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that he is yet to appear a tenth time, in the figure of a warrior upon a white horse, to cut off all incorrigible offenders. Avater is the word used to express his descent.

Note (p.) And Camdeo bright, and Ganesa sublime.

Camdeo is the God of Love in the mythology of the Hindoos. Ganesa and Seriswattee correspond to the Pagan deities Janus and Minerva.

NOTES

ON THE

PLEASURES OF HOPE.

PART II.

Note (a.) The noon of Manhood to a myrtle shade! Sacred to Venus is the myrtle shade.- Dryden.

Note (b.) Thy woes, Arion ! Falconer in his poem, The Shipwreck, speaks of himself by the name of Arion.–See Falconer's Shipwreck, Canto III.

Note (c.) The robber Moor. See Schiller's tragedy of the Robbers, scene v. Note (d.) What millions died that Cæsar might be great.

The carnage occasioned by the wars of Julius Cæsar has been usually estimated at two millions of men. Note (e.) Or learn the fate that bleeding thousands bore,

Marched by their Charles to Dneiper's swampy

shore. In this extremity, (says the biographer of Charles XII. of Sweden, speaking of his military exploits before the battle of Pultowa,) the memorable winter of 1709, which was still more remarkable in that part of Europe than in France, destroyed numbers of his troops : for Charles resolved to brave the seasons as he had done

his enemies, anu ventured to make long marches during this mortal cold. It was in one of these marches that two thousand men fell down dead with cold before his eyes,

Note (f.) As on Iona's height. The natives of the island of lona have an opinion, that on certain evenings every year, the tutelary saint Columba is seen on the top of the church spires counting the surrounding islands, to see that they have not been sunk by the power of witchcraft.

Note (g.) And part, like Ajut,-never to return ! See the history of Ajut and Anningait in the Rambler.

NOTES

ON

GERTRUDE OF. WYOMING,

PART I.

and gray.

Stanza 3. 1. 6.

From merry mock-bird's song. The mocking bird is of the form, but larger, than the thrush; and the colours are a mixture of black, white,

What is said of the nightingale, by its greatest admirers, is, what may with more propriety apply to this bird, who, in a natural state, sings with very superior taste. Towards evening I have heard one begin softly, reserving its breath to swell certain notes, which, by this means, had a most astonishing effect. A gentleman in London had one of these birds for six years. During the space of a minute he was heard to imitate the woodlark, chaffinch, blackbird, thrush,

In this country (America) I have frequently known the mockingbirds so engaged in this mimickry, that it was with much difficulty I could ever obtain an opportunity of hearing their own natural note,

and sparrow.

Some go so far as to say, that they have neither peculiar notes, nor favourite imitations. This may be denied. Their few natural notes resemble those of the (European) nightingale. Their song, however, has a greater compass and volume than the nightingales', and they have the faculty of varying all intermediate notes in a manner which is truly delightful.- Ashe's Travels in America, Vol. II. p.

73.

Stanza 5. l. 9. * Or distant isles that hear the loud Corbrechtan roar.

The Corybrechtan, or Corbrechtan, is a whirlpool on the western coast of Scotland, near the island of Jura, which is heard at a prodigious distance. Its name signifies the whirlpool of the prince of Denmark; and there is a tradition that a Danish prince once undertook, for a Wager, to cast anchor in it. He is said to have used woollen instead of hempen ropes, for greater strength, but perished in the attempt. On the shores of Argyleshire I have often listened with great delight to the sound of this vortex, at the distance of many leagues. When the weather is calm, and the adjacent sea scarcely heard on these picturesque shores, its sound, which is like the sound of innumerable chariots, creates a magnificent and fine effect.

