eye foon difcovers, and must always be difgufied at fuch unnatural pofitions viewed from a great variety of points, while there is but one folitary point from which they can have even the appearance of propriety; and it is furely unneceffary to argue the folly of providing an apparent perfection in one fingle intance, at the expence of exposing a real deformity in a thousand others. And certain enough it is, that when objects are placed in their proper pofitions, and the members of architecture in their known customary proportions, an experienced eye will rea
dily difcover and always approve of the pleafing afpect, from whatever point they are viewed. Nor can thefe erroneous changes be defended on any of the higheft authorities, again the daily experience of all mankind.
In reality, thefe precepts of our Mafter were either unknown to the authors of the antique, or were defpiled by them, as may be feen in Dezgodetz accurate measurements of the antique remains, where we have numberlefs inftances of the very reverfe to his rules, and even in fome of the bett and most approved works. Nor were Vitruvius's laws of fymmetry any more obferved in many of thofe works, than his doctrine of the optics. And this may ferve to convince us that either the architects of the antique were not agreed concerning the particular proportions that eliablifhed the beauty of architecture, or that there were no immutable pofitive rules of fymmetry whereon this beauty depends. And though we can never with propriety change the proportions to confult the optics, yet changed they may be, when done with experienced judgment, without deftroying, but even increafing, that pofitive beauty which the multitude applauds. This beauty being both an interefting and rather curious controverty, it fhall be difcuffed in the next number. Yours, &c.
(To be continued.)
Mr. URBAN, Stepney, Dec. 10. HE Southern Fauniti, p. 1068,
amufing ftory of the Gypfies the following obfervation :
vity and folemnity in another fort of writers, often fupplics the want of argument. For what comparison between the Jewish nation and a collec tion of trollers of various countries, who, perhaps, have not exified as a body above 400 years, who, far from dogmatizing, feem to be of no religion at all, who never appeared in arins, and made themfelves formidable, whom rags and contempt have fecured from violent perfecution, and who at the work have been only driven from place to place, which to them was no great punishment, for frauds and petty-larcenies ?" CENSOR.
"The circumstance of the Jews having preferved themfelves through fo many ages and in fo many ftates a diftinct people, is not more extraordinary than that of the Gipfies having done the fame. Like the Jews, the Gypfies appear to be a difperfed nation; but where the latter originally came from can never now be ascertained with certainty." I fhall not ftop to enquire whether the ftale obfervation arifes from a with to deprive Chriflianity of its firongest evidence, or from ignorance of its tendency; but fhall take leave to quote, either for his correction or information, a paffage from Jortin's Remarks on Ecclefiaftical Hiftory, vol. III. p. 329. “Some have observed that the prefervation of the Gypfies is as extraordinary as that of the Jews; but this is thrown out by way of jest, which, like gra
INCE the good people of the.me
exhibition of great oxen, and great heep, in Smithfield, it has been repeatedly afked, to what does all this amount; Cui bono? If we look for a reduction in the price of meat, an increafe in the number of our cattle, a lefs expenfive mode of rearing them for the table, or any of the fchemes or plans that may really or fulliantially benefit the country, we may just as well expect national benefit from the exhibition of a great plumb-pudding, fuch as was once baked in Southwark, and measured I know not how many yards round; or the exhibition of any ihing elfe that is forced and unnatural, and can never come into common use.
For fome years, public curiofity has been gratified with the fight of
has its lions and tigers, and Smithfield its right honourable oxen and noble rams; and the mafs of the publick are juti as likely to eat the one as the other at a moderate price. If thefe pantomis mical feenes of plenty muft be exhibited in the Metropolis, I could with the managers would chufe fome other feafon to bring their performers to town, than juft before Christmas, when, it is well known, our markets generally rife, but have done fo much more in the article of beef this year than ever was known.
In truth, from the circumftance that feems to be the main object with thefe breeders of monfiers, I mean fat, I fhould think Tallow-chandlers' Hall the proper place of exhibition, and that worfuipful company the proper patrons of the art; and inftead of exhibiting the productions of their fat
PROCEEDINGS IN PARLIAMENT, 1801; continued from p. 1134gain. The refolutions were then agreed to
The Houfe went into a Committee of Ways and Means.
The Chancellor of the Exchequer fated, that the Houfe having determined to continue for three months longer the naval and military establishment of last year, or rather to provide for the poflible continuince of that establishment, it became necellary to afcertain the ways and means by which this intention was to be fulfilled. Two circumitances that tended in part to increate the expences of the year, were the fancity of laft year, which made it neceffary for Government to give large bounties as an encouragement for the importation of corn (thefe bounties, however, did not exceed the fum of 750,000l. which, though confiderable in itfelf, was very fmall, compared to the importance of the object attained by it, and fell far thort of the amount at which thefe bounties had originally been eftimated); and the increased expence in the maintenance of the feamen, arifing from the high price of provifions. The Houfe would recollect the amount of the estimates already voted; for the army above two milhions, for the navy three millions and an half, which with the advance eftabli himent, viz. 400,cool. for Great Britain, and 75,00cl. for Ireland, would make a total of 7,000,cool. The ways and means by which he propofed to meet this expenditure were, the produce of the land and malt tax, and a new illue of Exchequer bills, to make up the d.ficiency, as the fum required would altogether amount to 8,500,000l-Of the bi's that were to be funded, the Bick of E gland were the holders of a 400,cool. and therefore there remained, in the hands of individuals, bills to the amount of 6,100,000l. The agreement made with the e individuals was, that for every ecl. of Exchequer bills, they were to receive 25. Cafois, 251. Reduced, 25. New Fives, 5 1.4 per Cents, and 15. 9d. Long Annuity. The arrangement was made at the market prices of that day; £. s. 4. The 251. Confols, at 683 make 17 1 104 The 251. Reduced, at 678, 16 16 10 The 21. New Fives, at 9, 24 150 The 40l. Four per Cents, at 841.42 76 Theis.gd.Lurg Annuity, 19 years I 14 4
The malt-duty, fugar, and tobacco bills, went through their different flages; as did the new Lettery bill, and the report from the Committee of Ways and Means; and bil's were ordered accordingly.
