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roes of their own country. Whilst the dreary anathemas of the church, hearing them, the other chiefs melted joy broke often the bondage of fear, in tears,-nor was Attila’s iron heart emboldened the neophytes to give freeuntouched :—with sadness in his look, dom to their hearts, and then the exhe took his son on his knees, and istence of human being was often one with his callous hand passed over the ecstacy of song. Where, therefore, the tender cheeks of the infant, designed political and spiritual power has been heir to his glory and power.

sess heavy in oppression, you might, · Those bards did not remain in one even now-a-days, find the holy rites of particular place or country, but went olden times performed, ånd the hea-' from tribe to tribe as judges, media- then song pure and free, or mixed and tors, priests, and instructors. They encumbered with Christian ideas, ring wandered with their songs and their amid our peasantry. gests - a sort of musical harp-froin The occasions at which this happens one land to another. Their sonorous are different; they seem, however, to lay rung often in the scattered villages, be such as were predominant in the over the extensive plains, sometimes days of the former existence of that re-echoed amid the Carpathian moun- nation; in like manner, as there are tains, sometimes along the banks of moments in the human life, which are Vistula, Elba, Wolga, and Danube. pre-eminent above all others, the reThe waters of this last river, in pre- membrance of which is lasting, and ference, were praised by them as holy. almost indissoluble from its duration. Toland, your countryman, if his autho Thus, on St John's night, at the rity is to be trusted, asserts even, that summer tropic of the sun, you would thé Celtic bards had borrowed their see, in all the Sclavonian countries, in harp from their Scythian fellow-bards; some more, in others less frequent, and the Scythians, according to the his- burning fires on the fields, or on the torical researches, are the same as the banks of rivers ; the manly youth, with Sclavonians.

strongarms, rubbing pieces of dry wood T'ime changing the form of things, on each other, and eliciting what they þrought also change into our poetry. call the pure and holy fire; hereafter The abolishment of the democratical, dancing around, and jumping over its or rather patriarchal government, pre- high blazing flames. At the same time vailing at that time over all Sclavonian you would see unmarried daughters of countries-troubles ensued between villages, kindle at this fire their waxthe numerous petty princes—the ina candles, and with the wreaths twined erease of their unlimited power over of wild flowers, send them down with the people--these, and such other cir- the current of the streams. From their cumstances, influencing the exterior slowness or rapidity in floating along, state of society, acted likewise injuri- they predict for themselves the sooner ously on poetry; for having reduced or later fulfilment of their vows and man and all his welfare to a fluctua. wishes. During this act, they used to ting form, and subjected to a caprici. sing old songs, some of them so old, ous disposal of an arbitrary will, they that their meaning in the progress of oppressed also his mind, his feeling, ages has been lost, but the more mysand imagination ; and thus bringing terious is the riddle of their words, the into the human existence a dismay and more are they relished and dear to servility, brought at the same time a their anxious hearts. mental incapacity and darkness. An You would see before the sun-set of interruption, or rather a total blank of a fine autumn day, approach towards mental exertions ensued, and reigned the White Hall, (dwelling of a landfor many centuries in the literary his- lord,) a crowd of both sexes, old and tory of that extensive nation.

young, with solemn song and rural The zeal of Christian convertors fi- music. They are the reapers--they nished what slavery had begun, and come to celebrate the festival of har. with all its heaviness, would not have vest, and to be joyous. At the head accomplished. Their eagerness could of this crowd proceed two virgins, not suffer any other song besides their beauties of the village-their heads liturgy. They endeavoured to check crowned with wreaths, one of the ears and silence the free and natural effu- of wheat, the other of rye, both intersions of the human heart as impure for woven with manifold Aowers. When the lips of a Christian. But in spite of they are before the White Hall, they

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e offer to their landlord and landlady' is twofold, either amorous or heroic, es those symbols of plenty and wealth of its subject being love or power; but

the fruitful soil, and, in doing so, pro- love and power of times that are no 11 nounce a blessing. Next this act folo more, and over whose tombs a mourne at lows a national circle dance, the land- ing spirit strikes his charming string, at #lord leads the first pair, with one of times bold, at times tender, but almost by the rustic Floras, his guests and pea- always in a slow, mournful, and mee Asants behind him; and thus, in mirth lancholy strain. This grief with joy hi and joviality, they drink, sing, and is common to all people, whose deeds,

dance the whole night away, the star as well as existence, are of yore; whose s ry blue heavens over their heads, the glory is a pleasing past dream, and la green turf under their feet. Some of whose true and real life we do but see

the more ingenious in this Saturna- on the dead pages of history. she lian company, display a wit in making Several collections of the remains of

extempore stanzas, which they sing, these old songs have been made with ti adapted to their known melodies, and us, but in many respects they are far of some of those productions are truly behind your Border Minstrelsy. The iba humorous, and burlesque, ridiculing richest and finest harvest of them has.

