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sculpture, dyptics, and coins, fill up the intermediate times, and extend it to the end of the empire of the west. That assiduous collector, Du Cange, and others, lend their able assistance towards the pursuit of costume in the eastern empire; and its latter periods have survived the ravages of time in illuminations on vellum, illustrating the literary productions of the age. The correct colours of the Roman dress are to be found not only by a reference to the notices of their authors, but in the Hercillaneum paintings, tesselated pavements, and Greek manuscripts.
Count RUMFORD has lately been engaged in a new series of experiments on the draft of carriages with broad and narrow wheels. It is commonly considered that broad wheels, by presenting a greater surface of friction, require a greater draft; but among other applications of philosophy to common life, during the French revolution, it was ordered that all loaded carriages on the roads of france should have broad wheels. The consequence is, that the roads of France are now the best in the world ; and it is found that as they are never cut up by narrow wheels, so broad wheels require less draft than narrow ones, and are now preferred all over France by carriers of every description, as less liable to wear out, and as requiring but one fourth of the number of horses. An observation of this fact on the roads, led Count Rumford to put broad wheels of four inch felly to his chariot; and several months' experience in driving about Paris has afforded a similar result as to draft, while the motion of the carriage was beyond comparison more easy and uniform. A very remarkable circumstance resulted from his varied experiments; he found a great difference in the law of the augmentation of the draft without any augmentation whatever of the velocity; which difference of draft depends not on the velocity but on the nature of the road. When the carriage went on a rough pavement at an easy walking pace, the draft with the new wheels was but 40 pounds, but at an easy trot it became equal to 80 pounds, and at a quick trot to 120 pounds. But upon an unpaved road, as well 018 in sand or gravel, the draft was always nearly the same, whatever was the pace of the horses. This difference, without doubt, depends on the smart shocks That the carriage receives when it is drawn rapidly over a pavement; but it follows that the slower a carriage goes, the weight and load remaining the same, the less force is necessary to draw it; and, consequently, when travelling on a great paved road, if we wish to go very fast, we must quit the paved for the unpaved side, even when this unpaved side is far from being good; but when we travel with a carriage very much loaded, and wish to save the horses, we must go at an easy walking pace upon the pavement.-We have been favoured with some other experiments by Mr. Randolph, another American gentleman, now in London.
The Speeches of the Right Hon. Charles James Fox, in the House of Commons, from his entrance into parliament in 1760 to the year 1806, with Memoirs, Introduction, &c. will soon appear, in 6 vols. 8vo.
Mr. Phillippart (author of the Northern Campaigns, and many other works on military subjects) intends to print a work entitled the lives of the British Generals, from the period of the conquest, on the plan of Campbell's Lives of the Admirals. It will be published occasionally, and is expected to be completed in six vols. Price, by subscription, 148. bds.; large paper, 17. 18. each volume.
Shortly will appear a History of the Quarrels of Authors, a continuation of their calamities, or some memoirs for our literary history, including specimens of controversy from the reign of Elizabeth. By the Author of Curiosities of Literature. In 3 vols. crown 8vo.
Edinburgh, in the ninteenth century. Speedily will he published Letters from Edinburgh. This work will contain a detailed account of the present state of society and manners in the northern metropolis, sketches of its most eminent living characters, a view of the different parties in religion, politics, and literature; strictures upon the public institutions, &c. &c.
Old works reprinted -Speedily will be published, A gorgeous Gallery of Gallant Inventions, garnished and decked with divers dayntie Deuises, right delicate and delightfull, to recreate echemodest Minde withall. First framed and fashioned in sundrie Forms, by diuers worthy workmen of late dayes; and now ioined together and builded up: by 1. P. Imprinted at London, for Richard Jones, 1578. Edited by Thomas Park, Esq. F. S. A.
Messrs. Longman and Co. have made arrangements for the republishing of the following rare works.
A handful of Pleasant Delites, containing sundrie new Sonets and delectable Histories in divers Kindes of Meeter; newly deevised to the Newest tunes, &e. By Clement Robinson and others, 1584.
The Phenix Nest. Built up with the most rare and refined Works of Noblemen, woorthy Knightes, gallant Gentlemen, Masters of Arts, and brave Schollars. Never before this time published. Set foorth by R. S. of the Inner Temple, Gent. 1593.
England's Parnassus: or the choysest Flowers of our modern Poets, with their poeticall comparisons. Description of bewties, personages, castles, pallaces, mountaines, groves, seas, springs, rivers, &c. Whereunto are annexed other various discourses, both pleasant and profitable. Imprinted at London for N. I. C. B. and T. H. 1600.
