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insecta. Be this as it may, the diffe- accidental modifications

a work wore rence between this last class of specu- thy of a Royal and Imperial confedelators and the common run of ghost- racy, and which would indeed hallow fanciers, will scarcely enable us to ex- the Alliance ! A work which, exehibit any essential change in the mean- cuted for any one language, would ing of the terms. Both must be de- yet be a benefaction to the world, and scribed as asserting the objective nature to the nation itself a source of immeof the appearance, and in both the diate honour and of ultimate weal, term contains the sense of real as op- beyond the power of victories to bene posed to imaginary, and of outness no stow, or the mines of Mexico to purless than of otherness, the difference in chase. The realization of this scheme the former being only, that, in the lies in the far distance; but in the vulgar belief, the object is outward in mean time, it cannot but beseem every relation to the whole circle, in Baxter's individual competent to its furtherto the centre only. The one places ance, to contribute a small portion of the ghost without, the other within, the materials for the future temple the line of circumference.

from a polished column to a hewn I have only to add, that these dif- stone, or a plank for the scaffolding; ferent shades of meaning form no and as they come in, to erect with valid objection to the revival and re- them sheds for the workmen, and temadoption of these correlative terms in porary structures for present use. The physiology* and mental analytics, as preceding analysis I would have you expressing the two poles of all consci- regard as my first contribution; and ousness, in their most general form the first, because I have been long con. and highest abstraction. For by the vinced that the want of it is a serious law of association, the same metapho- impediment, I will not say, to that rical changes, or shiftings and ingraft- self-knowledge which it concerns all ings of the primary sense, must ine- men to attain, butấto that self-undervitably take place in all terms of great- stunding, or insight, which it is all est comprehensiveness and simplicity. men's interest that some men should Instead of subject and object, put acquire; that “the heaven-descendthought and thing. You will find these ed, rvãou Leavtan," (Juv. Sat.) should liable to the same inconveniences, with exist not only as a wisdom, but as a the additional one of having no adjec- science. But every science will have its tives or adverbs, as substitutes for ob- rules of art, and with these its technical jective, subjective, objectively, subjec- terms; and in this best of sciences, its tively. It is sufficient that no hetero- elder nomenclature has fallen into disgeneous senses are confounded under use, and no other been put in its place. the same term, as was the case prior To bring these back into light, as so to Bishop Bramhall's controversy with many delving-tools dug up from the Hobbes, who had availed himself of rubbish of long-deserted mines, and the (at that time, and in the common at the same time to exemplify their usage,) equivalent words, compel and use and handling, I have drawn your oblige, to confound the thought of mo- attention to the three questions :ral obligation with that of compulsion What is the primary and proper sense and physical necessity. For the rest, of the words Subject and Object, in the remedy must be provided by a dic- the technical language of philosophy? tionary, constructed on the one only In what does Objectivity actually exphilosophical principle, which, regarde ist?-From what is all apparent or ing words as living growths, offsets, assumed Objectivity derived or transand organs of the human soul, seeks ferred ? to trace each historically, through all It is not the age, you have told me, the periods of its natural growth, and to bring hard words into fashion. Are

* “ Physiology,” according to present usage, treats of the laws, organs, functions, &c. of life ; “ Physics” not so. Now, quere: The etymological import of the two words being the same, is the difference in their application accidental and arbitrary, or a hidden irony at the assumption on which the division is grounded ? Quous avev (uns, ανευ λογα, Or Δογος περι Φυσεως μη ζωσης εςι λογος αλογος. Vol. X.

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we to account for this tender-mouthed- number is on the increase,) I hazard ness, on the ground assigned by your this assurance,—That let what will favourite, Persius : (Sat. iii. 113.) come of the terms, yet without the * Tentemus fauces : tenero latet ulcus in truths conveyed in these terms, there

can be no self-knowledge; and with'Putre, quod haud deceat crustosis radere out this, no knowledge of any kind. verbis ?"

