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nations, as now recognized, implies little more than a tolerable applied rules whereby individuals have been willing to give up knowledge of political science, with an understanding of the a portion of their natural independence and freedom of action, prevailing tendency of public thought, and a reasonable share to the judgment and will of others by whom they have been of quickness in apprehending the policy which will best sub- surrounded. Nor has it mattered, in the end, how or by whom serve the interests of all, regarded as one family of moral and these rules have been formed or promulgated, nor whether they intellectual actors.

were the uttered commands of a single sovereign, or the unTo show the relations of these several systems to each other written will of the body of his subjects. In either form they through the analogies of their histories, it is only necessary to became laws, and, as such, carried with them a sanction which note some of the steps through which the common law and ihat gave them the force and obligation of command, such too have of nations have passed, in tracing their rise from barba- been the results of a juxtaposition of clans, and tribes and narism to the refinements for which they are now distinguished. tions. They have, thereby, been taught the necessity of muBegioning with the former one must follow on through alter- tual forbearance and concession, which in time has grown into nate light and shade, from its first stage among the rude Britons a habit and acquired the force of law. And the extent to along the current of Roman, Saxon, Dane and Norman civili- which these amenities of national life have been carried, from zation, to the emancipation of the human mind from the slavery time to time, has served to mark the successive stages of refine of feudalism in the seventeenth century, and the freedom of ment to which civilization has attained. We look for such thought in which the present age rejoices. And as we con- manifestations in vain among the barbarous tribes of Africa or template these changes, we see the steps and processes by North America. We find them developed, in part only, in which they were wrought out, through the instrumentalities of Europe before the prevalence of the Christian religion, and, trade and commerce, of learning and the arts, and the human- even then, making but slow progress among her nations. izing influences of Christian revelation. If while thus tracing Piracy was honored among the Athenians in the palmiest days the growth of a better civilization, one stops to study its rela- of their eloquence, their poetry and their philosophy. And as tions to the law, he would find the law keeping even pace with late as the time of Cardinal Richelieu, who was living twenty the advancement of human progress, savage passion giving up years after the setilement of New England, it was a conceded its purposes of revenge to the milder charities of the State, and right in every nation to deal with strangers coming into a counthrough it society taking in charge its own peace and honor, try without the protection of a safe conduct, as public enemies. men would be found voluntarily yielding at its bidding, to the Nor was it by formal statutes or decrees of any one State or pojudgment of their fellows what they had once cherished as the tentate, however strong, that a change was wrought in ihe sacred function of an ordeal or a wager of battle. And the rules by which nations regulated their intercourse with each world besides would see how noiselessly and quietly society other. Much was indeed done by voluntary associations like began to understand and carry out the purposes for which men the Amphyctionic league among the States of Greece. Much were gathered into families, and neighborhoods and States, was effected by the introduction of a humane and Christian poliwhere the arts of peace and the amenities of social life drive cy under wise rulers like Charlemagne. The church accomout the selfish passions which isolate and degrade man as a sav- plished much, and, at the revival of letters in Europe, the lead. age.

ing minds of the age took up the work of giving direction to This, however, would be rather dealing with results, than public thought, by the treatises and essays upon government the details of how these things were accomplished. It would and the conduct of nations towards each other, which entered often be difficult to discriminate between the positive enact- into the living literature of the age. ments of direct legislation, and the less defined, but not less im- In this way public attention was aroused, and something like perative rule of action-the unspoken will of the many who a common sentiment awakened, so that when Grotius pubhave made it a law by obeying it.

lished his immortal work, the great fact lay open to the public If then, from such elements as these, a systein has been mind that “natural law is the code of States,' and that where evolved like that by which the vast and complicated interests of men, in a state of nature, would have framed and adopted such nations as England and the United States are cared for laws for their own safety and protection, nations should and and regulated, who will say that a like result may not be at ought to submit to self imposed laws, as an instinct of duty as tained through like processes, by bringing into harmony and well as of self-preservation. consistency, the elements of international law? Grant that