Belvedere, or the Garden of the Muses, imprinted at London, by F. K. for Hugh Astley, dwelling at St. Magnus Corner, 1800.
Mrs. West has in the press Alicia de Lacy, an historical novel in three volumes. Miss Cullen, author of Home, will publish in April a novel entitled Mornton.
The late General Brock.–The parliament of Upper Canada have voted an address to the prince regent, praying for an authority to make a grant of lands in that province to the relatives of the late General Brock who fell so nobly in its defence, against the invasion of the Americans. His royal highness has been most graciously pleased to accede to a request which does so much honour to the memory of the deceased, and is so gratifying to the feelings of the living.
Died in Scotland-Doctor Ogilvie, almost the only survivor of a number of literary characters among the Scottish clergy, whose fame commenced with the acces sion of his present majesty, and has adorned the long course of his reign. Though chiefly known as a poet, and a critic in belles-lettres, he published several sermons, an essay on the theology of Plato, and an examination of the arguments against christianity, that have been adduced by deistical writers. As a preacher he was distinguished by an easy flow of language, and an energy and pathos of natural eloquence, which frequently touched the hearts of his audience, and never failed to excite interest and attention : and though he was a man of learning and genius who resided in a remo e district, his manners were bland and unassuming, and his character had all the simplicity of a child. His works, as an author, are before the public and will speak for themselves. It may, however, be mentioned in this place, that his first poem, viz. that on the “ Day of Judgment,” was composed in his 16th, and published in his 18th year: that the last considerable poem which he wrote, namely, that entitled “ Human Life," was published in 1806, when he was 74 years old; and that in his 78th year he wrote a beautiful short elegy to the memory of the late learned and ingenious Professor Scott.
Dr Ogilvie was the next heir to the title of Earl of Findlater and Seafield. By his death this title devolves upon his eldest son, James Ogilvie, the celebrated orator.
At Bath, aged 82, D. Hartley, Esq. son of the celebrated Dr. Hartley. His multipli.. ed infirmitics having for some year's scciuded him from society. Mr. Hartley had. passed away from the pubic i ecollection : yet bus very eccentricities, at one time, gave iu notoriely, and he bore no incousiderable share in the political transactions of his day. The son of Dr. Startley wound of course be a scholar : Mr. ti. was accordingiy bred at Oxford, and, receiving early in lite the appointment to one of Dr. Raucnite's travelling fellowships, he iad an opportunity of familiarizing himself with the languages of the continent, winch afi erwards proved highly advantageous to him. He was, at his death, senior fetiow of Morton College, and we believe, the oidest member of the university. With the advantages of such an education, Mr. Hartley was introduced into public lite, and sat during two parliaments as representative for Hull. In the debat s concerning the American contest, he took an active part in favour of the colonies; but the milduess of his personal character preserved him from the excesses of party. At the close of that most unfortunate war, he was appoined to assist at the negotiations which ended in the recognition of American independence; and as British minister he signed the treaty of peace in 1783. Mr. ilartley, however, was not a successful speaker; his materials were ample, and his diligence was inderatigable; but he was unnecessarily minute in his details, feeble in his arguments, and languid in his delivery. With such an obstacle he could not rise to trigt employment; and, accordingly, withdrawing from politics, he applied himseit to he cultivation of belies-lettres, and to meehanical and physical pursuits
, for which he had always a great predilection. imongst his pians will be recollected one for securing houses from the ravages of fire, by means oi thin plates of iron closely fastened to the tops of the joists; for this invention he procured a patent in 1776, and parliament voted him a sum of money to defray the expense of his experiments.
