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David according to the flesh;' that is, undoubtedly, according to his human nature.

There seems therefore no reason, why the soul of man should be made an exception to the general law of creation. For, as has been shown before, God breathed the breath of life into the other living beings, and blended it so intimately with matter, that the propagation and production of the human form were analogous to those of other forms, and the proper effect of that power which had been communicated to matter by the Deity.

Man being formed after the image of God, it followed as a necessary consequence that he should be endued with natural wisdom, holiness, and righteousness. Gen. i. 27, 31. ii. 25. Eccles. vii. 29. Eph. iv. 24. Col. ii. 10. 2 Cor. ili. 18. Certainly without extraordinary wisdom he could not have given names to the whole animal creation with such sudden intelligence, Gen. ii. 20.*

* In this illustration the chief stress is laid upon the suddenness with which Adam was enabled to give appropriate names to the brute creation, as it passed in review before him. Milton has two other allusions to this event, and the same circumstance is marked as the prominent feature of the case in both passages. There is nothing in the scriptural narration to suggest the particular idea, or the coincidence would have been less remarkable.

I nam'd them as they pass'd, and understood
Their nature, with such knowledge God endu'd

My sudden apprehension. Paradise Lost, VIII. 352. • But Adam, who had the wisdom given him to know all creatures, and to name them according to their properties, no doubt but had the gift to discern perfectly that which concerned him much more, and to apprehend at first sight the true fitness of that consort which God provided him.' Tetrachordon. Prose Works, II. 133.

CHAPTER VIII.

OF THE PROVIDENCE OF GOD, OR OF HIS GENERAL

GOVERNMENT OF THE UNIVERSE.

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The remaining species of God's external efficiency, is his government of the whole creation.

This government is either general or special.

His general government is that whereby God the Father regards, preserves, and governs the whole of creation with infinite wisdom and holiness according to the conditions of his decree.

God the Father. Neh. ix. 6. thou, even thou, art Jehovah alone .... thou hast made, and thou preservest them all.' To this truth Christ himself bears witness everywhere. Matt. v. 45. that ye may be the children of your Father which is in heaven; for he maketh his sun to rise .... and sendeth rain,' &c. vi. 4. thy Father which seeth in secret.' v. 8. • your Father knoweth.' v. 13. thine is the kingdom and the power and the glory.' v. 26. “ your heavenly Father feedeth them.' v. 32. “your heavenly Father knoweth that ye have need of all these things.' vii. 11. ' your Father which is in heaven shall give good things unto them that ask him.' x. 29. one of them shall not fall on the ground without your Father.' Acts i. 7. the times and seasons which the Father hath put in his own power.' Eph. i. 11. 6according to the purpose of him who worketh all things after the counsel of his own will.' James i. 17. every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, and cometh down from the Father of lights.' Even as regards the Son himself. Acts iv. 27. “ against thy holy child Jesus, whom thou hast anointed . . . . for to do whatsoever thy hand and thy counsel determined before to be done. The preservation of the universe is attributed to the Son also, but in what sense, and on what grounds, may be seen in the fifth chapter, on the Son of God. Col. i. 17. by him all things consist,'—but both the preceding and following verses explain on what account; namely, because the Father, v. 13. hath translated us into the kingdom of his dear Son,' and because, v. 19. 'it pleased the Father that in him should all fulness dwell.? Heb. i. 3. • upholding all things by the word of his power,' namely, because, v. 2. the Father hath appointed him heir of all things. Further, it will appear on an examination of the passage, that the original ought to be translated, not of his own power,* but of his, namely, the Father's, of whose person he was the

* In allusion to the versions of Beza and Tremellius, who translate the clause, sustineatque omnia verbo potentiæ suæ, or verbo illo suo potente, sustinet omnia virtute verbi sui. Mill reads aútoũ, without noticing the other reading, por have I remarked that Waterland, who often quotes and argues upon the passage, takes any notice of the variation. It is however mentioned by Doddridge; and Wetstein, who reads avrou, has the following note: “avtoü, ut ad Patrem referatur. Christus verbo potentiæ paternæ cuncta fert. Editio Erasmi, Colinæi.' To these two Dames Archbishop Newcome has added that of Bengelius, in the copy of Wetstein's New Testament which formerly belonged to that prelate, and which is enriched with several annotations in his hand-writing.

express image: and the right reading in the Greek is αυτού, not αυτού, since δι' εαυτού immediately follows, as if put expressly for the sake of distinction. Lastly, Christ testifies of himself, Matt. xxviii. 18.

all power is given unto me in heaven and in earth; and to the same effect in many other places.

Regards. Job xxxi. 4. • doth not he count all my steps ?' 2 Chron. xvi. 9. the eyes of Jehovah run to and fro throughout the whole earth.' Psal. xxxiii. 15.

he fashioneth their hearts alike; he considereth all their works.' Jer. xxxii. 19. • thine eyes are open upon all the ways of the sons of men.' Hos, ii. 21. • I will hear the heavens.'

Preserves. Deut. viii. 3. man doth not live by bread only, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of Jehovah. Job vii. 20. Othou preserver of men.' Psal. xxx. 7. thou didst bide thy face, and I was troubled.' lxxx. 1. 0 Shepherd of Israel, thou that leadest Joseph like a flock....shine forth.' v. 3. cause thy face to shine and we shall be saved.' civ. 29. • thou takest away their breath, they die.' Nehem. ix. 6. • thou hast made....and thou preservest them all.' Acts siv. 17. • he left not himself without witness.' xvii. 25. he giveth to all life.' v. 28. in him we live.'

According to the conditions of his decree. It is necessary to add this qualification, inasmuch as God preserves neither angels, nor men, nor any other part of creation absolutely, but always with reference to the conditions of his decree. For he preserves mankind, since their spontaneous fall, and all other things with them, only so far as regards their existence, and not as regards their primitive perfection.

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Governs. Job xiv. 5.' thou hast appointed his bounds.' Psal. xxix. 10. • Jehovah sitteth king for ever.' xciii. 1. • Jehovah reigneth....the world also is established.' ciii. 19. his kingdom ruleth over all.' Prov. xx. 24. “man's goings are of Jehovah.' xxi. 1.

the king's heart is in the hand of Jehovah....he turneth it whithersoever he will.'

With infinite wisdom and holiness. Job ix. 10. which doeth great things past finding out, yea, and wonders without number.' Prov. X. 24. the fear of the wicked it shall come upon him ; but the desire of the righteous shall be granted.' xii. 3. 'a man shall not be established by wickedness.' xii. 9. the light of the righteous rejoiceth.' Isai. lv. 9. 'my ways are higher than your ways.' Deut. xxxii. 4. • all his ways are judgement.' Psal. xix. 9. "the judgements of Jehovah are true and righteous altogether.' lxxvii. 13. thy way, O God, is in the sanctuary, Generally speaking, however, no distinction is made between the righteous and the wicked, with regard to the final issue of events, at least in this life. Job xii. 6. 'the tabernacles of robbers prosper.' xxi. 7. 'wherefore do the wicked live, become old ? ' Eccles. vii. 15. there is a just man that perisheth in his righteousness, and there is a wicked man that prolongeth his life in his wickedness. viii. 14. there be just men unto whom it happeneth according to the work of the wicked ; again, there be wicked men, to whom it happeneth according to the work of the righteous. ix. 2. “there is one event to the righteous and to the wicked.' The reason for this may be seen Job v. 7. •man is born unto trouble as the sparks fly upward.' xxiv. 23. though it be given him to be in

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