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of“ leavening the people with disaffec- all the particulars of the sufferings of tion, and alienating the hearts of the those who have made yonder rock that lieges from his Majesty's Govern- hallowed monument of Scottish zeal ment”-and by proclamation of Coun- and piety, which it ought ever to be cil, he, with others of his late co-prese considered. byters, was accused of unlawfully
con “Some time after the incident at the vocating the subjects in fields and pri- hill of Beath, Mr Blackader was seized vate houses every Sabbath, where they and sent a prisoner to the Bass, where were in the custom of baptizing the the hardships he suffered soon destroychildren of disloyal persons-Romance ed his health. Some minds are so conis beggared when history records the stituted and local, that the privations follies of statesmen.
of confinement are scarcely felt as an “Sir James Turner, who commanded evil; but to a man of such an animated the forces, at that time in Dumfries- temperament as this zealous martyr, shire-a ferocious drunkard, and wore the mere imagination of being fastened thy compeer of “ the bloody Clavere to a spot, and denied the exercise of house”-on receiving information a- his faculties and communion with his gainst Blackader, sent a detachment to kind, was of itself more afflicting than arrest him ; but he had previously the damp dungeon or the loathsome departed with his wife to Edinburgh. meal, and the bitter water. It is inIn searching the house for him, the deed difficult to picture a more insoldiers behaved with a brutality grate- pressive spectacle of solitary misery ful to the demon whom their superiors than that of a venerable old man, sitserved. They compelled one of the ting alone for hours on the bleak scachildren to hold the candle while they beat rocks, like Prometheus in his stabbed the beds in which they sup- chains, gnawed by grief for the woes posed his parents were concealed. -- and sorrows that were laying waste bis Another, a mere infant, was so horror- native land, and the horror and poverty struck by their violence, that he ran that pursued his own defenceless fanaked into the darkness of the night, mily. and was found afterwards at a great “ After being detained some time on distance, in a state of distraction. the Bass, his health became so infirm,
“From this period the martyr led a that upon a representation to the conwandering and homeless life ; his chil- clave of persecutors, he was allowed, dren were dispersed, and forced to im- on giving security, to be removed to plore shelter wherever charity was Haddington, where he soon escaped brave enough to hazard the penalties from all the tyranny of this worldof the act against Reset and Converse and in ascending to heaven, left the with the ejected ministers. But op- mantle of his zeal a retributive legacy pression only hardened the courageous with bis family, making them instruspirit of the conscientious. Mr Black- ments to avenge the sufferings of their ader resolutely waged the holy war, country, by essentially contributing to and the hill of Beath, in the parish of the expulsion of the heartless and liDunfermline, was often his pulpit. centious Stewarts. His eldest son, Wil
“Ononeoccasion when, together with liam, was employed as a confidential other undaunted antagonists of mis- agent by some of the deposed clergy, government, the martyr was preaching in secret embassies to their exiled brethere, a lieutenant of militia, stationed thren in Holland, who were then enin the neighbourhood, came riding to gaged in promoting the Revolution, the spot, and endeavoured with threats and on these dangerous expeditious he and furious gestures to disperse the frequently went between the two counCovenanters. It was customary for tries. In one of them he was seized the men who attended those meet- on his landing at Leith, and carried ings to come armed. One of them ha- before the Duke of York, who was ving remonstrated in vain with the then in Scotland. His sister was among officer, took his horse coolly by the the crowd who followed him to the bridle, and pulling out his pistol, told examination before his Royal Highhim if he did not desist from his tur- ness, but she was not permitted to apbulence, he would blow out his brains, proach her brother near enough to and held him in that state till the ser-speak to him. She observed him, how. mon was finished. But it is not for ever, looking at her with an expressive me in this hasty sketch to enter into stedfastness, and holding up his hat as
if to draw her attention particularly to timed resolution anticipated the fearful it. Inspired with the idea that this was consequences; for a party came to the the mysterious symbol of some impor. house an hour after to search for paa tant secret, she immediately quitted pers, and finding nothing suspicious, the Court and returned to Edinburgh, returned with such a favourable report where, on searching his lodgings, she to the Duke, that her brother was found a hat, with papers concealed in immediately liberated ; and when the the lining, of such a nature, that had Revolution afterwards took place, he they been discovered, they might have was appointed, chiefly on account of proved fatal evidence against himself the services he had performed in those as well as others. She instantly, there secret missions, physician to King Wilfore, destroyed them, and by this well. liam.”
