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it did soon afterwards, to the growing power | passed by the government, by which all of the Mackenzies. Old Roderick, whose chiefs, and others, possessing, or pretending life had been oxe continued scene of trou- any right to, property of any kind in the bles, died about the year 1590. He was Highlands and Isles, were to show their vasucceeded by his son, Torquil Dubh, as rious title deeds before the lords of the Ex

TORQUIL, twelfth Baron of Lewis, whose chequer, on the 15th May, 1598. Absolute title, however, was disputed by Torquil forfeiture was the penalty of disobedience Connanach. The island estates were all to this act, and unfortunately, the Macleods held by Torquil Dubh, whilst the mainland of Lewis were amongst the number of those estates were in possession of Torquil Con- | who did not obey. In May, 1598, the island nanach, whose right however, to the whole, of Lewis was solemnly forfeited to the crown, had recently been acknowledged by govern- and given by James VI. to a company of ment. Torquil Connanach had now lost lowland adventurers, whose object was to both his sons, John, the eldest, having been civilize the isies, according to plans suggestkilled at Stornoway, and the second, Neill, ed by the king. Now nothing could more dead of a fever. He had married his eldest displease Lord Kintail, than the settlement daughter, Margaret, to Sir Roderick Mac- of these adventurers in Lewis, for his greatkenzie, of Tarbat, brother of Mackenzie of est wish was to secure that island for himKintail, and ancestor of the Earls of Cro- self and his own family. It was for this marty. He now threw himself entirely into reason, and not for any love he bore Torthe hands of the Mackenzies, to whom, in quil Connanach, he had bitherto interfered the end, he even conveyed the barony of so much in the affairs of the Siol Torquil, the Lewis, so far as writings could accom and unhappily, the dissentious in that clan, plish this object. The estate of Lochbroom, added to the simplicity of Torquil Connaand a great deal more of the Lewis pro- nach, greatly favoured his designs. He perty, was given by Torquil Connanach to now therefore used every means in his his daughter, Margaret, as a dowry; and power to annoy the adventurers, in order her husband joined the Lewis arms with his that they might give up the Lewis, but he own. In the mean time, Torquil Dubh, mar did this only secretly, for fear of incurring ried a sister of Mac Leod of Herries, and the displeasure of government. In October, proceeded to ravage the lands of Coigach 1599, the adventurers first landed in Lewis, and Lochbroom, openly announcing his in- where they completed a town, where they tention of keeping by force what he bad encamped. They were much opposed and hitherto possessed. As this young chief disturbed by Niell and Murdoch, the two was much beloved by his clan, and was fol- surviving natural sons of old Roderick ; but lowed by 700 or 800 men, he was enabled about the year 1600, these two brothers for some time, to set his rival at defiance, quarrelled with each other, and the advenin spite of the power of the Mackenzies. turers taking advantage of this, offered to At length his enemies made a complaint Niell Macleod, that if he would deliver up against him to the privy council, of which his brother Murdoch to them, they would body, unfortunately, Mackenzie of Kintail give a portion of the island to bimself, and was a member. Torquil was summoned be- also obtain for him a pardon for his past fore the council, but naturally hesitating to conduct. Niell accepted these terms, delitrust himself, in a court, where his enemy vered up his brother to the adventurers, and Kintail had so much power, he was de- accompanied them himself to Edinburgh, nounced as a rebel, and being soon after- where he received a full pardon. In the wards treacherously seized, by the breve or mean time Murdoch Macleod was executed judge of Lewis, and delivered by him to at St. Andrew's, and owing to some consesMackenzie, Torquil Dubh was, without fur- sions made by him, and of complaints by the ther ceremony, heheaded in July, 1597. adventurers, Lord Kintail was apprehended,