the peasants, the landlord, and often been gathered among the Sclavonian the monarch himself.

tribes under the Turkish Government. You would perceive in the midnight Their easy, and rather pastoral than darkness, the virgins steal to the hal- agricultural life, under a soft and mos lowed fountains. You would hear derate climate, fits well for the poeticalthere the music of an old song, like a pastimes, and raises them high in poem breeze, “ that breathes upon a bank of try and music, above all their northviolets,” chaunted in a low and languid ern brethren ; whose habitations, the voice, but too loud to be unheard in nearer they approach to the frozen rethe dewy night. You would see them gions, the closer seem to be wrapt in holding converse with the murmuring silence. The South-Sclavonians kept waters, and sighing to them the secrets constantly in political isolation from of their heart-ask counsel and return the rest of Europe, or far from being consoled and ween that thus they had influenced by the foreign and refined removed the veil from their future des- literature ; their mind, therefore, une tinies.

folds itself independently, and pours Some old customs and usages, even forth treasures of ideas and feelings of the eagerness of religion itself was not its own. Some pieces of their poetry, able to extinguish ; and the clergy, se- which must needs be as original as its vere at first, were at last forced to yield sources are unalloyed, are of an exquito their intrusion, and let them mix site beauty, and were appreciated, and with the ceremonies of the Christian thought even worth translating, by, Faith. Thus you would see the wede men of such a repute as Ferder Goethe, del pair go and return from the church and Bradrinski. Of the tender king, with music and song. The songs are the Wife of Assan-Agi is undoubtedly addressed to Leda, Goddess of Love, the finestspecimen of elegiac traditional to the moon, to the stars. The bride poetry. It is in the Morlæo-Sclavonic wears on her head a wreath of ever. dialect, and has been translated into difgreen wasilok and ruba, and is praised ferent European languages. The Ser. in songs as Queen. Amid shouts of vians excel principally in celebrating joy, and waving of banners, she pro- deeds of arms. There exist with them ceeds with her bridegroom to the White numerous warlike songs in praise of Hall, to bow there before the patri- their old kings and heroes, down to the archal landlord, and receive from him famous George Ozermy; and praises presents.

await now the victorious prince YpsalOn those, and such-like occasions, anty. He fights in the sacred cause of you would hear the songs of olden freedom, as the former did; and the detimes revived; and hence you may con- fenders of freedom among the Sclavo« clude that a great deal of traditional nians never were left unsung. poetry is circulating amidst our peo

Thus many rer

of old minstrel. ple, and it represents the image of sy are scattered over all the Sclavonian the social and religious life of the old countries, in songs and oral traditions Sclavonians. Its spirit upon the whole of the people ; which, if gathered to i VOL. X.


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gether, combined with the annals of its greatness and glory-A sigh, which their history, interwoven with the ten- heard by a wanderer of Vistula, on the dency of the real character and existe banks of Thames, or along the Forth, ence of Sclavonians, would furnish ma- recalls to his mind all his home-bred terials, if not for the general, at least sympathies.” He consoles himself in for the local, national poetry. Its the Pleasures of Hope, reads Lochiel

, sources, although they are not so rich and sheds tears over the immortal as in Scotland, are nevertheless more pages, as the generous bard did at the extensive than those of any European injured shrine of Humanity. people. And where are the limits to I know that you like to consider mar

. them? From the sources of the ri. under different aspects, and trace his ver Elbe and the Baltic, till the Black moral being through the history of the Sea, from the Adriatic Sea till the re- manifold exertions of his mind, and motest boundaries of Northern Asia, social relations. I know that you take what an immensity of lands! And of him the highest and most exteneverywhere dwell the Sclavonian inha- sive view, from which you easily mark bitants; and in how countless tribes! the mysteries of his divine origin and And each individual among them has destination; therefore, I hope, it will his five senses, through which he re-. not be unpleasing to you that colouring, ceivesexternalimpressions—has a brain however little it be, of the great image that vibrates with thought-has an of my kindred nation, a nation that heart that overflows with joy and woe, occupies more place on the globe than -has passions that carry his being to pages in the history—that contains in actions worthy of an angel or a demon. itself an embryo to the fulfilment of Besides, what riches of ideas must pour its great moral and political designs; 1; forth from their different social rela- a nation that, in its various and almost tions to each other, and to Deity! Tru- innumerable tribes of which it is comly a richness of sources that is amazing posed, under different climes and gofor a systematical observer, and rather vernments, in spite of disdain and fomore fit for the irregular ecstacy of an reign oppression, did not lose the proenthusiast, or a high-minded poet.- totype of its original character,--had There should be born Sir Walter Scotts, followed for many centuries, and folto recal from beneath the mountain- lows till now-a-days, its own class of tombs, (Kurhany) overgrown with ideas, and is particular in its social moss and weeds, the bold spirit of the virtues—whose principles of morality old Sclavonian chivalry. There should consist in paternal sayings planted from be born Burnses and Ettrick Shepherds fathers down to their grand-childrento give us an ideal of agricultural and whose poetry is chiefly in songs adorna pastoral life; and born should be those ed with images and shades of pastoral also, for whom

