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abeigh, adv., aloof, off.
aryve, 0., to arrive.

beth war, beware. aboon, prep., above.

ascendent, n., ascendant. bett, pp., beat, beaten. abrayde, pt. 8., started (from aspye, n., spy.

beuks, n., books. sleep). assaid, pp., assailed.

bever, n., drink, drinking, a abread, adv., abroad. assente, v., to assent.

light repast between meals. abye, v., to pay for.

assoille, v., pardon, absolve. beye, d., to buy. accompted, pp., accounted. assoilling, n., absolution. bicched bones, dice (n. plural). achat, n., purchase. asterte, v., to escape.

bield, n., a shelter, a sheltered adoun, adv., downwards. astored, pp., stored, provided. spot. ae, adj., one.

attamed, pp., broached. bifel, befell (v. preterit). affyle, v., to file, i.e., to render atte best, in the best way. bifore, adv., before. smooth. Atte Bowe, At Bow.

biforn, prep., before. afray, n., alarm, terror, fright. auctours, n. pl., authors. big, v., to build. agast, pp., scared, frightened. Augustyn, St. Augustine. bigonne, begun (v. preterit). agayn, adv., again. auld, adj., old.

biknewe, pp., confessed. agley, adv., askew. ava, at all, of all.

bile, n., beak. agraste, v., to favor. availle, o., to avail.

bill, n., a bull. agree

to, v., accord with. avale, 0., to descend, subside, billies, n. pl., fellows, comaiblins, adv., maybe, perhaps. droop.

rades, brothers. ain, adj., own. avantour, n., boaster.

binethe, prep., beneath, within. airts, n., the directions. avisoun, n., vision,

binne, n., bin, hutch, chest. al, adj., all. awayt, in wait.

birkie, n., a fellow (usually al be, conj., although.

axeth, seekest (o. 2d pers. implies conceit). alday, adv., always.


birks, n., birches. alderbest, adv., best of all. Ay, adv., aye, ever.

bisette, employed (v. preterit). ale-stake, n., ale-stake, a hori

bismotered, pp., besmuttered, zontal pole projecting from bace, adj., low.

dirtied. an alehouse to support a baite, v., to bate.

bisyde, prep., from the neighsign or brush. band, i.e., tie.

borhood of. algate, adv., always. banes, n., bones.

bit, adj., small. allye, v., to ally. bar, pp., bare, carried.

biwreyest, revealest (v. present allyed, pp., allied.

bare, carried (v. preterit). 2d. pers. sing.). als, also. barkit, pp., barked.

blake, adj., black. als ... as, so . . . as.

barley-bree, n., ale, whisky. Blankmanger, n., Blanc als ... and, both ... and. barres, n. pl., stripes across a Mange. amate, v., to dishearten, dis- girdle.

blastie, n., a damned creature. may, subdue.

batailed, pp., crenelated. blate, adj., modest. amblere, n., an ambling nag. bauldricke, n., a belt, some- bleer't, pp., bleared. amis, adv., wrongly.

times richly ornamented, bleezin, adj., blazing. amis, n., a hood, or cape with a worn over one shoulder, blellum, n., a babbler. hood.

across the breast, and under blent, pp., blinded. ance, adv., once.

the opposite arm, to support blink, n., a moment, a short anlas, n., a short two-edged the sword, the bugle, etc. period.

knife, broad at the hilt and bawdrik, n., baldric. See Boece, Boethius. tapering to the point, for- bauldricke.

boles, n. pl., bulls. merly worn at the girdle. bawk, n., a field path.

bollet, n., bullet. antiphoner, n., anthem-book. bawsnt, pp., white-streaked. boon, n., bone. apyked, pp., trimmed, beggestere, n., beggar, prop- boortrees, the shrub elder – adorned. erly a female beggar.

planted much of old in areedes, 0., to declare, tell, behight, v., to vow, promise; to hedges in barnyards. counsel.

deliver, grant, adjudge. bord, n., table. areste, n., arrest. ben, n., parlour.