Torquil Dubh left three young sons, Ro- and committed prisoner to Edinburgh Castle, derick, William, and Torquil, whose cause whence, however, he contrived to escape in the Lewis was supported by the Mac- without a trial, by means of his friend, the leans, and Macleods of Herries, and also lord chancellor. The adventurers returned by their natural uncle Niell, who took the to Lewis with Niell Macleod, their proscommand of the Siol Torquil, during the pects much improved by their alliance with minority of young Roderick. The cause the most powerful man ju the island ; howtherefore of Torquil Connanach and the ever, soon after their return, some injury Mackenzies appeared at this time to have done by one of them to Niell, embroiled gained little by the death of Torquil Dubh. them once more with the latter. Mackeuzie, At this same time the Mackenzies tried to who since the agreement between Niell and sieze the whole lands of Gairloch from the the adventurers, had almost despaired of Siol Vic Gillecallum, of Rasay, which re- frustrating the enterprise, no soouer heard Dewed an ancient feud between these two of this quarrel, than he hastened to profit by families. In the year 1598, an act was it. For this purpose he released Tormod,

or Norman Macleod, the younger brother of | he passed under the great seal, a gift of the Torquil Dubh, and only surviving legitimate Lewis to himself, in virtue of the resignason of old Roderick, whom he had detained tion made formerly in his favour, by Torcaptive for many years, without a warrant. quil Connanach. The adventurers, however, He sent this young man to the Lewis, pro were not so unmindful of their own interest, mising him secretly great assistance, if he as to allow this to pass unchallenged. They would attack the adventurers in concert complained to his majesty, who was highly with Niell. Tormod arrived in the Lewis incensed against Kintail, and forced him to in 1601, and was received with joy by all resign his right thus surreptitiously obtained. the Siol Torquil, of which he took the com- Lewis being now once more at the disposal mand, the chief, his nephew, being still a of the king, he granted it anew to three perchild. Encouraged by the reception he met sons only, viz. James, Lord Balmerino, Sir with from the clan, and guided by the ad- George Hay, and Sir James Spens, of Worvice and experience of Niell, Tormod at mestoun. This new grant was effected in tacked the camp of the adventurers, forced 1608, and in 1609, Lord Balmerino was it, burned the fort, killed many of the men, tried and convicted of high treason, and his and at last, obliged the principal adven- grant of the Lewis forfeited; but Hay and turers to capitulate, and tinally to leave Spens invaded the Lewis with a large force, the Lewis. Tormod continued undisturbed in order, if possible, to apprehend Niell in the Lewis from 1601 until 1605, during Macleod, who still held out and opposed which time he commanded the Siol Torquil, their designs. Niell was secretly encouin the capacity of guardian to the chief, his raged by Lord Kintail, who however avoidnephew Roderick, who was a minor. In ed suspicion by sending his brother, afterthe summer of 1605, the adventurers once wards * Tutor of Kintail,” to aid the advenmore returned to the Lewis, where they turers. Kintail having shipped some victuals landed with a considerable force, and imme- in Ross Shire, for the supply of the advendiately sent a message to Tormod, offering turers, secretly procured this vessel to be that if he would submit to them, they would seized on her passage to the Lewis, by Niell take him to London, and not only procure Macleod, expecting that the adventurers, his pardon from the king, JAMES VI. but trusting to these provisions, and disappointed would suffer him, through his friends, to sue of them, would be forced to abandon the for his majesty's favour, and for means of Lewis. This expectation was fulfilled, for subsistence. Much against the advice of Sir George Hay and Sir James Spens, being Niell, Tormod agreed to these terms, and unsuccessful in apprehending Niell Macdeclined to risk a battle against the adven- leod, and lacking food for their followers, turers and their forces. Niell, however, were obliged to leave the Lewis and disband with those who adhered to him, still held their forces; leaving, however, a small garout, and continued to harass the adventurers rison in the fort of Stornoway. This fort, for some years. According to their pro- very soon after their departure, was burned mise, the adventurers sent Tormod Macleod by Niell, and the garrison taken prisoners, to London, where he made such progress in but these he sent safely home to Fife. convincing James of the injustice of a grant Thus ended, in 1610, the last attempt to the lowlanders, of what was by right his made by the lowlanders to colonize the nephew's, that the adventurers became Lewis ; for disgusted with their want of sucalarmed he would procure its recall. They cess, Hay and Spens were easily prevailed therefore used all their influence against upon to sell their title to the Lord of Kinhim, and some of them being of the royal tail, who likewise obtained from the king a household, they prevailed so far, that he was grant of the share in the island forfeited by sent to Edinburgh Castle, where he was de- Lord Balmerino. Having now at last protained for ten years. The king then gave cured a legal right to the Lewis, Kintail him liberty to go to Holland, to the service lost no time in asserting his claims. He of Maurice, Prince of Orange ; and he died procured from the government, a commisin that country without heirs.