Stanza 13. l. 4. Of buskined limb and swarthy lineament. In the Indian tribes there is a great similarity in their colour, stature, &c. They are all, except the Snake Indians, tall in stature, straight and robust. It is very seldom they are deformed, which has given rise to the supposition that they put to death their deformed chitdren. Their skin is of a copper colour; their eyes large, bright, black, and sparkling, indicative of a subtle and discern. ing mind: their hair is of the same colour, and prone to be long, seldom or never curled. Their teeth are large and white; I never observed any decayed among them, which makes their breath as sweet as the air they inhale.

– Travels through America by Captains Lewis and Clarke, in 1904-5-6.

Stanza 14. l. 6. Peace be to thee-my words this belt approve. The Indians of North America accompany every

formal address to strangers, with whom they form or recognize a treaty of amity, with a present of a string, or belt, of wampum. Wampum (says Cadwallader Colden) is made of the large whelk shell, Briccinium, and shaped like long beads : it is the current money of the Indians.-History of the five Indian Nations, page 34, New-York edition.

Stanza 14. 1. 7. The paths of peace my steps have hither led. In relating an interview of Mohawk Indians with the governor of New-York, Colden quotes the following passages as a specimen of their metaphorical manner: “Where shall I seek the chair of peace? Where shall I find it but upon our path? and whither doth our path lead us but unto this house?”

Stanza 15. I. 2. Our wampum league thy brethren did embrace. When they solicit the alliance, offensive or defensive, of a whole nation, they send an embassy with a large belt of wampum and a bloody hatchet, inviting them to come and drink the blood of their enemies. The wampum made use of on these and other occasions before their acquaintance with the Europeans, was nothing but small shells which they picked up by the seacoasts, and on the banks of the lakes; and now it is nothing but a kind of cylindrical beads, made of shells, white and black, which are esteemed among them as silver and gold are among us. The black they call the most valuable, and both together are their greatest riches and ornaments; these among them answering all the end that money does among us. They have the art of stringing, twisting, and interweaving them into their belts, collars, blankets, and moccasins, &c., in ten thousand different sizes, forms, and figures, so as to be ornaments for every part of dress, and expressive to them of all their important transactions. They dye the wampum of various colours and shades, and mix and dispose them with great ingenuity and order, and so as to be significant among themselves of almost every thing they please; so that by these their words are kept, and their thoughts communi

ated to one another, as ours are by writing. The belts

that pass from one nation to another in all treaties, declarations, and important transactions, are very carefully preserved in the cabins of their chiess, and serve not only as a kind of record or history, but as a public treasure. -Major Rogers's account of North America.

Stanza 17. 1. 5.

As when the evil Manitou. It is certain that the Indians acknowledge one supreme being, or giver of life, who presides over all things; that is the Great Spirit: and they look up to him as the source of good from whence no evil can proceed. They also believe in a bad Spirit, to whom they ascribe great power; and suppose that through his power all the evils which befall mankind are inflicted. To him therefore they pray in their distresses, begging that he would either avert their troubles, or moderate them when they are no longer avoidable.

They hold also that there are good spirits of a lower degree, who have their particular departments, in which they are constantly contributing to the happiness of mortals. These they suppose to preside over all the extraordinary productions of Nature, such as those lakes, rivers and mountains that are of an uncommon magnitude; and likewise the beasts, birds, fishes, and even vegetables or stones that exceed the rest of their species in size or singularity.- Clarke's Travels among the Indians.

The supreme Spirit of good is called by the Indians Kitchi Manitou; and the Spirit of evil Matchi Manitou.

Stanza 19. 1. 2.

Feverbalm and sweet sagamite. The feverbalm is a medicine used by these tribes; it is a decoction of a bush called the Fevertree. Sagamite is a kind of soup administered to their sick.

Stanza 20. 1. 2.
And I, the eagle of my tribe, have rushed

With this lorn dove. The testimony of all travellers among the American Indians, who mention their hieroglyphics, authorizes me in putting this figurative language in the mouth of Outalissi. The dove is among them, as elsewhere, an emblem of meekness; and the eagle, that of a bold, noble, ano?

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