Here the austere young man paused in his story, and as we were now alongside of the Bass, he took off his hat with great solemnity, as is done at burials when the respected dead is laid in the grave; and we were all so affected thereat, that we did the same in like manner, and passed along in silence, nothing being heard but the sound of the paddles and the mournful cawing of the sea-birds, which spread far and wide over the waters, like the voices of antiquity that adla monish the children of remote times to reverence the memory of all departed worthies. In short, such was the effect of the Covenanter's story, and his carnest way of telling it, that we were all in a solemn mood till we reached the Pier of Leith ; even the gay and gallant Odontist, forgetful of all his wonteil jollity, walked slowly up and down the deck, whistling “ The Flowers of the Forest,” in a most pathetic and melaucholy manner.
WHIGS OF THE COVENANT.
TO CHRISTOPHER NORTH, ESQ. MY DEAR SIR, I inclose a letter, which came to me some time ago, addressed to Mr Blackwood's care. The merits of the composition, and the interest of the topic, entitle it to a place in your Magazine.
I am not aware, at this moment, that any other writer has so distinctly described the politico-moral state of the Scottish people, as this “ Whig of the Covenant.” The view which he opens of the subject, deserves the serious consideration of some of your correspondents. Nothing, indeed, can be more opposite than the Presbyterian and Political Whigs—the Whigs of the country, and those of the town, of the Covenant, and of the Parliament House. The former regard the state of religious sentiment, as the chief and main object of their solicitude; the latter have not been uniformly distinguished for any particular respect towards those hallowed prejudices and affections which enter so deeply into the genuine Scottish character ; on the contrary, their talents and speculations have been, in a great measure, entirely devoted to secular interests. But it is less with respect to the difference between them, than with regard to the important fact that the Scottish people, in general, are not at this time politicians, that I would solicit your attention. Because the inference must necessarily be, if the fact be as it is stated, and I do believe it is, that the Political Whigs form a very small body indeed in Scotland, and they, perhaps, derive no inconsiderable portion of their public consequence from identifying themselves with that great and grave portion of the nation, whose opinions, from the period of the Revolution, have ever been treated with attention and respect by the government and the legislature ; which opinions are in no essential principle in unison with those of the Whigs of the New School.
That there are Presbyterian Whigs who are also Political Whigs, cannot be questioned. But such characters are only to be found in the towns, and in
public stations or eminent professions. I do not, however, mean to contend, because I am no politician, that there is any inconsistency in the bifold union in the same bosom of principles which have no common affinity, such as those which have for their object the conservation of sacred institutions as they exist, and those which involve the necessity of change ; for I conceive the difference between the principles of the Presbyterian and Political Whigs, may be so described. The people of Scotland, as far as the national institutions are concerned, take little interest in public affairs. "A few political fanatics and theorists in the manufacturing districts, may, now and then, avail themselves of those occasional periods of distress and privation to which the manufacturers, from the fluctuating nature of trade, are liable, to excite symptoms of commotion and alarm ; but it is of great importance to know, that the nation, in geperal, is still sound and true; that with the frame of their church and state the people are contented, and that their only complaint, where complaint exists, is with respect to the conduct of individuals conspicuous either in the district or in the kingdom. This fact, and every man free from the political typhus of the towns, may easily ascertain its truth and extent—is the more curious and impressive, as shewing the depths and strength of the national feelings; for the social improvements of Scotland, during the last hundred years, have been more striking than those of any other kingdom in Europe ; and yet, although it is in some sort the nature of social improvements to engender á contempt for old usages and institutions, the people of Scotland hold theirs in greater veneration than perhaps any other people ; and there exists at the present moment, not only a general taste for the preservation of the national customs and antiquities, but even a growing fashion to revive many peculiarities that had either been proscribed or become obsolete. But I am forgetting myself, and the object of addressing you, which was simply to recommend to your notice the inclosed letter.
AUTHOR OF - ANNALS OF THE PARISH.”