In this rapid and desultory recurrence to the past, if made inone nation may not legislate for another; they can torm com- telligible, enough will appear to justify a confident belief that pacts and treaties together, and bind each other in bonds which what is called the Law of Nations is as susceptible of being men of honor will not dare to break. Grant that there is no embodied and stated with definiteness and authority, as any part tribunal but the dread appeal to arms which nations have hither of the common law. Nay more, the proposition to codify ii, to 10 recognized for enforcing real or pretended rights and impiu- state its doctrines and principles clearly and intelligibly in an nities. There has been a power in public sentiment, growing institutional form, is, at the present day, far less chimerical or and strengthening year by year, which even despols have learned uncertain than the work which Justinian or Napoleon underto respect. And the dictales of a public conscience reach fur- took and achieved with 81 much glory and success. Nations ther than any march of conquering armies. And if, under the have learned by experience what laws they need, and what silent influences of Christian faith, the “ Avenger of blood” has they can, without sacrificing self-respect, obey; and they du been forced to give up his office of merciless retaliation to the not wait for some Alexander or Napoleon to lead them in peaceful ministrations of courts of justice, who will say that the measures of refurin. On the contrary, the student in his closet, same change may not be wrought in nations under the mild do- the man of affairs in Parliament, and the publicist in the lecture minion of law ?

room now wield a mightier prower in shaping the policy of a The analogy between the history of international and the nation than mere conquerors while leading on their hosts to common law in this respect, will be found to be most striking. batile. They both start at the same point-the dawning of civilization. How this work of codifying the law of nations is to be car

The early progress of each has been, alike, slow and gradual. ried on, is indeed less palpable to the common mind than the In each, the process has been a yielding of brute force to the giving form or stability io ihe Roman or the common law. The dictates of reason, and the inspiration of justice. And in the subject, at first thought, seems to be beyond the grasp of com. history of each is to be traced the progress of States and na

mon apprehension. Matters of peace and war, of national tions, frum barbarism to the high condition of civilization to faith and State obligation, of commerce and navigation, or which Europe and America have at length attained. Nor in points of controverted sovereignty are, to such minds, little betdealing with international law is there any occasion to specu- ier than abstractions, fit only for men in power or versed in late, as many have done, upon the origin of Slates, or allempt technical science to deal with. There is, however, a broad to solve the irue theory of government.

department of this same law of nations, which is known as priIt is enough that wherever men have been found grouped to- vaie international law, and is familiarly understood and admingether with a community of wants to be supplied, or desires 10 istered by the local independent courts of both continents. It bo gratified, ihey have, well nigh spontaneously, adopted and ignores Slate lines and separate sovereignties, and gives to the

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laws of one State, by courtesy of nations, the same validity and

NEW PUBLICATIONS. effect in all others which they would have at home. A contract, for example, entered into in London or Vienna with such

Capital Punishment.-Our able and devoted co-laborer, Wm. a rate of interest reserved therein as would render it void in G. Hubbard, has published in the Messenger of Peace, of the the courts of New York, if negotiated there, may be enforced | 10th and 11th months, an essay upon the above important theme. in these very courts, if valid where the contract was made. Like everything from his pen, this essay is able in argument, They treat it as it but one law, and that of the place of the contract, extended over both countries. So a marriage solemnized graceful and finished in style, and of a charming Christian before a civil magistrate in Massachusetts, whose laws recognize spirit. Mr. Hubbard proposes soon to publish it in pamphlets, it as valid, is as indissoluble under the very shadow of the at ten cents per copy, or $5 per 100. Vatican, as if it had been sanctified by all the rites of a Catholic

It can be had at our office, and also at the Friend's Publishsacrament. To the same extent, the moment any two nations recognize or adopt a rule as mutually binding, it becomes 10 ing House, New Vienna, Ohio, on receipt of the price. them a law whatever may be its origin, whether it spring from

William, Prince of Orange is the title of a book by Rev. T. a treaty, or a usage of trade, or is borrowed from the treatises of publicists whose opinions carry with them the sanction of M. Merriman, A. M., press of Henry Hoyt, No. 9 Cornhill, popular approval. Nor is it difficult to ascertain or illustrate Boston. This is a volume of 450 octavo pages, and is very what these principles of public and private international law instructive and interesting. It is printed and bound in Mr. are. They enter into the activities as well as the constitution. Hoyt's usual neat and excellent style. al organization of every well regulated State and government as well as into their relations to each other, whether studied in the history of the British Empire or in the annals of the so A Speck OF WAR.—Though the principles of peace are called Republic of San Marino. And 10 einbody, classify and certainly spreading, and producing benign changes in the inarrange these under such modifications as are suited to the tercourse of nations, there is now a speck of war in the horispirit of the age, in such a way as to frame them into a code, is Let God's people remember it in their prayers. neither assuming the province of a legislator, nor the preroga- Egypt and Turkey snarl and threaten each other. Egypt tive of a judge. It is simply borrowing from history her records longs io become a maritime power, and therefore is bent on of the past, as a light and guide to the coming age. !t calls, acquiring the islands of Crete, Rhodes and Cyprus. These indeed, for learning, sound judgment and wise discrimination, islands afford fine harbors, and a large supply of ship timber. but only such as may be found in every intelligent, well edu

