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CHAPTER IX.

OF THE SPECIAL GOVERNMENT OF ANGELS.

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The general government of Providence has been hitherto the subject of consideration. The special governnent is that which embraces with peculiar regard angels and men, as beings far superior to the rest of the creation.

Angels are either good or evil, Luke ix. 26. viii. 2. for it appears that many of them revolted from God of their own accord before the fall of man. John viii. 44. • he abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him : when he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own, for he is a liar, and the father of it.' 2 Pet. ii. 4. “God spared not the angels that sinned.' Jude 6. the angels which kept not their first estate.' 1 John iïi. 8. the devil sinneth from the beginning.' Psal. cvi. 37. • they sacrificed unto devils.'

Some are of opinion that the good angels are now upheld, not so much by their own strength, as by the grace of God. 1 Tim. v. 21. the elect angels,' that is, who have not revolted.* Eph. i. 10. that be might gather together in one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven and which are on earth.' Job iv. 18. • his angels be charged with folly.' See also xv. 15. Hence arises, in their opinion, the delighted interest which the angels take in the mystery of man's salvation ;* 1 Pet. i. 12. which things the angels desire to look into.' Eph. iji. 10. •that now unto the principalities and powers in heavenly places might be known by the church the manifold wisdom of God.' Luke ï. 13, 14. 'a multitude of the heavenly host praising God,' namely, on account of the birth of Christ. xv. 10. there is joy in the presence of the angels of God over one sinner that repenteth. They assign the same reason for their worshipping Christ. Heb. i. 6. let all the angels of God worship him.' Matt. iv. 11. angels came and ministered unto him.' Philipp. ii. 10. at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven—.' 2 Thess. i. 7. the Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with his mighty angels.' 1 Pet. jï. 22. angels being made subject unto him.' Rev. v. 11, 12, worthy is the Lamb that was slain. It seems, however, more agreeable to reason, to suppose that the good angels are upheld by their own strength no less than man himself was before his fall;—that they are called elect, in the sense of beloved or excellent ;—that it is not from any interest of their own, but from their love to mankind, that they desire to look into the mystery of our salvation ;-that they

* Milton employs the word elect in opposition to the apostate angels, in the description of the first battle in heaven:

................ but those elect
Angels, contented with their fame in Heav'n,
Seek not the praise of men: the other sort,
In might though wondrous,, &c. Paradise Lost, VI. 374.

* Nor less think we in heav'n of thee on carth

Than of our fellow servant, and enquire
Gladly into the ways of God with man.

Paradise Lost, VIII. 224.

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are not comprehended in the covenant of reconciliation ;-that, finally, they are included under Christ as their head, not as their Redeemer. *

For the rest, they are represented as standing dispersed around the throne of God in the capacity of ministering agents.t Deut. xxxiii. 2. he came with ten thousands of saints.' 1 Kings xxii. 19. “I saw Jehovah sitting on his throne, and all the host of heaven standing by him on his right hand and on his left.' Job i. 6. there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before Jehovah.' See also ji. 1. Dan. vii. 10. ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him.' Matt. xvii. 10.

their angels do always behold the face of my Father which is in heaven. Luke i. 19. 'I am Gabriel who stand in the presence of God.'

Praising God. Job xxxvii. 7. all the sons of God shouted for joy.' Psal. cxlviii. 2. praise ye him, all his angels.' Neh. ix. 6. the host of heaven worshippethi thee.' Isai. vi. 3. !one cried unto another and said, Holy, holy, holy.' See also Rev. iv. 8. vii. 11. 'the angels fall before the throne on their faces.'

They are obedient to God in all respects. Gen. xxviii. 12. •behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it.' Psal. cili. 20. his angels....that do his commandments.' Zech. i. 10. • these are they

* When the great ensign of Messiah blaz'd,

........... Michael soon reduc'd
His army, circumfus'd on either wing,
Under their head embodied all in one. VI. 775.

t ....... Ye behold him, and with songs

And choral symphonies, day without night,
Circle his throne rejoicing. V. 161.

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whom Jehovah hath sent to walk to and fro through the earth.'

Their ministry relates especially to believers.* Heb. i. 14. are they not all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation?' Psal. xxxiv. 7. the angel of Jehovah encampeth round about them that fear him. xci. 11.

he shall give his angels charge over thee' Isai. lxiii. 9. the angel of his presence saved them.' Matt. xviii. 10. their angels do always behold the face of my Father.' xiii. 41. the Son of man shall send forth his angels, and they shall gather out of his kingdom all things that offend.' xxiv. 31. they shall gather together his elect from the four winds.' Acts xi. 15. it is his angel.' I Cor. xi. 10. •for this cause ought the woman to have power on her head because of the angels,' namely, as some think, (and numerous examples in confirmation of their opinion are not wanting) those angels whose office it was to be present at the religious assemblies of believers.t

* The tutelary care of angels is incidentally alluded to in Paradise Lost:

......... except whom
God and good angels guard by special grace. II. 1032.
Subjected to his service angel wings
And flaming ministers, to watch and tend
Their earthly charge. IX. 155.
Send me the angel of thy birth, to stand
Fast by thy side. Samson Agonistes, 1431.
.......... some good angel bear

A shield before us. Comus, 658. + This is the interpretation of Grotius, Hammond, (who quotes from the Fathers in support of his opinion) Wolf, Doddridge, Pearce, &c. But Milton probably alluded to Tremellius, whose version he principally used, and whose note is as follows: · Hujus autem rei testes sunt et observatores angeli in ecclesia Dei, ab externo ordine internam Dei gratiam et

Seven of these, in particular, are described as traversing the earth in the execution of their ministry.* Zech. iv. 10. those seven are the eyes of Jehovah which run to and fro through the whole earth.' Rev. v. 6. • which are the seven Spirits of God sent forth into all the earth.' See also i. 4. and iv. 5.

It appears also probable that there are certain angels appointed to preside over nations, kingdoms, and particular districts. Dan. iv. 13, 17. this matter is by the decree of the watchers.' xii. 1. • Michael....the great prince which standeth for the children of thy people. x. 13. I remained there with the kings of Persia.' 2 Pet. ii. 11. whereas angels, which are greater in power and might, bring

Jing accusation against them before the Lord.' Gen. ii. 24. to keep the way of the tree of life.'

They are sometimes sent from heaven as messengers of the divine vengeance, to punish the sins of men. They destroy cities and nations. Gen. xix. 13. 2 Sam. xxiv. 16. 1 Chron. xxi. 16. David saw the angel of Jehovah.... having a drawn sword in his hand stretched out over Jerusalem.' They lay waste whole armies with unexpected destruction 2 Kings xix. 35. Compare also other passages to the

pietatem membrorum optime recognoscentes. Psal. xxxiv. 8. et sci. 11. Matt. xviii. 10. Jobo i. 52. Eph. iii. 10. 1 Tim. v. 21. Heb. i. 14. 1 Pet. i. 12.' These seem to have been the numerous examples' referred to above.

* Thi Arch-Angel Uriel, one of the sev'n

Who in God's presence, nearest to his throne,
Stand ready at command, and are his eyes
That run through all the heav'ns, or down to th' earth
Bear his swift errands over moist and dry,
O’er sea and land. Paradise Lost, III. 648.

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