and agricultural life,-whose music is “ The meanest flower that blows can give like a uniform wailing of orphan-childThoughts that do often lie too deep for ren, who even in their revelry seem not tears.”

to forget that they revel on the tombs Many should be born who would fol- lives on the produce of its fruitful soil

of their venerable sires; a nation that low Lord Byron; who, by choosing almost alone, or on its numerous flocks, our Mazeppa for his poem, has not in and disdains all commercial traffic as the least disgraced his pen, nor wrong- sordid ; that is poor in its stores, but

ed his wild imagination. Its wildness rich in’kindness, and warm in hospita-
has been rather gratified on the wild lity,—whose scattered tribes look with
places of Ukraine, And many who bitter hatred on a foreign yoke, and are
would follow your Campbell, who did
not also disgrace his pleasures of Hope selves any other law imposed, except

stubborn to acknowledge over themby a heart-rending sigh ;

theirancient usages and customs, which ^ Hope, for a season, bade the world faren they revere; whose leading character well,

is mildness, submission, and fidelity to And Freedom shriek'd as Kosciusko their legitimate superiors-cordiality fell !"

between the remotest relations of one A sigh, worthy to be placed as an family-high respect to the grey paepitaph to the whole nation, which has triarchal hair-particular love to their thus been laid into the grave with all country, and valour in defending its



rights. Of this many instances are ex- laws. This similarity of character can su tant, worthy to be notioed as high ex be accounted for but by their common

amples in the history of patriotism. origin alone, and consanguinity; ac. w Some defended gloriously their li. cording to which, should it ever be au berties, and, prodigal of blood and possible to unite all the family mem. My far lives, took vengeance on those who bers into one whole, they would, at er dared eneroach upon them. Some, the circle of their home, and at the ss der who could not restore freedom to their same tutelary hearth, reassume their

country, exiled themselves for ever, national character in all its purity, and in other parts of the world sought by its saluary influence, rise in mildas a hospitality and tombs. Some enrolled ness and strength to the splendour of

themselves'under foreign banners, bled, moral dignity and greatness. * u guided by glimpses of a deceitful hope, These are the short and desultory CK crowned with laurels, if not their va- considerations concerning the Sclavood uslorous temples, their glorious tombs. nians, which the translation here enFor A Death itself seemed to them a victory, closed did suggest to me, and my little De who could not endure to see the land skill in English permitted to write I hof their forefathers groaningin slavery, down; should they, nevertheless, please I that and to whom a life without freedom your leisure hour, for they do not de.. was worse than death.

serve any other time, I would be happy a Such is the spirit and tendency of to remember having done any thing the gi mind common to each people of Sela- to your satisfaction. I remain, Elat alá vonian race; to those who boast to Sir, tuto have their own free government, or

Your most obedient tical da are grown up to great political power,

Servant, us andi as to those who dispersed in various

C. L. S. nich is climates, led a precarious existence, as Edinburgh, 28th July, 1821. Eines a subject to foreign governments and

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A Sclavonian Tale. ( Translated from the Bohemo-Sclavonian Dialect.) AMIDST a dark wood appears a rock. from the bottom of my heart, where 135* On the rock appears the valiant Zaboy. is the seat of bitterness. it me He looks around on all the lands be “ The father is gone to his fathers.

neath-looking, sighs and weeps, with He left behind in his paternal hall his

dove-like tears. Long there he sits, children and beloved wives. Dying, se and long is sad.

he told his will to none, (save to his. At once up he starts, and like a stag eldest brother :) Dear brother! thoy springs down the rock.