Turkey opposes this, and seeks to maintain her naval supecated community. It is with such a field before them, and riority, and would by this change find Egypt a dangerous such facilities at their hand, that the Convention at Geneva are neighbor. Egyptis lusi of territory is no new thing. That very to enter upon their work.

impulse has prompted more than half the wars of earth. Wars

of conquest, and wars 10 retain conquests! When will manVIEWS OF WAR IN OLDEN TIME. kind dwell in brotherhood, and maintain their governments on

the same principles as adjust the conduct of individual neighThe following is an extract from the well-known book “ The bors ? Whole Duty of Man.” The date of the volume is 1700. The art and experience of undoing one another, of ruinating

Von Moltke's OPINION OF WAR.–Field-Marshal Count and destroying our owne proper kinde, seems to be unnaturali. Moltke, in a late letter 10 Dr. Braun, the translator of Camille It is a great testimonie of our weaknesse and imperfection; Rousset's work entitled Les Voluntaires de 1791, says, “I and is not found in beasts themselves, in whom the image of thank you for sending me your translation of Rousset’s interNature continueth farre more entire. What follie, what "rage esting book, Les Voluntaires; with your excellent account of the it is to runne thorow so many hazards, by sea and land, for a Commune appended. The translation will do much good. It thing so uncertaine as the issue of warre. To runne, with is sad enough when armies are compelled to lacerate each such greedinesse and fiercenesse, after death, which is easily other; but it is absolute return to barbarism when whole nations found everywhere. And without hope of sepulture, to kill are let loose. Warfare by regular armies is like a thunderthose we hate not, nor ever saw! What frensie, and madness storm devastating doomed tracts of land with fearful effect. is this, for a man to abandon his owne bodie, his time, his rest, But a struggle like the one now going on in Spain, may be his life, his libertie, and leave all to the mercy of another aptly compared to a fetid atinosphere destroying the harvest of To expose himselfe to the losse of his owne members : and all a whole kingdom.

Yours truly, this to serve of a ruler, and which he knows not to be just, Sept. 22, 1874.

MOLTKE." and is commonly unjust, for warres are commonly unjust ; and for him whom he knows not, and who takes so little for him that fights for him.

WORDS OF Advice.-Dr. Benjamin Rush says, “ The dura

tion of life does not appear to depend so much upon the strength Robert LINDLEY MURRAY.–We sincerely mourn the sud- of the body, or upon ihe quality of its excitability, as upon an

exact accommodation of stimuli to each of them. A water den death of this devoted friend of peace, and adopt as our own spring will last as long as an anchor, provided the forces which the following expression:

are capable of destroying both are always in an exact ratio “In the sudden decease of this widely-known and beloved to their strength.” This golden thought is commended to Friend, a loss has been sustained, under Providence, of more those who make no effort to control their temper. Every time than usual severity. As clerk of New York Yearly Meeting, you let your angry passions rise, you overtask or strain the minister of the Gospel, Bible School worker, and actively con- forces so nicely organized to carry you far down the green slope cerned in other religious and benevolent labors connected with of green old age. The vjolent and irregular action of the pasthe Society, his was a place, hard, indeed, when thus made sion tends to wear away the spring of life. vacant, to refill. Struck down as he was by an accidenta) injury, in the prime of life, with the awfulness of the warning comes also the consolatory remembrance, that · Blessed are the sing very sweetly dnring the mating time and while their

Mankind and birdkind are alike in many points. Some will dead who die in the Lord.'»

feathers are bright but when they settle down to domestic life,

and the birdlings are grown big, the boy-birds with feathers on Teach your children to love.--to love the rose, to love the their chins, and the girl-birds with feathers in their bonnets, robin, to love their parents, 10 love their God. Lei it be the and the father and mother bırds' feathers are getting old fashstudied object of their domestic culture to give them warm ioned, they stop singing, and get very prosy. Then there are hearis, ardent affections. Bind your whole family by these others who never stop singing, from ihe time they choose their strong corde. You cannot make them too strong.

mate till the twain enter the golden gate.

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THE ADVOCATE OF PEACE. Its highest promise is in the facts that it is pre-eminently cus

mopolitan in its constitution, membership and work; that it

aims at the best interests of all nations by preventing wars and BOSTON, DECEMBER, 1874. by strengthening the bonds of peace ; and that its power is 10 be

exerted by using the highest political wisdom in accordance with the principles of public morality and of civil and religious liberty. Ils scope is wide, its objects are permanent, its meas. ures cautious, and it deserves the support, and should have the prayers of all who love peace and hate war.”