Drowned in a river in the retreat of the French army under Bonaparte, from Leipsic, Prince Poniatowski, commander of the Poles, who constituted part of the rear guard. colonel Kieki, his adjutant, and Herakowski, adjutant of the General of Division Krasinski, who arrived at Warsaw on the 8th of November last, have given the following particulars respecting the death of the prince :-On the 19th of Octobec, when the French army was retreating, the emperor assigned part of the suburbs of Leipsic, next to the Borna road, to Prince Poniatowski. This post he was to defead with a body of not more than two thousand Polish infantry. Perceiving that the French columns on his left flank were hastily retreating before a superior force, and that there was no possibility of getting across the bridge, incessantly crowded as it was with artilery and carriages, he drew his sabre, and turning to the officers immediately about him-“Gentlemen,” said he, “'tis better to fall with honour," and at the head of a few Polish cuirassiers and the officers attending him, he fell furiously upon the advancing columns. tie had been wounded both on the 14th and 16th; on this occasion he received a musket ball in his left arm. With the words above mentioned, he sprung forward, but found the suburbs filled with allied troops, who hasten. ed up to him to make him prisoner. He cut his way through them, was again wounded through his
cross, threw himself into the Pleisse, and, with the assistance of the surrounding officers, reached the opposite shore in safety. The horse which he rode was left behind in the first river, and the prince, greatly exhausted, mounted another which was brought him. He then proceeded to the river Elster, but it was already lined with Prussian and Saxon riflemen; and seeing them advancing upon him on all sides, he plunged into the river and sunk together with his horse. Several officers who precipitated themselves into the water after the prince, were likewise drowned, and others taken prisoners on the bank or in the river. The prince was nephew to Stani laus Augustus, the last King of Poland. His funeral obsequies were performed on the 9th November, in the church of the Holy Cross at Warsaw, in the presence of the most distinguished Russian and Polish families in that ci:y. In the middle of the church, which was most brilliantly lighted up, stood a tasteful canopy, under which was placed a coffin richly decorated, corered with the mantle of 'he prince, and adorned with the military insignia of the deceased. Close to it were suspended his eigh' orders, proofs of his distinguished valour, his services to his counéry, and the regard of foreign powers. Below was seen the medallion of the prince, with his coronet, marshal's staff, and coat of arms. The high mass was said by his excellency the Bishop of Zambizycki, and was accompanied with select music performed by amateurs of the capital.
Correspondence of the late Gilbert Wakefield, B. A. with the late
Right Honourable Charles James For, in the Years 1796 1801, chiefly on subjects of classical literature. 8vo. pp. 232.
[From the British Review.] The high intellectual endowments of the two characters at the head of this article, the part they acted on the stage of public life, and above all, perhaps, the yet ill understood motives and principles of action which guided their conduct, conspire to render any production from the pens of Mr. Fox and Mr. Wakefield, and more especially of the former, interesting to the public. Of Mr. Fox's character and distinguished talents, both as an orator and as a scholar, it is much to be lamented that no production of his own, por scarcely, we might add, the page of history itself, except as connecting his name with that of his great political antagonist, will afford any adequate and lasting memorial to posterity. Whatever may have been the cause of this, and the cause, perbaps, may lie buried in the latent and essential qualities of his own Vol. IV. New Series,
mind, the effect certainly is to lay his friends and admirers under a strong obligation to seize every prudent opportunity of bringing his name and pretensions more into view; and we cannot but consider it as the discharge of a debt on the part of Lord Holland to have consented, as the advertisement informs us he obligingly did, to give up that portion of Mr. Wakefield's correspondence with Mr. Fox, which has enabled the editor to present us with the whole, in a series nearly uninterrupted, from the year 1796 to the
There is something in this particular form of publication which renders it strongly adapted to assist that inquiry into character, which, in respect to Mr. Fox, engages the curiosity of every contemplative mind. We need not go back to the familiar letters of Cicero and Pliny to be reminded by those interesting sketches of history and character which they contain, of the attraction which belongs to this species of publication. The recently revived prac. tice (certainly exceeding all just bounds) of publishing private core respondence has afforded sufficient examples of the assistance to be derived from it in estimating more exactly the general weight and worth, as well as the distinguishing characteristics of the several writers. By an insight thus afforded us into the interior and domestic
economy of their minds, we learn with more accuracy to appreciate the pure and refined sentiment of a Cowper; the sterling acquaintance with men and manners of a Richardson; the vanity of a Seward ; the genuine solidity and piety of mind, unspoiled by wit as genuine, of a Carter or a Talbot.
Should we have it in our power to unfold any properties of the mind of Mr. Fox, hitherto less known, (with Mr. Wakefield we are far better acquainted,) by the help of the present publication, we should feel ourselves richly repaid : we should rejoice to make this return to the public for having travelled with us through so many pages of dry discussion.
The general reader will, perhaps, not be sorry that the whole publication is short, containing only 232 not closely printed pages ; while the moral inquirer may, from this circumstance alone, deduce an inference as to the natural indolence and oscitancy of Mr. Fox's habits; an indolence which we cannot but think must often have deprived his friends of the result of his long protracted and retired meditations at St. Ann's Hill, when even his correspondence with so distinguished a character as Gilbert Wakefield, and one so congenial to himself on his two favourite topics of literature and poli. tics, does not, in the course of five years, appear to have extended beyond the limits above mentioned.
Is there not something remarkable, too, in the choice of subjects in this correspondence? Were the minds of these two great po