TO THE AUTHOR OF
ANNALS OF THE PARISH OF DALMAILÍNG," &c.
ers and retainers of opposing parties I HAVE been an elder of the Establish- pretend to be guided." In the present ed Church for nearly thirty years; day, you have two grand divisions of and, with abundant opportunities of parties, who thrust themselves for. observation and leisure, I have often ward to publie view, and call upon employed ıny fancy in delineations of pa- the people to follow them implicitly, rish histories, in theway you have done; as leaders, whose perfectibility, they but indolence, and the want of confi- say, may be wholly trusted, and who dence in myself, kept the pen motion- represent their opponents as stupid, less, and the paper in its primitive or base, or wicked. One of these whiteness and purity. You have put parties put on the grave and solemn an end, I fear, to all my nascent pro- aspect, or the sheep's clothing of Christjects in this way, but excited my wish ian piety, and you might fear that to furnish you with such hints as, per- their ribs would all be fractured by adventure, may give you some aid in the inward swellings of their holy your parochial visitations. It is of zeal. Another party exhibit themgreat importance-indeed it is indis, selves in all the golden and gay drapensible, to know the secret and pre- pery of honour, purified to as great vailing principles that move the great fineness as the sharpest instruments body of a nation or a parish, and to from the cutler's shop, for dividing distinguish them from the professed the flesh of diseased or wounded or avowed motives by which the lead- limbs. But there is a third party,
that numbers in the proportion of per- he sees them meet in smiling and cora haps more than a thousand to one, dial kindness, laughing at their mock whom those under the cloak of piety battle; he observes them depart and
and the cloak of honour, like the an- dine with one another, and is told that from cient Pharisees and Sadducees, cordial- they are most intimate and sworn ciza ly unite to load with every epithet friends. He is now convinced that
that denotes vileness and infamy. the fees—the precious and darling This third and defamed party bear all cash, was the sole moving cause of ali the slanders vomited upon them, with the theatrical sincerity and pugnacious much composure, and never shew any contention, and that, without the baw
symptoms of anger or violence, till bees, they would have been as stationdia hunger and nakedness drive them ary and mute as lobsters. This un
mad; and the Bible shews, both by suspecting countryman has learned precept and example, that even wise what he never forgets as a general rule
men may be made mad.” I would for estimating verbal sincerity, and 23. therefore warn you against the leaven his rule is confirmed by the sentence an of the modern Pharisees and Sad- of the Court, who believe neither the educees; for unless in your future la- one lawyer nor the other, but send
bours as an annalist, you discriminate them off to seek other and better reaa these from the worthy and upright sons, or decide the question in a way
portion of the community, your ex- offensive to both. The conclusion of aleertions will be not only lost, but you the rustic is made in coarse but sturbu may contribute to increase fearfully dy phrase, which I dare not put down,
the evils which unbinge all the sacred lest the hysterical Whigs, as well as bonds that keep society together. the silken Tories, should be offended. There are two parties in the present
Common sense is the same among * day, who call themselves Whig and all ranks, but it is prodigiously sharp
Tory; and if the world were so child- ened, and acute, among those who are ishly simple as to believe them, there put to their wits end, by finding inis no other class except cut-throats and solence and power combined against monsters! That there are wise and reason and conscience. The countrygood men who are classed with the op- man returns home, and what he saw posing parties called Whigs and To- and heard circulates quietly among his ries, no man of understanding will neighbours, who have the same hopez deny; but that there is one of a thou, and fears, and who suspect, from the sand of these Whigs and Tories in fine patriotic talk, and polite duplicity Scotland, who will fearlessly do what of the gay and powerful around them, is right, in all cases, or in general, is that their superiors are the same every what no man of sense and experience where, and that the safety of their rewill believe. The mainspring is ma- ligion, property, and lives, consists in nifest to the most rustic but shrewd that sullen silence, and fierce vigilance observation. A sagacious man from which the American settler, in the among a sober and honest population, wilderness, must maintain against the enters, or, as too often happens, is Indians and wild beasts. compelled to enter a court of law, When the great body of a people and there he sees and hears two emi- come to be prepared in this way, and nent pleaders on opposite sides of a with far greater rapidity and effect cause, speak, and gesticulate, and cone than by what is vulgarly called the lin tradict, and attack each other, with as centiousness of the press, the nominal much earnestness and regulated bite Whigs, and nominal Tories, sink into terness as if they were the real par- utter and universal contempt, and this ties, and till their faces are as red contempt, with one class, settles down with passion as the necks of Turkey, into a rooted and permanent hatred ; cocks, and till the hail of perspiration and, with another, into merriment or runs down their cheeks in copious broad laughter. The world sees, that, streamlets. The honest countryman like lawyer craft, the struggle between admires the sincerity of these eloquent these nominal parties, is for the public gentlemen; but as an unso