The Houfe then refolved ittelf into a Committee, on the interference of Persia elections for members to ferve in Parkment. After fome debate, the further confideration of the fubje&t was poftponed till the 24th of November.
11. OF LORDS.
Their Lordships limited the time for receiving Ju'ges' reports on private buk, to the 19th of March.
The mal: duty, the flale bread, the penfion duty bills, and the hill for allowing the ufe of falt duty-free in curing fish, were read the firft tinie.
In the Commons, the fame day, the malt duty and penfion duty bills, and the bill for allowing bakers to fell new bread, were feverally read the third time, and poffed.
In a Committee of Sup, ly, the following fums were voted for three months, from the tft of January next; viz. 60,0 el. for the turport of the fffering clergy and laty of France; 35,000. for fecret fervice money; and 8,.col. for maintaining cocvicts at home.
The Committee on exping hus reported; recommending the continuance, for another year, of the additional dury wa fpirits imported from Scotland. The continuance of the starch and diftlery hi was fixed for the fame period; and feveral public accomp ts were presented.
Mr. Banks moved, tost in lumb'e 'dreis be prefited to his Majefty, that he would be graciously plected to give drectiors, that there be laid before the Houle a copy of the Treaty concludes between his Majefty and the Sublime Porte in the month of January 1799; which was agree!
did not think tha”, in the p cleat frams of the contur, fuch a fun a 14 yal. #scritory ført in bruich of the putt fervice. He bought that, a gojoʻol, would
teon, taken, engraved, and coloured, by himself, from the original, in Mr. Worthington's cellar, in Leicester, fuperior (if I may be allowed to judge) to any copy of it that has hitherto fallen under obfervation. my I have lately met with a curiofity in Natural Hiftory (perhaps not frequently noticed), found in what is called the first ftomach of a very fat cow, which was but four years old, and had been fed at Newbold Saucey, near Owfion, in this county, and flaughtered at Hallaton in September lafi. It is a ball, or globular fubfiance, apparently hol low within, about the size of a middlefized orange; and, like that fruit, the outfide is full of finall irregular indentings. Its colour is a very dark brown, nearly black, very bright and glofly, as if coated with varnish. It is as hard as wood, and was quite as hard (the butcher told me) when it was first taken out, and was entirely loofe in the fiomach, not joined by any pipes or ligaments whatever, neither is there the leaft appearance of any upon the ball itself. I have frequently dropped it with force upon abrick floorwithout breaking, and it rebounds and founds like hollow wood, or the fhell of a cocoa-nut. It is 8 inches 3-8ths in circumference, which does not vary above the eighth of an inch, take it where you will, it is fo nearly round. This makes it fome thing more than 2 inches 6-8ths in diameter. Its weight is 1 oz. 9 drams, avoirdupoife. If any of Mr. Urban's correfpondents can fay any thing fatisfactory from the above fhort but frictly faithful account of it, as to its nature, or how produced, whether by being ta ken in with the food or otherwife, it will be esteemed a favour by J. TAILBY.
other parts of the church. On the North fide of the nave is a raifed altartomb, which covers the remains of Sir John Cokayne, knt. Chief Baron of the Exchequer, in the reign of King Henry IV. On the top was his effigies engraved on brass, with his arms at each corner, but now entirely gone.
Mr. URBAN, Potton, Sept. 20. OCKAYNE HATLEY, Bedfordfhire, is a pleafant village, fituated on an eminence, in the Northeaft corner of the county of Bedford; with woods to the North and Weft, and a beautiful and extenfive prospect over the adjacent country to the South and Eaft. It contains four farms, the rectory-houte, and a few cottages.
In the South aile is a very handfoine monument, with the figures of an, armed knight, and his lady kneeling at an altar, with the following infcrip tions above and below them. Over the man:
The church is an antient regular ftructure, with a nave and fide-ailes; built, as fuppofed, by Sir John Cokayne, as his arms are on the brackets that fupport the roof, and in many
Nichols's Leicestershire, vol. I. p. 10.
Over the woman:
Adepto probeq. fun&to, denato denique ætatis X'ti Ao. C1.1ǝCXx1. fuæ vero XLIX. atq. in coloniâ cœlefti nunc recenfito, lectiffima conjux ELIZABETHA, Filia JOHANNIS COKAYNE, de COKAYNE HATLEY, in com. BEDF. Armigeri, in conjugalis fidei Corporifq. æternum indivulsi sponfionem amorifque monumentum hoc ftatuir. Under the woman:
"In Cl. V. Dominum PATRITIUM
Iftud Humum Hominemq. fonat,
Under the man:
"Vita fed illuftris, nec propter
nudum Hominem fperaret, erat;
nunc corpore tandem,
atq. homine exuto, O quantum mutatus ab ILLO es!
Corpus Humo Tenebrifque relinquis, cætera vivis,
æternum indutus LUCEMO POLUMQ. DEUMQ."
In the middle aile are the following inferiptions on brafs, very well preferved.
A man in armour, and a woman, with this infcription:
"Of your charitie pray for the foules of Edmund Cockayn, efquyer, and Elizabeth, his wife; which Edmund deceffed the 3