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"thou commit no adultery, yet if thou CHAP. "kill, thou art become a tranfgreffor of I. "the Law."

Upon these high authorities is built the decifion of our Church; "No Chriftian "man whatfoever is free from the obe"dience of the commandments which are "called morale." But it is evident, that if his obligation to obedience be in part relaxed, which the fyftem at prefent under confideration fuppofes, then he is in part free from fubmiffion to them; the very contrary of which is declared both by our Saviour and St. James. As no one probably will venture to affert, that the moral Law is totally annulled; it must therefore be either wholly obligatory, or partly obligatory. If it be fo lowered, as only to be partly obligatory, then the Author of our religion is virtually pronounced to be miftaken; but if it be ftill wholly obligatory, then it cannot have been lowered even in the flightest degree: one or other of these conclufions muft follow from fuch a dilemma. It appears, then, that a moral law of more eafy performance than the Law

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d James ii. 10.

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Art. vii.


SECT. of Mofes has not been promulged; and IV. that God has in no wife relaxed from those claims which infinite juftice demands.

f Precisely the same doctrine as this is maintained by Bp. Reynolds: "In point of validity or invalidity, there can "but five things be said of the Law: for first, either it muft “be obeyed, and that it is not, for all have finned and come "fhort of the glory of God: or secondly, it must be exe"cuted upon men, and the curse or penalty thereof inflicted; "and that it is not neither, for there is no condemnation "to them that are in Chrift: or thirdly, it must be abro"gated, or extinguifhed; and that it is not neither, for "heaven and earth muft fooner pafs away: or fourthly, it must be moderated and favourably interpreted by rules of equity, to abate the rigor and severity thereof; and that cannot "be neither; for it is inflexible, no jot nor tittle of it must be "abated: or laftly, the Law itself remaining, the obligation "thereof, notwithstanding, muft towards fuch or such per"fons be fo far difpenfed withal, as that a furety shall be "admitted (upon concurrence of all their wills, who are "therein interested; God willing to allow, Chrift willing to "perform, and man willing to enjoy :) both to do all the "duties, and to suffer all the curfes of the Law, in the be"half of that perfon, who in rigor should himself have done "and fuffered all. So then, neither the Law, nor any jot or "tittle thereof, is abrogated, in regard of the obligations therein "contained, but they are all reconciled in Cbrift with the fecond "covenant." Bp. Reynolds's Works, p. 492.

In a fimilar manner the great Reformer Luther: "In "lege, ceu fpeculo quodam, quicquid in me eft, damnatum "effe et maledictum reperio. Nam nullum de lege apiculum "interire, fed omnia implere oportet, perinde ac Chriftus "ait: Amen dico vobis, donec cœlum et terra tranfeat, ne "minimum quidem iota aut apex de lege præteribit, quin "omnia fiant. Porro hoc in te non comperis, ut ex tota

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It may perhaps be asked, what then does CHAP. St. Paul mean, when he afferts, "Ye are I, "not under the Law, but under grace?" This will foon be made clear, if we confider the practical end of the Law, which ftill fubfifts, and will fubfift to the end of the world. The fame Apostle acquaints us, that "The Law was our schoolmafter to bring us unto Chrift, that we might "be juftified by faith".' The particular



"anima et toto corde, gaudio et voluptate facias, quicquid "lex exegerit, aut a te popofcerit. Hinc damnatus, et Sa"tanæ fub imperio es, fecundum quod tuam noveris insti"tuere vitam. Quo eo perveniendum eft, ut dicas te Sa"tanæ effe fubjugatum et dicatum. Quod fi fcires quid "tibi porro faciundum effet, pereundum tibi foret. Eo lex igitur tibi infervit, quæ docet nos damnatos effe: hæc enim prava defideria in nobis omnia reperimus, et ne fcintillula "tamen eorum in nobis effe debet. Porro id fophifte noftri "nibil obfervantes, tradiderunt fiquis pro viribus agat, impertire "Deum gratiam. Caci funt ii duces." Enarr. Evang. fol. 322 A. See also ibid. fol. 36 C. and fol. 336 B.


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Rom. vi. 14.

Gal. iii. 24.

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Many perfons are fond of interpreting these words as relating only to the Jews, and of maintaining, that the Law, by its types and prophecies, was a schoolmafter only to bring them to Chrift. Thus they conceive, that the advent, not the neceffity, of a Saviour is fet forth in the words in question. But let it be remembered, that St. Paul is not addreffing the Hebrews, but the Galatians, a church of Gentile converts; and the whole tenor of that Epiftle fhews, that he is proving the need of a Saviour from man's inability to perform the

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SECT. manner, in which the Law acts as our Iv. schoolmaster, is by convincing us of our extreme finfulness. As long as a man remains infenfible to the corruption of his nature, and puffed up with haughty notions of his own dignity and righteousness, he will never perceive his want of a Saviour. Such was the cafe with the philofophizing Greeks. Vainly priding themfelves upon their proficiency in ethics, they felt not the load of fin which pressed upon them; and a crucified Redeemer was foolishness in their eyes. In a fimilar fituation are numbers, even of those who call themfelves Chriftians. They are unwilling to believe themselves fo totally depraved as the Scriptures reprefent them to be; and are therefore defirous of owing their falvation to any thing, rather than the merits of Chrift. Their pride is fhocked at the idea, that their own good works, which they view with the fond eye of an indulgent parent, poffefs no inherent merit whatsoever. They cannot bear to give up

requifitions of the Law. Thus the Law, by condemning all those who truft to their works, and convincing them of fin, becomes a schoolmaster and a guide to lead them to Chrift, in order that they may receive juftification, not by works, but by faith,



the belief of their efficiency to salvation, CHAP. and to humble themselves in the duft before the throne of the Almighty. Mercy is freely offered to all, through the blood of Chrift; but this they are unwilling to accept, unless they be allowed to poffefs fome degree of merit of their own. Are all our good deeds useless? they will afk: do not they at all contribute to obtain our falvation? Farewell then to piety, virtue, and every thing that is of good report. If there be no merit in our holiness, why need we practise it?

This mode of reafoning, though frequently brought forward with all the parade of a new and important discovery, poffeffes not the smallest degree of originality or novelty; it is at least as old as the days of St. Paul. That Apoftle ftrenuously maintains the doctrine of falvation by grace through faith, and not by works; and the fame objection is immediately started against him ; "What shall we fay then? Shall we "continue in fin, that grace may abound?" He inftantly repels the unworthy fufpicion with indignation; "God forbid. How "fhall we, that are dead to fin, live any longer



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