The Advance, Chicago, says:

• This movement is one of the enterprises which has upon it WORDS OF CIIEER.

the divine seal of a beneficent destiny, and will gradually reNext to the approval of God, and of one's own conscience, is sult in the creation of a public sentiment, that will be a better to be prized the approbation of the wise and the good among

guaranty of peace than any nuaiber of standing armies." our fellow-men. Expressions of such approbation often pow. the leading organs of public opinion regarding the work in

Such are examples of the expressions of the leaders, and of erfully stimulate and encourage us to persevere in great and

which we are engaged. difficult undertakings. We cannot adequately express our thanks to the many jour

We cannot be too grateful for them. But we have referred nals, secular and religious, of this and of other lanıls, and to to them here prominently as an introduction to an urgent apthe many individuals that are so strongly commending the real which we are now compelled to make, for the funds reqoperations of the Peace Society, and the movement inaugurated

uisite to prosecute this noble Christian work.

The officers of our society (who, we need not say, are genwithin the last two years for securing the “fellowship of the nations under the dominion of Law in the bonds of Peace.” Hemen whose judgment is entitled to the highest respect,) have We doubt if ever a great Christian and philanthropic enterprise recently given serious and protracted attention to ihe present at its commencement has been hailed with more general favor opportunities for promoting the peace cause, and the means than this, which unites in one association the friends of peace tence of the society. They have themselves not only given

absolutely demanded to improve them, and continue the exisof different lands.

liberally of their time and thought, but have also made generWe might extract from periodicals and letters that we have received expressions of satisfaction with the recent Geneva ous donations of money. They have unanimously decided that

an appeal must be made to philanthropic and benevolent citiConference and its proceedings, that would fill quite a volume. We can here give but a few of them ; but these will show the zens, and to churches of different denominations, to allow this

cause to have a share of their benevolent contributions. general tenor of all. That veteran champion of Peace, Elihu Burritt, writes to tribution for this object, which Mr. Sumner has truly said is

It is thought the churches will be disposed to take one conthe secretary :“ When I see what an International Association has been or

As lufty as truth, and as universal as hu nity."

In ganized, I am perfectly astonished. Nothing like it has been

support of this appeal is submitted the following resoluseen before in the history of nations. It is truly grand, and tion, which, among others, was recenily adopted by the Sufmust greally inpress all the governments of Christendom. folk North A sssociation of Congregational clergymen :I congratulate you, and share your joy and hope in the con

Resolved, That we cheerfully renew to onr beloved brother, summation."

Rev. J. B. Miles, D. D., the expression of our high appreciaDr. Hopkins, ex-President of Williams College, and Presi- tion of his self-denying and arduous labors, our conviction of dent of the Board of Foreign Missions writes :

the importance of his mission in the United States and in trans“ I congratulate you on your safe return, and the good work atlantic countries, both in itself and in its relation to other benes. you have done while abroad. The line of work in which you

olent enterprises, being an efficient agert of promoting them, are engaged, it seems to me, onght to be prosecuted, and I our grateful sense of the encouragement afforded him and ibose hope you will feel encouraged to continue to labor in it.” he represents, our sympathy, prayers and co-operation; and

we earnestly commend him and the cause which he advocates He encloses a generous donation to aid the cause, and ex- to the support of the churches, and to the patronage of the phipresses regret that it cannot be more.

lanthropic and benevolent among our fellow-citizens. A small Hon. Gerritt Smith writes :

part of the three thousand million dollars expended annually to " I have just finished reading the very interesting Report of this cause, we have reason to think would speedily advance it

support the present war system of nations, it contribnied to the Geneva Conference. It moves me to send you my cheque for to a final and glorious consummation. In iis , resent state, a twenty-five dollars. Heaven will not fail to bless your grand hundred dollars contributed to it, may prove a more efficient movement, for it evidently is from Heaven."

means of good than a thousand dollars given to some other As specimens of the comments of influential journals, we objects." give the following. The Congregationalist, Boston, says :- We are constrained to add, if this appeal shall not meet with

• This truly and grandly Christian object is certaiuly now a favorable response, the officers of the Peace Society can see receiving very intelligent and effective service, and we congral- no alternative but a serious curtailment of a work which is now ulate Secretary Miles on the general interest which his efforts

full of promise. continue to awaken.” Zion's Herald, Boston, says, referring to the report:

The question which they most respectfully submit to intelli“Every lover of his race, and believer in the ultimate tri- gent, Christian and philanthropic people is, shall this cause umph of the Prince of Peace, will take courage from the peru- have the pecuniary means requisite for its support? sal of the assuring statements of this comprehensive report." Let each person to whom this appeal shall come give it fav. The Christian Intelligencer, New York, says :

orable attention. When by civilized nations three thousand “In the name of Christianity and of civilization we hail the millions of dollars are annually paid for war, must it be said it establishment of this International Association with the greatest is impossible to raise a few thousands of dollars for peare? satisfaction, and bid it Gød-speed in its benevolent mission.