sion of fire and sword against the Lewis In the year 1607, the Lewis adventurers men, and landing on the island with a large having sustained many annoyances from the force of his clan and followers, speedily repersevering hostility of Niels Macleod, who duced the islanders to obedience. was assisted by Macniel of Barra, the cap Niell Macleod, with his son Donald, and tain of Clanranald, and Macleod of Herries, about thirty other men, retired to an insubegan to be weary of their undertaking; and lated rock, called “ Berrisay," situated on reduced and dispirited by the frequent at the west coast of Lewis, where they maintacks made upon them, they at last forsook tained themselves for three years. Being the island, and returned to their own homes. then forced to evacuate this place by the Lord Kintail, who had all along wrought to Mackenzies, Niell retired to Harris, where this end, now began to stir in the matter. he surrendered to Roderick Macleod of By means of his friend, the lord chancellor, Harris, and entreated him to take him to

it did soon afterwards, to the growing power passed by the government, by which all of the Mackenzies. Old Roderick, whose chiefs, and others, possessing, or pretending life had been oxe continued scene of trou- any right to, property of any kind in the bles, died about the year 1590. He was Highlands and Isles, were to show their vasucceeded by his son, Torquil Dubh, as rious title deeds before the lords of the Ex

ToRQuil, twelfth Baron of Lewis, whose chequer, on the 15th May, 1598. Absolute title, however, was disputed by Torquil forfeiture was the penalty of disobedience Connanach. The island estates were all to this act, and unfortunately, the Macleods held by Torquil Dubh, whilst the mainland of Lewis were amongst the number of those estates were in possession of Torquil Con- who did not obey. In May, 1598, the island nanach, whose right however, to the whole, of Lewis was solemnly forfeited to the crown, had recently been acknowledged by govern- and given by James VI. to a company of ment. Torquil Connanach had now lost lowland adventurers, whose object was to both his sons, John, the eldest, having been civilize the isies, according to plans suggestkilled at Stornoway, and the second, Neill, ed by the king. Now nothing could more dead of a fever. He had married bis eldest displease Lord Kintail, than the settlement daughter, Margaret, to Sir Roderick Mac- of these adventurers in Lewis, for his greatkenzie, of Tarbat, brother of Mackenzie of est wish was to secure that island for bimKintail, and ancestor of the Earls of Cro-self and his own family. It was for this marty. He now threw himself entirely into reason, and not for any love he bore Torthe hands of the Mackenzies, to whom, in quil Connanach, he had hitherto interfered the end, he even conveyed the barony of so much in the affairs of the Siol Torquil, the Lewis, so far as writings could accom and unhappily, the dissentious in that clan, plish this object. The estate of Lochbroom, added to the simplicity of Torquil Connaand a great deal more of the Lewis pro- nach, greatly favoured his designs. He perty, was given by Torquil Connanach to now therefore used every means in his his daughter, Margaret, as a dowry; and power to annoy the adventurers, in order her husband joined the Lewis arms with his that they might give up the Lewis, but he own. In the mean time, Torquil Dubh, mar did this only secretly, for fear of incurring ried a sister of Mac Leod of Herries, and the displeasure of government. In October, proceeded to ravage the lands of Coigach 1599, the adventurers first landed in Lewis, and Lochbroom, openly announcing his in- where they completed a town, where they tention of keeping by force what he had encamped. They were much opposed and hitherto possessed. As this young chief disturbed by Niell and Murdoch, the two was much beloved by his clan, and was fol- surviving natural sons of old Roderick ; but lowed by 700 or 800 men, he was enabled about the year 1600, these two brothers for some time, to set his rival at defiance, quarrelled with each other, and the advenin spite of the power of the Mackenzies. turers taking advantage of this, offered to At length his enemies made a complaint Niell Macleod, that if he would deliver up against him to the privy council, of which his brother Murdoch to them, they would body, unfortunately, Mackenzie of Kintail give a portion of the island to himself, and was a member. Torquil was summoned be also obtain for him a pardon for his past fore the council, but naturally hesitating to conduct. Niell accepted these terms, delitrust himself, in a court, where his enemy vered up his brother to the adventurers, and Kintail had so much power, he was de- accompanied them himself to Edinburgh, nounced as a rebel, and being soon after where he received a full pardon. In the wards treacherously seized, by the breve or mean time Murdoch Macleod was executed judge of Lewis, and delivered by him to at St. Andrew's, and owing to some consesMackenzie, Torquil Dubh was, without fur- sions made by him, and of complaints by the ther ceremony, heheaded in July, 1597. adventurers, Lord Kintail was apprehended,

