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THE CHEMIST;

OR,

REPORTER OF DISCOVERIES AND IMPROVEMENTS

IN

ANALYTICAL, MANUFACTURING, AND AGRICULTURAL

CHEMISTRY

EDITED BY JOHN HIGGS NEWTON.

VOL. VII.

LONDON:

GEORGE PEIRCE, 310, STRAND.

1846.

PEIRCE, PRINTER, 310, STRAND.

INTRODUCTION

TO THE SEVENTH VOLUME.

Seven years have now elapsed since the publication of the first number of “ The CHEMIST,” and, during the whole of that period, it can boast of the constant and steady support of its subscribers, notwithstanding the establishment of rival publications, which have sprung up in the interim, and endeavoured, in some cases with all the recklessness by which modern competition is so strongly marked, to outbid it in public favour.

Grateful are we to our readers for the continued confidence they have conceded to us; and we promise, that in following out the course we have traced for ourselves, no pains or diligence shall be spared to keep pace with the vast progress of chemical and philosophical knowledge, by taking the earliest notice of such new discoveries as those for which the present age has been so highly distinguished from every former period of an equal number of years. At the same time, our pages shall always be open to such of our correspondents as may have new or interesting subjects to describe.

How rapidly has one new fact succeeded another, each more pregnant with knowledge than its predecessor, and more likely to be serviceable to mankind; for the vulgar error that chemistry and philosophy possess no common interest with the world in general is now almost exploded. To whom at the present day does the manufacturer apply for advice as to the preparation of his material, whether

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intended for textile fabrics, or for works in metal or glass? The engineer, also, seeks his assistance to ascertain the laws by which the elastic force of steam is regulated. Again, agriculture is indebted for most of its modern improvements to the scientific knowledge imparted by the Chemist.

The fact of the vast importance of this science in the onward progress of human civilization, is becoming every day more apparent; and the universality and simplicity of the laws by which the universe is sustained, are more clearly evinced by the result of the laborious researches of the Chemist.

Unfortunately, until within these very few years, England was almost unprovided with schools in which this science could be deeply and advantageously studied ; happily, this omission is now partly rectified, and we have lately seen the foundation of several Colleges of Chemistry, which bid fair, in a short time, to compete with the older establishments of the Continent.

One great element of success in every undertaking of our countrymen, is the fact, that, although they may at times be slow in commencing a good work, when once they have fairly began it, their exertions are seldom relaxed until every competitor is distanced ; and we have no fear that the newlyestablished colleges will be an exception to this rule.

In watching the progress of these institutions, we shall not fail to give every publicity to their proceedings that our pages can afford, and to this end we are always ready to

well authenticated communications on the subject.

insert any

TII ECH E MIS T.

I. CHEMISTRY.

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REPORT ON AN ESSAY BY M. FRE. The three first are so composed that each

MY, ENTITLED, RESEARCHES of them may be represented by-
ON A NEW SERIES OF ACIDS 1 equivalent of nitrous acid AzO3
FORMED OF OXYGEN, SUL-

equivalents of water 3HO PHUR, HYDROGEN AND NITRO. equivalents of potash. 3KO GEN.*

by addingWHILE examining, during his experiments

To the first, 3 equivalents of sulphurous on the metallic acids, the principal proper- acid, 3802. tirs of a new class of salts, to which he has To the second, 4 equivalents of sulphugiven the name of osmites; the author dis rous acid, 450. covered that the osmites, when subjected to

To the third, 5 equivalents of sulphurous the action of sulphurous acid, or of the acid, 5502. sulphites, produced a double acid, which Whence it follows, that for the same contains the elements of osmious and sul- quantities of nitrous acid, water, and potash, phurous acid, and in which the fundamental the proportion of sulphurous acid may be as properties of these acids are concealed. 3, and 5.

Guided by this observation, M. Frémy The fourth salt, that produced in the last endeavored to produce double acids re

instance, would contain like the others sembling the preceding, by substituting 1 equivalent of nitrous acid AzO3 nitrous for osmious acid, which possesses a

3 equivalents of water

3HO marked analogy with it.

but it would contain, alsoThe results to which he was led are very 8 equivalents of sulphurous acid 8S0 important; we are about to notice them. 4 equivalents of potash ...... 4KO When you pass sulphurous gas through a

Are these elements grouped, as we here concentrated alkaline solution of nitrate of imagine them to be for the sake of distinctpotash, you produce, successively, four new ness, or is it rather merely an acid formed: salts, very easily distinguished, which are of sulphur, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen? deposited in crystals the instant they are

We will discuss this presently, after having formed, and which are separated without examined the principal properties of the salts. difficulty.

In any case the names the author has The first, which the author calls sulphazite employed cannot become the object of fair of potash, is extremely alkaline, very solu- criticism ; he does not disguise this, and it ble, and crystallises like grape-sugar.

was on account of the difficulty of finding The second, which he calls sulphazate, is others more suitable, that he admitted them, less easily soluble, and less alkaline than the at least provisionally. former, and crystallises in beautiful needles A question presents itself at the very. like sulphocyanuret of potassium.

outset : since the preceding salts contain The third, still less alkaline and soluble 3, 4, 5 and 8 equivalents of sulphurous than the second, crystallises in beautiful acid, may it not be possible there may be rhombohedrons ; it has received the name of others that contain 1, 2, 5, and 6 equivalents sulphazotate. The excess of alkali may be of sulphurous acid, and perhaps even more removed by a current of carbonic acid, and than 8; in such a manner that the series of the salt then becomes but little soluble. equivalent acids shall not be interrupted, and

The fourth, neutral, and almost totally may form an arithmetical progression, the insoluble in water, crystallises in silky difference between the two terms of which needles, like sulphate of lime; it is called would be unity ? sulphammonate.

This observation has not escaped the

notice of the author ; it will be the object of * Comptes Rendus.

his future experiments. N.S., Vol. IV.-No. XXXVII., January, 1846.

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