For the fragmentary recollections and

recognitions of empiricism,* usurping But is the age so averse to hard words? the name of experience, can amount Eidouranion ; Phantasmagoria ; Kalei- to opinion only, and that alone is knowdoscope; Marmoro-kainomenon (for ledge which is at once real and systecleaning mantle-pieces); Protoxides; matic-or, in one word, organic. Let Deutoxides; Tritoxyds; and Dr Thom- monk and pietist pervert the precept son's Latin-greek-english Peroxides ; into sickly, brooding, and morbid innot to mention the splashing shoals, troversions of consciousness—you have that

learnt, that, even under the wisest reconfound the language of the gulations, THINKING can go but half nation

way toward this knowledge. To know With long-tail'd words in osity and ation,the whole truth, we must likewise act:

and he alone acts, who makes-and (as our great living master of sweet this can no man do, estranged from and perfect English, Hookham Frere, Nature. Learn to know thyself in has it,) would seem to argue the very Nature, that thou mayest understand contrary. In the train of these, me- Nature in thyself. thinks, object and subject, with the

But I forget myself. My pledge derivatives, look tame, and claim a and purpose was to help you over the place in the last, or, at most, in the threshold into the outer court ; and humbler seats of the second species, in here I stand, spelling the dim characthe far-noised classification—the long- ters inwoven in the veil of Isis, in the tailed pigs, and the short-tailed pigs, recesses of the temple. and the pigs without a tail. Aye, but not on such dry topics ! I submit

. You begin again without too abrupt a drop,

I must conclude, therefore, if only to have touched the vulnerable heel- lest I should remind you of Mr “ lis, quibus siccum lumen abest,” in his Survey of Middlesex, who ha. they must needs be dry. We have ving digressed, for some half a score of Lord Bacon's word for it. A topic that requires stedfast intuitions, clear the old planet between Jupiter and

pages, into the heights of cosmogony, conceptions, and ideas, as the source Mars, that went off, and split into the and substance of both, and that will four new ones, besides the smaller admit of no substitute for these, in rubbish for stone showers, the formaimages, fictions, or factitious facts, must tion of the galaxy, and the other worldbe dry as the broad-awake of sight and day-light, and desperately barren of similar accidents, superseding the hy

worlds, on the same principlesand all that interest which a busy yet sensual age requires and finds in the suda pothesis of a Creator, and demonstrasomnia,” and moist moonshine of an and country parsons, takes up the

ting the superfluity of church tithes epicurean philosophy; For you, how- stitch again with— But to return to the ever, and for those who, like you, are not so satisfied with the present doc- subject of dung. God bless you and trines, but that you would fain try

your 6 another and an elder lore," (and

Affectionate Friend, such there are, I know, and that the


* Let y express the conditions under which E, (that is, a series of forms, facts, circumstances, &c. presentel to the senses of an individual,) will become Experienceand we might, not unaptly, define the two words thus: E+y=Experience'; E-= Empiricisin.


To Mr Blackwood.


Dear Sir,-Here have I been sit- curiosity. Such may be, and in some ting, this whole long-lagging, muzzy, instances, I doubt not, has been, the mizly morning, struggling without result. But I dare not ansver for it success against the insuperable disgust beforehand, even though both works I feel to the task of explaining the should be equally well suited to their abrupt chasm at the outset of our cor- several purposes, which will not be respondence, and disposed to let your thought a probable case, when it is verdict take its course, rather than suf, considered, how much less talent, and fer over again by detailing the causes of how much commoner a kind, is reof the stoppage; though sure by so quired in the latter. doing to acquit my will of all share in On the other hand, however, I am the result. Instead of myself, and of persuaded that a sufficient success, and, you, my dear sir, in relation to myself, less liable to draw-backs from compeI have been thinking, first, of the tition, would not fail to attend a work Edinburgh Magazine ; then of maga- on the former plan, if the scheme and zines generally and comparatively ;— execution of the contents were as apthen of a magazine in the abstract; propriate to the object, which the pure, and lastly, of the immense importance chasers must be supposed to have in and yet strange neglect of that prime view, as the means adopted for its outdictate of prudence and common sense ward attraction and its general circu. - Distinct MEANS TO DISTINCT lation were to the interest of its proExds. But here I must put in one prietors. proviso, not in any relation though to During a long literary life, I have the aphorism itself, which is of univer- been no inattentive observer of periodsal validity, but relatively to my in- ical publications; and I can remember tended application of it. I must as- no failure, in any work deserving sucsume, I mean, that the individuals cess, that might not have been anticia, disposed to grant me free access and pated from some error or deficiency in fair audience for my remarks, have a the means, either in regard to the mode conscience-such a portion at least, as of circulating the work, (as for instance being eked out with superstition and by the vain attempt to unite the chasense of character, will suffice to pre- racters of author, editor, and publishvent them from seeking to realize the er,) or to the typographical appearultimate end, (i. e the maxim of pro- ance; or else from its want of suitfit) by base or disreputable means. ableness to the class of readers, on This, therefore, may be left out of the whom, it should have be. n foreseen, present arguinent, an extensive sale the remunerating sale must principally being the common object of all publish- depend. It would be misanthropy to ers, of whatever kind the publications suppose that the seekers after truth, may be, morally considered. Nor do information, and innocentamusement, the means appropriate to this end dif- are not sufficiently numerous to supfer. Be the work good or evil in its port a work, in which these attractions tendency, in both cases alike there is are prominent, without the dishonest one question to be predetermined, viz. aid of personality, literary faction, or what class or classes of the reading treacherous invasions of the sacred reworld the work is intended for? I cesses of private life, without slanders, mnade the proviso, however, because I which both reason and duty command would not mislead any man even for us to disbelieve as well as abhor; for an honest cause, and my experience what but falsehood, or that half truth, will not allow me to promise an equal which is falsehood in its most maligimmediate circulation from a work ad- nant form, can or ought to be expected dressed to the higher interests and from a self-convicted traitor and inblameless predilections of men, as from grate ? one constructed on the plan of flatter- If these remarks are well founded, ing the envy and vanity of sciolism, we may narrow the problem to the few : and gratifying the cravings of vulgar following terms, --it beiug understood,