Torquil Dubh left three young sons, Ro- and committed prisoner to Edinburgh Castle, derick, William, and Torquil, whose cause whence, however, he contrived to escape in the Lewis was supported by the Mac- without a trial, by means of his friend, the leans, and Macleods of Herries, and also lord chancellor. The adventurers returned by their natural uncle Niell, who took the to Lewis with Niell Macleod, their proscommand of the Siol Torquil, during the pects much improved by their alliance with minority of young Roderick. The cause the most powerful man in the island ; howtherefore of Torquil Connanach and the ever, soon after their return, some injury Mackenzies appeared at this time to have done by one of them to Niell, embroiled gained little by the death of Torquil Dubh. them once more with the latter. Mackenzie, At this same time the Mackenzies tried to who since the agreement between Niell and sieze the whole lands of Gairloch from the the adventurers, had almost despaired of Siol Vic Gillecallum, of Rasay, which re- frustrating the enterprise, no soover heard newed an ancient feud between these two of this quarrel, than he hastened to profit by families. In the year 1598, an act was it. For this purpose he released Tormod,

or Norman Macleod, the younger brother of be passed under the great seal, a gift of the Torquil Dubh, and only surviving legitimate Lewis to himself, in virtue of the resignason of old Roderick, whom he had detained tion made formerly in his favour, by Torcaptive for many years, without a warrant. quil Connanach. The adventurers, however, He sent this young man to the Lewis, pro were not so unmindful of their own interest, mising him secretly great assistance, if he as to allow this to pass unchallenged. They would attack the adventurers in concert complained to his majesty, who was highly with Niell, Tormod arrived in the Lewis incensed against Kintail, and forced him to in 1601, and was received with joy by all resign his right thus surreptitiously obtained. the Siol Torquil, of which he took the com Lewis being now once more at the disposal mand, the chief, his nephew, being still a of the king, he granted it anew to three perchild. Encouraged by the reception he met sons only, viz. James, Lord Balmerino, Sir with from the clan, and guided by the ad- George Hay, and Sir James Spens, of Worvice and experience of Niell, Tormod at- mestoun. This new grant was effected in tacked the camp of the adventurers, forced 1608, and in 1609, Lord Balmerino was it, burned the fort, killed many of the men, tried and convicted of high treason, and his and at last, obliged the principal adven- grant of the Lewis forfeited; but Hay and turers to capitulate, and finally to leave Spens invaded the Lewis with a large force, the Lewis. Tormod continued undisturbed in order, if possible, to apprehend Nieli in the Lewis from 1601 until 1605, during Macleod, who still held out and opposed which time he commanded the Siol Torquil, their designs. Niell was secretly encouin the capacity of guardian to the chief, his raged by Lord Kintail, who however avoidnephew Roderick, who was a minor. In ed suspicion by sending his brother, afterthe summer of 1605, the adventurers once wards * Tutor of Kintail,” to aid the advenmore returned to the Lewis, where they turers. Kintail having shipped some victuals landed with a considerable force, and imme- in Ross Shire, for the supply of the advendiately sent a message to Tormod, offering turers, secretly procured this vessel to be that if he would submit to them, they would seized on her passage to the Lewis, by Niell take him to London, and not only procure Macleod, expecting that the adventurers, his pardon from the king, JAMES VI. but trusting to these provisions, and disappointed would suffer him, through his friends, to sue of them, would be forced to abandon the for his majesty's favour, and for means of Lewis. This expectation was fulfilled, for subsistence. Much against the advice of Sir George Hay and Sir James Spens, being Niell, Tormod agreed to these terms, and unsuccessful in apprehending Niell Macdeclined to risk a battle against the adven- leod, and lacking food for their followers, turers and their forces. Niell, however, were obliged to leave the Lewis and disband with those who adhered to him, still held their forces; leaving, however, a small garout, and continued to harass the adventurers rison in the fort of Stornoway.