sound, in- purse only, for the “ filthy lucre.” stead of a sound horse has sometimes Each of them is calling on the people been imposed upon him, he suspends to support them. The people, if they his faith a little, for farther observa. have food, fuel, loilging, and clothing, ţion; he follows and watches them; stand by with a provoking apathy, or
with a ludicrous stare and grin. "In the nominal Whigs and nomina Tories Scotland, these two nominal parties are completely of one mind. I intendseem totally ignorant of the state of ed to have given you some short spel public opinion. The native population cimens, to show how the Whigs of the of Scotland, with some trifling excep- purse, and the man-midwives to Para at tions, 'consists wholly of the Whigs of son Malthus, exhibit their political faith id the Covenant, differing as widely from in parish affairs. But my letter is per- be the nominal and prominent Whigs of haps far too long—and therefore I have our day, as the apostle Peter differed the honour to subscribe myself from that smooth, cunning, and thie A WHIG OF THE COVENANT.* vish priest, Doctor Judas Iscariot. The intelligent and upright Tories, at the P. S. In the meantime, I recom- *1E Revolution, in 1688, had the good sense mend to your attentive perusal, the 15 to agree with the Whigs of the Cove answer of the Kirk-session of Neilston nant, that is, the truly religious Whigs, to the Heritors' Publication, against who most amply proved their faith by them, printed at Paisley, 1820, in his their conduct. The Whigs of the Cove- which you will see how the grand prin- zas nant would have driven our infidel and ciple that alone governs the bastardin treacherous Whigs from their society, Whigs and the bastard Tories, shews :D with scorn. In drawing up farther itself in country parishes, for the edi- i Parish Annals, keep this constantly in fication of his Majesty's subjects, to ztio view. In hostility to the poor-to the the astonishment of all wise men, and I rights of the church-to real religious for the amusement of the infidels. instruction and to faithful ministers,
* We should be happy to receive some of the personal observations of this WW16.
HISTORICAL VIEW OF THE RISE, PROGRESS, DECLINE, AND FALL OF
THE EDINBURGH REVIEW.
“ It hath once and again been observed by me, in my Notice of the Works of Nature, that there be something like unto a power of chance to be seen therein, in divers instances. For I have often witnessed a tree to spring up on a thin and barren soil, and to rear mighty boughs and overarching, so as well to be deserving of Dan Virgil's ipse nemus. Why so no man knoweth unto a certainty. So likewise fareth it with the same tree in its decay. For it becometh sapless and doddered, one knoweth not well wherefore ; and when the sturdy axe is laid unto the root, lo! the heart thereof is moullered ; and it seemeth to have been, even in that its proud flourishing, an unsound and diseased tree. All of which is a wonder, passing a perfect understanding thereof."-Sir Stephen Stanihurst's Prose Works, folio, 343.
THE EDINBURGH Review will un- duced profound and durable impresa doubtedly occupy a distinguished place sions, equally on taste, philosophy, and in the History of Scottish Literature. opinion. And now, when the work has For the greater part of twenty years confessedly declined from its original no journal was ever more generally vigour, and fallen into a state of dotread in this country. Some of the age and decay, that oftener awakens French periodical publications may, sentiments of contempt than compason account of the diffusion of that lan- sion towards the contributors, the track guage, have distributed more nume of its career ought to be surveyed: rous impressions; but it may be con The public, with respect to its whole fidently averred, that no continental course, now stand, as it were, on the work has excited the same degree of vantage ground of posterity, and can interest. The rise and progress of the follow its windings and tergiversaEdinburgh Review, while the facts tions, with almost as free a judgment are fresh in the public memory, is as one traces, on the map of history, therefore an object that merits the the current of some hostile and am gravest consideration ; for a series of bitious tribe or nation. books, embracing every variety of to It is a common opinion, that the pic, so much, and so generally read, Edinburgh Review originated among must, it may be supposed, have pro- a number of bold and