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that Christmas. But, as it chanceth to busy builders, so, in building this my poor schoolhouse (the rather because the form of it is somewhat new, and differing from others), the work rose daily higher and wider than 1 thought it would in the beginning. And though it appear now, and be in very deed, but a small cottage, poor for the stuff and rude for the workmanship, yet in going forward I found the site so good as I was loth to give it over, but the making so costly, outreaching my ability, as many times I wished that some one of those three my dear friends with full purses, Sir Thomas Smith, Mr. Haddon, or Mr. Watson, had had the doing of it. Yet nevertheless I myself, spending gladly that little that I gat at home by good Sir John Cheke, and that that I borrowed abroad of my friend Sturmius, beside somewhat that was left me in reversion by my old masters Plato, Aristotle, and Cicero, I have at last patched it up as I could, and as you see.
A Gentle Teaches And Pupil. From Book I.
And one example whether love or fear doth work more in a child for virtue and learning, 1 will gladly report; which may be heard with some pleasure, and followed with more profit. Before I went into Germany 1 came to Broadgate in Leicestershire, to take my leave of that noble Lady Jane Grey, to whom I was exceeding much beholuen. Her parents, the duke and duchess, with all the household, gentlemen and gentlewomen, were hunting in the park. I found her in her chamber reading "Phaedon Platonis"i in Greek, and that with as much delight as some gentlemen would read a merry tale in Bocase.2 After salutation and dutydone, with some other talk, I asked her why she would lose such pastime in the park.' Smiling she answered me, "I wis,3 all their
1 Plato's Phaetlo, on the Immortality of the Soul.
2 Boccaccio. a j -wls, certainly
sport in the park is but a shadow to that pleasure that I find in Plato. Alas! good folk, they never felt what true pleasure meant." "And how came you, madam," quoth I, "to this deep knowledge of pleasure, and what did chiefly allure you unto it, seeing, not many women, but very few men, have attained there unto?" "I will tell you," quoth she; "and tell you a truth which, perchance, ye will marvel at. One of the greatest benefits that ever God gave me is that he sent me so sharp and severe parents and so gentle a schoolmaster. For when I am in presence of either father or mother, whether I speak, keep silence, sit, stand, or go, eat, drink, be merry or sad, be sewing, playing, dancing, or doing anything else, I must do it, as it were, in such weight, measure, and number, even so perfectly as God made the world, or else I am so sharply taunted, so cruelly threatened, yea presently sometimes with pinches, nips, and bobs,4 and other ways which I will not name for the honor I bear them, so without measure misordered,5 that I think myself in hell till time come that I must go to Mr. Elmer, who teacheth me so gently, so Dleasantly, with such fair allure ments to learning, that I think all the time nothing whilst I am with him. And when I am called from him I fall on« weeping, because whatsoever 1 do else but learning, is full of grief, trouble, fear, and whole misliking unto me. And thus my book hath been so much ray pleasure, and bringeth daily to me more pleas ure and more, that in respect of it all other pleasures, in very deed, be but trifles and troubles unto me."
I remember this talk gladly, both because it is so worthy of memory, and because also it was the last talk that ever I had and the la«t time that ever I saw that noble and worthy lady.
4 raps « to (a-weeplng)
5 111 disciplined
THE ELIZABETHAN AGE-POETRY
SIR THOMAS WYATT *
The Lover Having Dreamed Of Enjoyment
Unstable dream, according to the place.t
My body in tempest her delight t 'embrace.
Op His Love That Pricked Her Finger With
She sat and sewed, that bath done me the wrong
Whereof 1 plain, and have done many a day; And whilst she heard my plaint in piteous song,
She wished my heart the sampler', that^ it
The blind master whom I have served so long,
'Deedle-work pattern 3 that which
2 as 4 make
• Though Wyatt and Surrey were. In strictness.
fire-Elizabethans, their poems, first published n 1557. were manifest harbingers of the creative Impulse we associate with Elizabeth's reign. Thirty years later Sidney called th?se poets "the two chief lanterns of light to all others that have since employed their pens upon English poesy." Wyatt introduced the Pctrarchlan sonnet form Into England; Surrey devised the variation used later by Shakespeare: and Surrey was the first to employ heroic blank verse. See Eng. Lit., p. 84. tThla phrase appears to have more rhyme than reason. I'l.saibly place = fe^t. referring to i I Cor., xv, 58. =
Be Lover Complaineth The Unkindness Op His Love
My lute, awake, perform the last
As to be heard where ear is none,
The rocks do not so cruelly
Proud of the spoil that thou hast got
Vengeance shall fall on thy disdain
May chance thee lie withered and old
And then may chance thee to repent
Now cease, my lute, this is the last
that which 8 unrepnld
en*, engrave -* to t t.mphiln
HENRY HOWARD. EARL OF SURREY (1517?-I547)*
Description Op Spring, Wherein Each Thing Renews, Save Only The Lover
The sootei season that bud and bloom forth brings
With green hath clad the hill and eke the vale;
A Praise Op His Love, Wherein He
Rkproveth Them That Compare Their
Ladies With His
That spent your boasts and brags in vain; My Lady's beauty passeth more
The best of yours, I dare well sayen,
And thereto hath a troth as just
As had Penelope the fair;
As it by writing sealed were.