He runs mayest say to all with a father's voice: through the wood, through the wood's “ A stranger will here force his

long solitary wild. He speeds then way, and overrun our native land. In, z from man to man, from warrior to foreign tongue he will command, as;

warrior, through all the country. Few he in other parts hath done. He will content words, and in secret, he speaks to compel you to work for him-you,

each: and having bowed in thanks to your children, and your wives, from de God, he swift returned to his friends. the rising till the setting sun. And

Thus passed the first day, thus the no more than one friend (wife) shall

second ; but, as the moon arose on the you have, all the onward way from by third night, the warriors gathered to the spring of your life till the grave.

the dark wood. To greet them, Zaboy All the hawks of your woods they will descends into the glen-into the deep scare away, and to such gods as est glen of the thickest wood.

other countries are, will force you to In his hand a sweet-sounding lute bow and sacrifice. Ah, brethren! he took, and sung:

neither to strike our foreheads before "Ye warriors of kindred hearts and our gods will we dare, nor reach them sparkling eyes! I sing from beneath a food, where our father wont to bring, song to you; it comes from my heart them offerings, where he raised his

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prayers. They will fell down our left, the warriors-proceed through the woods, and break all our gods.” wood. Here they range at the words “Alas, dear Zaboy! thy

song comes of Zaboy, there at the words of Sla. from the heart, and goes to the heart woy, their chiefs; and so move, beto a heart drowned in bitterness. Like neath the gloom of the trees, onward Lumir, minstrel of yore, who enrap- to the blue heights of the mountains ; tured Wyszogrod, and all the lands and, after three suns had passed, they i around; so thou hast touched me and reached to each other their vigorous all my brethren here. All good min, hands, and spied, with the fox's look, strels are beloved by gods: from them the king's warriors. thou hast thy song, to awaken courage Ludeck, range thou thy warriors against the foes.

ụnto one (battle). Ludeck, thou art Zaboy threw a look on Slawoy's slave above all slaves to the kings. $ kindled eyes, and retook his song : Tell thou thy savage tyrant, that his

“ Two sons, whose voices to manly orders are smoke to us. strength had grown, went often to the And Ludeck kindled in wrath. wood. There they exercised their skill, Straight with one call gathers his warin sword, battle-axe, and spear; there riors. Full light is beneath the heathey concealed their weapons ; but vens. Each way in the sun-beams the when their arms and mind gained spears of kingly power glitter bright. strength, they with joy retook them Ready they are to go where Ludeck to take the field against the foe. Fol. goes, and to strike where he comlowed they were by other manly bre- mands. thren, and together gave front to the “Now, Slawoy, dear brother ! haste foe. There was a fight like a stormy thither with fox's steps. I'll go and heaven, but the bliss of former days strike them in the front." returned to their home."

And Zaboy struck in the front like All at once they sprung into the hail; and Slawoy struck in the side dale towards Zaboy. Each one pressed like hail. him in his sinewy arms. Then, from “ Alas, brother ! they are those who breast to breast they passed their have broken our Gods ; felled down hands, and exchanged gathering words. our groves ; scared away our hawks. And the night

approached to the Gods will give us victory." dawn. They left the dale, each going And a front of numerous hosts, lonely. To every thicket to all sides headed by Ludeck, rushes against Zaof the wood they went. One day boy; and Zaboy, with flaming eyes, passed, and so another; and whilst rushes against Ludeck. Like oak the night darkened on the third, Za- against oak, seen both above the other boy proceeds to the woods, and through trees. the woods behind him follow hosts of Zaboy presses to Ludeck alone.warriors; each of them true to his Ludeck strikes with a heavy sword, chief; each with a heart too stubborn and cuts through the threefold fells of to obey a foreign king; each with a his shield. Zaboy strikes with an axe. sharp, weapon.

Ludeck swiftly avoided the blow. To“Now, Slawoy, dear brother! on to wards the tree fell the axe. The tree yon blue mountain's brow ; its summit falls down on the warriors, and thirty overlooks all the lands around. On, of them go to their fathers. let us bend our steps from the hills to Luderk in wrath: “ O thou baleful the morning sun, (to the east). There seed! thou great monster of serpents ! is a gloomy wood; there our hands with a sword fight with me.” may plight faith. Now, go thou thi. ther with fox’s steps; r’u follow thee from his foe's shield a corner. Ludeek,

Zaboy grasped the sword, and cuts behind.”

too, grasped his sword; but the sword “Ah, Zaboy ! trusty brother ! why slips down the iron shield. Both kinis it, that our swords must, from the dle in fire to wound Fach other. They top of the mountain, begin dreary bate cut in rags all they

had on; spread tles? Rather from this spot let us with blood all arouu

d them--with seek our foes, king's slaves!”

blood all the warriors, und all that was “Slawoy! dear brother! wilt thou in that gory battle. crush a viper, on its head put thy

The sun passed the nepon, and from foot, and there is the head."

noon to the evening half wayyet Dispersed to the right and to the they fought. Neither he

ere nor there

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