that the work now in question, is & and Æsthetic Miscellany. The word monthly publication, not devoted to miscellany, however, must be taken as any one branch of knowledge or liter- involving a predicate in itself, in adature, but a magazine of whatever may dition to the three preceding epithets, be supposed to interest. readers in ge- comprehending, namely, all the epheneral, not excluding the discoveries, meral births of intellectual life, which or even the speculations of science, that add to the gaiety and variety of the are generallyintelligibleand interesting, work, without interfering with its exso that the portion devoted to any one press and regular objects. subject or department, shall be kept Having thus a sufficiently definite proportionate to the number of readers notion of what your Magazine is, and for whom it may be supposed to have is intended to be, I proposed to myself, a particular interest. Here, however, as a problem, to find out, in detail, we must not forget, that however few what the means would be to the most the actual dilettanti, or men of the perfect attainment of this end. In fancy may be, yet, as long as the arti- other words, what the scheme, and of cles remain generally intelligible, (in what nature, and in what order and pugilism, for instance,) Variety and proportion, the contents should be of a Novelty communicate an attraction monthly publication ; in order for it that interests all. Homo sum, nihil to verify the title of a Philosophical, humani a me alienum. If to this we Philological, and Æsthetic Miscellany add the exclusion of theological con- and Magazine. The result of my lutroversy, which is endless, I shall have cubrations I hope to forward in my pretty accurately described the present next, under the title of “ The Ideal of EDINBURGH MAGAZINE, as to its cha- a Magazine ;" and to mark those deracteristic plan and purposes ; which partments, in the filling up of which, may, I think, be comprised in three I flatter myself with the prospect of terms, as a Philosophical, Philological, being a fellow labourer. But since I

* I wish I could find a more familjar word than æsthetic, for works of taste and criticism. It is, however, in all respects better, and of more reputable origin, than belletristic. To be sure, there is tasty ; but that has been long ago emasculated for all un. worthy uses by milliners, tailors, and the androgynous correlatives of both, formerly called its, and now yclept dandies. As our language, therefore, contains no other useable adjective, to express that coincidence of form, feeling, and intellect, that something, which, confirming the inner and the outward senses, becomes a new sense in itself, to be tried by laws of its own, and acknowledging the laws of the understanding so far orly as not to contradict them ; that faculty which, when possessed in a high degree, the Greeks termed pononanoa, but when spoken of generally, or in kind only, to accOntixov; and for which even our substantive, Taste, is an not inappropriate--but very inadequate metaphor ; there is reason to hope, that the term æsthetic, will be brought into common use as soon as distinct thoughts and definite expressions shall once more become the requisite accomplishment of a gentleman. So it was in the energetic days, and in the starry court of our English-hearted Eliza ; when trade, the nurse of freedom, was the enlivening counterpoise of agriculture, not its alien and usurping spirit ; when commerce had all the enterprize, and more than the romance of war; when the precise yet pregnant terminology of the schools gave bone and muscle to the diction of poetry and eloquence, and received from them in return passion and harmony ; but, above all, when from the self-evident truth, that what in kind constitutes the superiority of man to animal, the same in degree must constitute the superiority of men to each other, the practical inference was drawn, that every proof of these distinctive faculties being in a tense and active state, that even the sparks and crackling of mental electricity, in the sportive approaches and collisions of ordinary intercourse, (such as we have in the wit-combats of Benedict and Beatrice, of Mercutio, and in the dialogues assigned to courtiers and gentlemen, by all the dramatic writers of that reign,) are stronger indications of natural superiority, and, therefore, more becoming signs and accompaniments of artificial rank, than apathy, studied mediocrity, and the ostentation of wealth. When I think of the vigour and felicity of style characteristic of the age, from Edward VI. to the restoration of Charles, and observable in the letters and family memoirs of noble families--take, for instance, the Life of Colonel Hutchinson, written by his widow-I cannot suppress the wish- that the habits of those days could return, even though they should bring pedantry and Euphuism in their train !