I could rehearse, if that I would,
When she had lost the perfect mold,
With wringing hands how she did cry,
And what she said, I know it, I.
I know she swore with raging mind,
Her kingdom only set apart,
That could have gone so near her heart.
Sith" nature thus gave her the praise
1 sweet 4 tenor
2 turtle-dove to her mate t> nature
3 mixes e since • See note on preceding page.
In faith, methink, some better ways
On your behalf might well be sought,
Departure Op Aeneas From Dido
Such great complaints brake forth out of her breast; Whiles Aeneas full minded to depart, All things prepared, slept in the poop on high. To whom in sleep the wonted godhead 'a form 'Gan aye appear, returning in like shape' As seemed him, and 'gan him thus advise, Like unto Mercury in voice and hue, With yellow bush2, and comely limbs of youth:
"O goddess' son, in such case canst thou sleep,
Ne yet, bestraught*, the dangers dost foresee That compass thee, nor hear'st the fair wind? blow!
Dido in mind rolls vengeance and deceit; Determ'd to die, swells with unstable ire. Wilt thou not flee whiles thou hast time of flight t
Straight shalt thou see the seas covered with sails,
The blazing brands the shore all spread with flame,
And if4 the morrow steal upon thee here.
Aeneas, of this sudden vision
Aboard your ships, and hoise up sail with speed.
A god me wills, sent from above again,
0 holy god, whatso thou art, we shall
With which drawn he the cables cut in twain.
The shores they leave; with ships the seas are spread:
Cutting the foam by the blue seas thay sweep.
(From the Translation of the Fourth
1 (as before) < an if, if
2 locks 5 comrades
3 nor yet, distracted • endue
EDMUND SPENSER (1552-1599)*
THE FAERIE QUEENE
To The Most High,
BY THE GRACE OF GOD
DOTH IN ALL HUMILITIE
Lo I the man, whose Muse whilome' did maske, As time her taught, in lowly Shepheards weeds2,
Am now enforst a far unfitter taske, i formerly
s Referring to the Shepheardes Calender, a pastoral poem. See Eng. I At., 89-90.
• The Faerie Queene Is an allegory designed to Bet forth "a gentleman or noble person In virtuous and gentle discipline." The central characters are Olorlana, the queen of an Imaginary ("faerie") court, who symbolizes Olory, and her suitor Prince Arthur, who stands for Magniticence (Munificence), "which virtue Is the perfection of all the rest." Besides these, the twelve moral virtues were to have been separately represented by twelve knights, each performing deeds and overcoming temptations according to bis character. But as the poet's design was never finished, only half these virtues get representation, and the central characters receive rather less prominence than the six several virtues which are set forth in the six completed books. Each of these books, consisting of twelve cantos, is practically a complete story in Itself. The Brat deals with the Knight of the Red Cross, or Holiness, who. clad in the armor of the Christian faith, is sent forth by his Queen as the champion of I'na (Truth) to deliver her parents. r-who had been by un huge dragon many years shut up In a brasen castle." Beneath the moral allegory may be read also a political ODe, according to which (Jlorlana Is Queen Elizabeth, Prince Arthur Is Lord Leicester. Duessa is Mary Queen of Scots, etc. Bnt after all. the poetry of the poem Is worth far more than the elaborate allegory. The language and spelling are deliberately and sometimes false Iv archaic. See Eng. Lit., pp. 01-94.
The Knight Of The Red Cross And His Fight With The Monster Ereob. The Wiles or Archimago. From Book I, Canto I.
A gentle Knight was pricking1 on the plaine,
The cruell markes of many a bloudy fielde;
But on his brest a bloudie Crosse he bore,
And dead as living ever him ador'd:
Upon a great adventure he was bond,
A lovely Ladies rode him faire beside,
l riding, spurring « honor
■■: handsome 7 yearn
a Jousts > Una, personification
Seemed in heart some hidden care she had, And by her in a line a milke white lambe she lad.*
So pure and innocent, as that same lambe,
Their scepters stretcht from East to Westerne shore,
And all the world in their subjection held; Till that infernal! feend with foule uprore Forwasted all their land, and them ex|>eld: Whom to avenge, she had this Knight from far compeld*.
Behind her farre away a Dwarfe did lag.
Enforst to seeke some covert nigh at hand, j A shadie grove not far away they spide. That promist ayde the tempest to withstand: Whose loftie trees yelad with sommers pride Did spred so broad, that heavens light did hide.
Not perceable with power of any starre:
And foorth they passe, with pleasure forward led,
Joying to heare the birdes sweete harmony. Which therein shrouded from the tempest dred.
ft summoned 12 person
i« Pronounce "wea-rl-ed." is shelter
• "That lamb we never see again'. It was a thought that rose and passed away from the poet's soul; but the Image had shown us thf character of Una in her simplicity, as if it I bad been a dove that hung for a moment over
her bead, and while a voice spoke, disappeared—This Is mv beloved ilnnqhtcr. In whom I am well pleased."—Christopher North.