This fort, for some years. According to their pro- very soon after their departure, was burned mise, the adventurers sent Tormod Macleod by Niell, and the garrison taken prisoners, to London, where he made such progress in but these he sent safe home to Fife. convincing James of the injustice of a grant Thus ended, in 1610, the last attempt to the lowlanders, of what was by right his made by the lowlanders to colonize the nephew's, that the adventurers became Lewis; for disgusted with their want of sucalarmed he would procure its recall. They cess, Hay and Spens were easily prevailed therefore used all their influence against upon to sell their title to the Lord of Kinhim, and some of them being of the royal tail, who likewise obtained from the king a household, they prevailed so far, that he was grant of the share in the island forfeited by sent to Edinburgh Castle, where he was de- Lord Balmerino. Having now at last protained for ten years. The king then gave cured a legal right to the Lewis, Kintail him liberty to go to Holland, to the service lost no time in asserting his claims. He of Maurice, Prince of Orange; and he died procured from the government, a commisin that country without heirs.

sion of fire and sword against the Lewis In the year 1607, the Lewis adventurers men, and landing on the island with a large having sustained many annoyances from the force of his clan and followers, speedily repersevering hostility of Niels Macleod, who duced the islanders to obedience. was assisted by Macniel of Barra, the cap Niell Macleod, with his son Donald, and tain of Clanranald, and Macleod of Herries, about thirty other men, retired to an insubegan to be weary of their undertaking; and lated rock, called “ Berrisay,” situated on reduced and dispirited by the frequent at the west coast of Lewis, where they maintacks made upon them, they at last forsook tained themselves for three years. Being the island, and returned to their own homes. then forced to evacuate this place by the Lord Kintail, who had all along wrought to Mackenzies, Niell retired to Harris, where this end, now began to stir in the matter. he surrendered to Roderick Macleod of By means of his friend, the lord chancellor, Harris, and entreated him to take him to

the king in England. This Harris under- and returned to their respective homes. took to do, but when at Glasgow, on bis Malcolm was a firm friend of his brother, way to London, he was charged under pain“ Old Roderick, of the Lewis,” whom he of treason to give up Niell Macleod, which aided against all his enemies. He died he accordingly did, and also at the same about the year 1537, and left two sons, time, Niell's son, Donald. Niell was brought ALEXANDER, bis heir. to trial, convicted and executed, and died Roderick, to whom he left in patrimony

very christianlie,” in April, 1613. His the half of Gairloch. son Donald was banished from Scotland, Malcolm was succeeded by his son, and went first to London, where he remained ALEXANDER MACLEOD, second Baron of for three years, and thence to Holland, Rasay. In his time, first began the feud where he died.