bost, n., boast. arras, n., tapestry, rich figured bene, n., bean.

bote, n., salvation. fabric.


botes, n. pl., boots. arrerage, n. pl., arrears. berne, n., barn.

boughtes, n. pl., coils. arse, n., ass. beryis, n. pl., berries.

bour, n., inner room. artow, for art thou. bet, v., to go quickly.

bourde, jest (o. present 1 pers arwes, n. pl., arrows. bet, adv., better.


bere, n.,


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bracer, n., bracer, a guard for ceruce, n., white lead.

coverchiefs, n. pl., kerchief the arm in archery. change-house, n., tavern.

worn on the head. Bradwardyn, n., Bishop. chaunterie, n., an endowment covyne, n., deceitfulness. braes, n. pl., small hills.

for a priest to sing mass. crack, n., tales, talk. brast, burst out (o. preterit). chear, n., chair, cheer.

cranreuch, n., hoar-frost, rime. brattle, n., a spurt, a scamper. chere, n., behavior; also enter- creast, n., crest. braw, adj., gaily dressed, fine, tainment.

creeshie, adj., greasy. handsome. cherles, n. pl., churls.

croked, adj., crooked. breares, n. pl., briars.

chevisaunce, n., dealing for croose, adj., cocksure. breech, n. pl., breeches.


cropt, pp., bitten, pulled or breem, n., breem, a fish. chide, v., to blame.

snipped off. brenninge, burning (v. present chiels, n. pl., fellows, a young croud, n., crowd, an ancient partc.).

fellow, indicates approval. Celtic instrument with a brent, pp. burnt.


military rectangular body and six brent, adj., straight.


strings; fiddle. bretful, adj., brimful. cink, five.

crouse, adv., cheerfully, lively, briddes, n. pl., birds. claes, n. pl., clothes.

jolly. brinstane, n., brimstone. cleped, pp., called.

crowdie-time, n., porridge brock, n., a badger. clepen, v., to call, name.

time. brode, adj., broad.

clergeon, n., chorister boy. crulte, adj., curly. brouke, v., to enjoy, use. clerkis, n. pl., writers, scholars. crummockcudgel, n., crooked buirdly, adj., stout, stalwart. clokke, n., clock.

staff. bulles, n. pl., papal bulls. clout, n., bit of cloth.

crump, adj., crisp. bulte, v., to sift. cloutes, n. pl., rags.

cuif, n., a dull fellow, a dolt. bum-clock, N., a humming clyme, v., to climb.

curchie, n., curtsey. beetle. coche, n., coach.

cure, n., attention. burdies, n. pl., maidens. coft, pp., bought.

cushat, n., wood pigeon. burdoun, n., burden of a song, coillons, n. pl., testicles. cut, n., lot. bass accompaniment. cokes, n. pl., cooks.

cutty-sark, n., short skirt. Burgeys, n., burgess, citizen. cokewold, v., to deceive, play burn, n., rivulet.


daffin, n., larking fun. but-if, conj., unless.

col-fox, n., coal-fox, black fox. dails, n., deals, planks. butt, n., kitchen.

colpons, n. pl., shreds, bundles. daimen-icker, n., occabutty, adj., rooty.

complecciouns, n. pl., com- sional ear of corn. by-cause, because.


daliaunce, n., gossip. byke, n., bees nest, hive. conne, v., to con, learn. Dan, Sir, Lord, title of respect. byre, n., cowhouse.

conning, n., experience. darg, n., labor, task, a day's byte, v., to bite, burn. consent, n., harmony.

labor. contek, n., strife, contest. darrayne, v., to order, manage; caas, n. pl., cases of law. contrarie, n., opposite, foe, to wage (battle); to prove ca'd, pp., called.


by wager or battle. caller, adj., cool, refreshing. cood, n., cud.

Daun, N., (for Dominus), cam, pr. 8. of come; came. coost, o., to throw off.