began this scrawl, a friend reminded but in all of these,

my preliminary conme of a letter I wrote him many years tributions ; viz. That by the reader's ago, on the improvement of the mind, agreement with the principles, and by the habit of commencing our inqui- sympathy with the general feelings, ries with the attempt to construct the which they are meant to impress, the most absolute or perfect form of the ob- interest of myfuture contributions, and ject desiderated, leaving its practicabi- still more, their permanent effect, will lity, in the first instance, undetermi- be heightened ; and most so in those, ned. An essay, in short, de emenda- in which, as narrative and imaginative tione intellectûs


ideas—the benefic compositions, there is the least shew of cial influence of which, on his mind, reflection, on my part, and the least nehe spoke of with warmth. The main cessity for it,-though I fatter myself contents of the letter, the effect of not the least opportunity on the part which, my friend appreciated so high- of my readers. ly, were derived from conversation with It will be better too, if I mistake not, a great man, now no more. And as I both for your purposes and mine, to have reason to regard that conversation have it said hereafter, that he dragged as an epoch in the history of my own slow and stiff-knee'd up the first hill, mind, I feel myself encouraged to hopę but sprang forward as soon as the road that its publication may not prove use- was full before him, and got in fresh; less to some of your numerous readers, than that he set off in grand style to whom Nature has given the stream, broke up midway, and came in brokenand nothing is wanting but to be led winded. Finis coronat opus. into the right channel. There is one other motive to which I must plead

Your's, &c. conscious, not only in the following,



To a Junior Sophy at Cambridge. OFTEN, my dear young friend! often, and tell him, that he brought to my reand bitterly, do I regret the stupid pre- collection the glorious passage in Plojudice that made me neglect my ma- tinus, “ Should any one interrogate thematical studies, at Jesus. There is Nature how she works ? if graciously something to me enigmatically attrac- she vouchsafe to answer, she will say, tive and imaginative in the generation It behoves thee to understand me (or of curves, and in the whole geometry better, and more literally, to go along of motion. I seldom look at a fine pro- with me) in silence, even as I am sispect or mountain landscape, or even at lent, and work without words ;”—but a grand picture, without abstracting you have a Plotinus, and may construe the lines with a feeling similar to that it for yourself.-(Ennead 3. 1. 8. c. 3.) with which I should contemplate the attending particularly to the comparigraven or painted walls of some tem- son of the process pursued by Nature, ple or palace in Mid Africa,—doubt- with that of the geometrician. And ful whether it were mere Arabesque, now for your questions respecting the or undecyphered characters of an un- moral influence of W.'s minor poems. known tongue, framed when the lan- Of course, this will be greatly modifiguage of men was nearer to that of na- ed by the character of the recipient. ture-a language of symbols and cor. But that in the majority of instances it respondences. I am, therefore, far has been most salutary, I cannot for a more disposed to envy, than join in the moment doubt. But it is another queslaugh against your fellow-collegiate, for tion, whether verse is the best way

of amusing himself in the geometrical disciplining the mind to that spiritual construction of leaves and fowers. alchemy, which communicates a ster

Since the receipt of your last, I ne- ling value to real or apparent trifles, ver take a turn round the garden with- by using them as moral diagrams, as out thinking of his billow-lines and your friend uses the oak and fig-leaves shell-lines, under the well-sounding as geometrical ones.

To have formed names of Cumäids and Conchöids; the habit of looking at every thing, not they have as much life and poetry for for what it is relative to the purposes me, as their elder sisters, the Naids, and associations of men in general, but Nereids, and Hama-dryads. I pray for the truths which it suited to repreyou, present my best respects to him, sent to contemplate objects as words

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