between the “Siol Gillecallum,” or “ MacOf the three sons of Torquil Dubh, Rode- leods of Rasay,” and the Mackenzies of rick, William, and Torquil, it is said that Gairloch, who wished to possess themselves Roderick, the chief, went abroad, and died of the whole of that property, and to expel soon afterwards in Flanders, without chil- the Macleods. Alexander died about 1564, dren; William, the second, died very young and left two sons, at the university of Glasgow; Torquil, who MALCOLM MACalister, his heir. by the death of his elder brothers, became John, who afterwards greatly distinchief of the Siol Torquil, remained for a guished himself. time with Sir Roderick Macleod of Herries, MALCOLM MACALISTER, third Baron of his uncle ; he then went to London, and en- Rasay, was called “ Garoc," or“ the Strong.” deavoured to obtain some redress from the It is this Malcolm that is mentioned in the king; but failing in this, he went to Paris, charter granted to Roderick Macleod of the where he was introduced to Henry IV. Lewis, in 1571, as heir male of the Lewis then monarch of France, as “ a brave man family, failing issue male of the said Rodewho had suffered much injustice in his own rick. He was a brave and clever man, and country.” Henry generously gave him an accompanied by his brother, John Macleod, appointment at his own court, and Torquil in the year 1588, joined the Earl of Sutheradopting France as his native country, re- land in Caithness, where he (the Earl) was mained there until his death. He left no waging war against the Earl of Caithuéss. legitimate children to inherit his claims, Great was the havoc and devastation they and by a charter dated 1571, in which Mac- committed, until, as observes the historian, gillecallum Garoc Macleod, of Rasay, head “ Their armies wandering in disarray, hid of the Siol Vic Gillecallum, is mentioned as themselves in a fearful and confused tumult heir male of the family of Lewis, failing amongst the caves and rocky mountains ; issue male of old Roderick Macleod of the divers of the Caithness men were killed, Lewis, then chief of the Siol Torquil; the and a great prey of cattle and goods was representation of the ancient and powerful taken away, the like whereof was never family of “Macleod of Lewis,” with the seen in this country for many years. They chieftaincy of the “Siol Torquil,” devolved burnt and wasted the town of Wick, but upon MACLEOD OF RASAY.

they saved the church, where they found

the heart of the last Earl of Caithness, in a Barons of Kasay.

case of lead, the ashes of which heart were

thrown to the wind by John Macleod, broMALCOLM MACLEOD, first Baron of Rasay, ther of Macgillecallum of Rasay.” Malson of Malcolm Macleod, ninth Baron of colm Garoc died about 1590, and was sucLewis, was left, on the death of his father in ceeded by his son, 1515, the islands of Rasay and Rona, and MALCOLM, fourth Baron of Rasay. He half the lands of Gairloch, in Ross Shire, as received a charter from the king, dated 1596, his heritage. He was called “Malcolm of the lands of Rasay, &c. in InvernessMacgillecallum,” or “ Malcolm the son of shire. In 1597, John Macleod, brother of Malcolm," and hence the patronymic of the Malcolm Garoc, was killed in a rawl, by head of this house. In the year 1518, the Duncan Bane, of Tulloch. This Malcolm Rasay men, with the rest of the Siol Torquil, finding the family of his chief, Macleod of followed their chief, John Mac Torquil, of Lewis, on the decline, formed a league of the Lewis, the ally and friend of Sir Donald friendship, offensive and defensive, with DoMacdonald, of Lochalch, in an expedition vald Macdonald of Slate ; and in pledge of against Macian of Ardnamurchan, who was this friendship, it was agreed, that always on the enemy of Sir Donald. They defeated the death of each Macdonald of Slate, his and slew Macian at the battle of “The Sil- successor should give Macgillecallum a ver Craig,” and many people were induced sword ; and again, on the death of each by this success to join their party. Sir Do- Macgillecallum), his successor should give a nald was, however, soon asterwards slain in sword to Macdonald of Slate. Both this Morven, and all his adherents dispersed custom and the friendship of these two fa

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