Lord, Sir, title of respect. cannilie, ado., quietly, pru- cootie, n., a wooden dish. daunce (the olde), the old dently, cautiously.

cop, n., top. Canon, n., the “ Canon,” title cope, n., cope.

game of love.

dawds, n. pl., lumps and large of a book by Avicenna. coppe, n., cup.

portions. canstow, for canst thou.

corages, n., heart, spirit, dawening, n., dawning. cantie, adj., cheerful, lively, natures.

dawtit, pp., fondled, petted. jolly.

coronall, a circlet for the head, deas, n. pl., dice. cantraip, adj., magic, witching. a crown; also, a garland. defeasance, n., defeat. canty, see cantie. corse, n., corpse.

defended, v., forbidden. cappe, n., cap. coste, n., coast.

defouled, pp., defiled. carf, v., to cut, carve.

cote, n., skirt, petticoat or Deil-haet, nothing (tho the carke, n., load, charge, burden. gown (for a woman).

devil have it). carlor carle, n., a rustic, counterfesaunce, n., counter- Deils, Devils. countryman.

feiting, imposture.

del (a greet), n., a great deal, carpe, d., to talk, discourse. countour, n., auditor.

largely, to a large extent. cas, n., case, affair, circum- countrefete, v., to counterfeit, delen ger, to have dealing stance, condition. imitate.

with. castel-wal, n., castle wall.

cours, n., course, path, orbit. deliverly, adv., nimbly. catapuce, n., caper, spurge. courtepy, n., an upper short demen, v., to ask. catel, n., property, wealth, coat of coarse material. depe, adj., deep. possession.

couthe, pp., pl. well-known. depeint, pp., stained. centaure, n., centaury.

covent, n., convent, convent- dere, adj., deer. centonell, n., sentinel.

ual body.

descant, n., the melody or


counterpoint sung to the eir, n., air.

feateously, adv., deftly. cantus or plain song. eke, adv., also, moreover. fecche, v., to fetch. desolaat, adj., shunned. eldritch, adj., horrible, un- fecht, n., fight. despitous, adj., merciless. earthly.

feck, n., the bulk, the most desport, n., sport, diversion, Ellebor, n., Hellebore, a kind part. merriment, amusement. of poison.

felicitee, n., happiness. despyt, in contempt of you. elles, adv., else, otherwise. fell, adj., keen, cruel, dreadful, detteless, adj., free from debt. embard, pp., confined, im- pungent. deye, n., dairy woman.


felly, adv., fiercely, cruelly, deyntee, adj., good.

embayd, pp.,

barbarously. deys, n., dais, platform, the embosse, v., to encase, en- fen, n., chapter or subdivision high table in the dining- sheath.

of Avicenna's book called room. emboyled, pp., boiled.

the Canon. diapred, adj., variegated. emperst, pp., pierced, trans- fer, adj., far. digestyves, n. pl., digestives. fixed.

fere, n., a companion, mate. dight, ., to dress, array. endyte, v., to write, dictate.

ferlie, n.,

a wonder (used digne, adj., worthy.

engyned, pp., tortured, racked. contemptuously). ding, v., to beat, surpass. enhaunst, pp., raised, exalted. ferme, n., farm. dinna, do not.

enranged, pp., disposed, ferne, pl. of ferren, distant, dirl, v., to vibrate, ring.

drawn up.

remote. dischevele, adj., with his hair entraille, n., entrails.

ferre or ferrer, adv., farther. hanging loosely down. entrayled, pp., entwined, in- ferreste, farthest. dispence, expenditure, terlaced.

fest, n., fist. expense. er, conj., before.

festne, v., to fasten. dispiteous, adj., malicious, Erchedeknes, n., Archdea- fet, pp., brought. pitiless.


fethered, pp., feathered. dites, raises. esed, pp., entertained.

fetishly, adv., elegantly. dizzens, dozen.

esloyne, v., to keep aloof from. fient-a, nothing of a. doghtren, n. pl., daughters. espye, v., to espy, observe. fient haet o', not one of them. dokes, n. pl., ducks. essoyne, n., excuse.

fiere, n., comrade. domes, n. pl., decisions, judg- estat, n., estate, state, condi- fil, fell (preterit of fall). ments.


filch, v., to steal, pilfer. dong, n., dung, manure. estatlich, adv., stately, digni- finch, n., finch (bird)," pulle a donsie, adj., unlucky.


finch," pluck dupe. doon, v., to do. ete, v., to eat.

fithele, n., fidcle. dormant, n., table dormant, a ettle, n., aim.

flainen or dannen, adj., flanpermanent side table. everich, every.

nel. dorste, durst. everichon, every one.

Lasket, n., & long shallow doun, adv., down.

every-deel, adv., every whit. basket. doure, adj., stubborn, obsti-ewghen, adj., yewen, of yew. fleeched, pp., wheedled. nate. excheat, n., escheat.

fleigh, flew (v. preterit). dow, are able. expect, v., to await.

fley, pp., flew. drave, drove. ey, n., egg.

flichterin, fluttering, as young drecched, pp., vexed, troubled. eyes (of hawks), adj., newly nestlings when their dam drede (it is no drede), without fledged.

approaches. doubt. eydent, adj., diligent.

flour, n., flower. dreriment, n., gloom. eyen, m. pl., eyes.

floytinge, playing on the flute dreynt, pp., drowned.



(v. present partc.). droddum, n., the breech. ey eth, aileth (v. present). folwing, following (v. present droghte, n., drought.

partc.). drough, pp., drew.

fa', n., a fall, lot, portion. fome, n., foam. drouthy, adj., thirsty.

fadres, n. pl., ancestors. fone, n. pl., foes. drumlie, adj., turbid. faille, v., to fail.

foot-mantel, n., foot cloth, a duddie, adj., ragged. fair, n., a good one.

safeguard to cover the skirt. dyde, pp., died.

falding, n., a sort of coarse for, instead of.

forlete,v., to abandon, forsake. earst, adv., formerly, a while fand, pp., found.

forn-cast, pp., premeditated. before or ago. faren, pp., gone.

forneys, n., furnace. echon, each one.

farls. n. pl., small thin oat for-pyned, pp., wasted away. eek, adv., also, moreover. cakes.

fors, n., force. een, n. pl., eyes. farsed, pp., stuffed.

for-sleuthen, 0., to waste in eerie, adj., weird, inspiring faste, v., to fast.

sloth. ghostly fear. fause, adj., false.

forster, n., forester. eet, pp., ate. eftsoones, adv., sogon after,

fawsont, adj., seemly, decent, fortunen, v. to give fortune honest.

(good or bad). presently, forthwi th. faytor, n., an impostor. for-why, conj., wherefor, why,


heed, n.,


forwiting, n., foreknowledge. giusts, n. pl., jouste tilts. harrow, interjection, help. forwoot, foreknows, forsees gizz, n., wig.

hasardrye, n., gambling. (v. present).

glaikit, adj., foolish, thought- hasty accidents, the accidents fother, n., a load; properly, a less, giddy.

of haste, i.e. the marriage cartload. glowr, v., to stare.

day was probably changed fou', adj., full.

glyster, n., an injection, an at short notice to a date foule, adj., wretched.


earlier than that set origifoure, four. gnarre, v., to snarl.

nally. fowles, n. pl., birds.

gobet, n., piece, morsel. haud, D., to hold, keep. Frankeleyns, n. pl., Franklins. golet, n., throat, gullet. hauffet, n., temple locks. frayneth, prays, beseeches (0. goliardeys, buffoon, a haunt, n., usual resort. present).

scurrilous talker.

hauteyn, adj., loud. fruytesteres, n. pl., fruit sellers. goost, goest (v. present). hawe, n., yard, enclosure. fumetere, n., fumitory. goot, n., goat.

hawkie's, n., cow, esp. a whitefundement, n., fundament, gorcock, n., the moorcock. faced cow. buttocks.

governaunce, n., management, healsome, adj., wholesome. furms, n. pl., wooden forms. control.

heastes, n. pl., hests, comfustian, n., fustian. gowd, n., gold.

mands. fyke, v., to fuss, fidget. graith, n., garb, attire. heben, adj., ebony, of ebon. fyl'd, pp., defiled, fouled. granes, n. pl., groans.

heberwe, n., inn. fyneste, adj. (superl.), finest. grat, pp., wept.

hech, exclamation. fyrie, adj., fiery. gree, n., the prize.

head. fyr-reed, adj., red as fire, greyn, n., grain, corn. heep, n., great number, crowd. flaming.

griesly, adj., grisly, horrible, heer, n., hair.

heer, adv., here.
gabbe, lie, speak idly (0. griple, adj., griping, grasping. hegges, n. pl., hedges.

grope, o., to try, test, examine. hele, n., cure, recovery. gadrede, pp., gathered. grosse, v., to increase.

heled, pp., healed. gaed, went (v. preterit). grote, n., groat, (Dutch) coin. helpelesse, adj., irremediable. galingale, n., sweet cyperus. A grozet, n., gooseberry. hem, pron., them.

spice was prepared from the gruf, adv., their faces, heng or henge, v., to hang. root of the plant.


henne, adv., hence. game, n., amusement, fun, grushie, adj., growing. hente, pp., seized, caught hold merriment. grys, n., a gray fur.

of. gamed, it pleased.

guerdon, n., reward, recom- hente, v., to acquire, get. gan, began (v. preterit).


her, adv., here. gang, v., to walk, go. guidmen, n., husband.

herde, n., herd, keeper of gargat, n., throat.

guid-willie, adj., hearty, full of cattle. gars, causes, makes, compels good will.

herien, herieth, praise (0., (v. present). gyse, n., guise, way.

present). gart, pp., made.

herteless, adj., heartless. gash, adj., wise.

habergeoun, n., a hauberk or hertely, adv., heartily. gat-tothed, adj., having the coat of mail.

heryinge, n., praise. teeth far apart.

habundant, adj., abundant. hestes, n. pl., commands. gaude, n., trick, course of haffets, n. pl., the temples, the het, adj., hot. trickery.

side of the head.

heughs, n. pl., crags, steep Gaufred, Geoffrey de Vinsauf, hafflins-wise, adv., half, partly. banks. Anglo-Norman Trouvère. haith, n., faith.

heve, d., to heave, lift. gaun, going (v. pr. part.).

hald, no,

holding, abiding hewe, n., hew, color, comgawsie, adj., big and joyous. place.

plexion. gaytres beryies, berries of the hallan, n., a partition between hewed, adj., colored, hewed. goat tree.

the door of a cottage and a heyre, adj., hair, made of hair. gear, n., money, wealth.


hider, adv., hither. gees, n. pl., geese.

halse, v., to conjure, beseech. hight or highte, pp., called, gentil, adj., mild in manner. halwes, n. pl., shrines of named, mentioned by name. geordie, n., guinea.


him happede, it happened. gere, n., utensils. hame, n., home.

hindreste, adj., hindmost. gerner, n., garner.

hap, n., that which happens hir, pron., her, them, their. gies, v. pr. 8., gives.

suddenly or unexpectedly, hirplin, adj., limping, hobbling. gills, n. pl., glasses of whiskey. chance, fortune.

histie, adj., bare. gin, conj., if.

hap, v., to cover up, clothe. hizzies, n. pl., huzzies, gin, prep., against, by.

happer, n., hopper (of a mill). wenches. gipoun, n., a short cassock or hap-step-an-lowp, hop-step- hob, n., fairy, sprite, elf. doublet.


hoddin, n., the motion of a gipser, n., pouch, purse. harn, n., coarse cloth.

countryman riding on a cart girland, n., a garland. harre, n., hinge.


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