SOCIETY'S OFFICE, Congregational House Room 31.

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PEACE MEETING AT PORTLAND.

This is no visionary theory, for it has just been reduced to

practice by two of the greatest military powers of the globe. Dr. James B. Miles, of Boston, lectured three times in this How delicate, complicated and irritating were the questions incity, upon the above theme, on Sunday last,-in the morning volved in our Alabama claims. Yet Great Britain proposed at the Congress square Church, in the afternoon at the Chest- arbitration, and the Joint High Commission which tried the nut street Church, and in the evening at the First Parish.

case promptly awarded us a satisfactory judgment which was

immediately obeyed by our losing adversary. Thus, without On each occasion large and intelligent audiences were pres- delay or loss, without derangement of American or British ent and listened with close attention to the lectures, which were trade or industry, without disturbance of the commerce of the very instructive and interesting.

world, without the loss of a life, or a moment's suffering, fifteen At the evening meeting, after the devotional exercises, con- millions and a half of British gold was transferred to our ducted by Rev. Mr. Dalton, of the Episcopal Church, address result of this first great effort to conduct international affairs

national treasury, and all our grievances satisfied. Is not this es were made by Judge C. W. Goddard who presided, Dr. upon the doctrines of Jesus Christ, a more pleasing spectacle Miles, Rev. Dr. Hill, ex-President of Harvard College, ‘and than a contemplation of the horrors even of a successful war ex-Gov. Washburn of Portland.

between the two Anglo-Saxon families ? " And if these

things are done in the green tree, what shall be done in the Dr. Miles, in the cuurse of his address, gave a brief account of the very interesting and important conference recently held Now this society, which owes its origin, practically, to the at Geneva.

zeal and labors of a Maine man, the late Captain William Ladd, The above extract is from a report contained in the Boston ternational Code Committee, and the formation of International

of Minot, in this Courty, aims, by the appoiutment of an In. Traveller of the 10th November.

Peace Congresses, to bring about the organization of a permaWe are very happy to give (although for want of room nent Peace Congress, and thereby the creation of a permanent somewhat abbreviated,) the excellent addresses of Judge God- tribunal for the authoritative, peaceful adjustment of all inter

national differences. dard, and ex-Gov. Israel Washburn, made at the meeting Doubtless even under this system absolute justice may not above-mentioned. They are noble words for peace. We had always be attained, for it is not always attainable in our highhoped to have had also, in time for this number, the very able est courts of law or equity ; but what an immeasurable imaddress of ex-President Hill. Our readers may expect to see time immemorial almost perpetual wars, and a legacy of gigan

provement over the ancient system which has given us from it in the next Advocate. He dwelt with much force upon the tic national debts. disasters to internal and international commerce wrought by The imagination can hardly picture a more august spectacle war, and expressed much pleasure in the recent successes that than a permanent Peace Congress open to the whole world, have attended the efforts of the Peace Association, and his firm its fundamental institutions adopted by the several governments,

and actually composed of nearly all its civilized nations, with belief in the ultimate triumph of the great cause.

its laws enacted by its Senate, where each nation, great and small, has an equal voice; and its House of Representatives,

based on relative population, each member representing, perThe object of the American Peace Society is the abolition of haps, ten millions of people, and its President elected by the

Congress from the sovereigns or Presidents of the different nawar between nations. Our aim is practical, consistent, philanthropic, statesman- declare with authority the code of nations, while an interna

tions this august Congress holding occasional sessions to like and Christian, simple yet comprehensive. Our sole purpose tional court appointed by the Congress or by the respective is the doing away with iniernational war, because we regard nations, composed of the

ablest jurists of the world, shall adminit as barbarous, unchristian, inhuman, and, in the present age, ister that code between litigating powers. absolutely indefensible.

Then would international “ wars and rumors of wars It is true that the great and the good of all ages have shuddered at the horrors of war, and condemned its needless atroc- English litigants ; and the visions of prophets and apostles be

come as obsolete as piracy, or as “the wager of battel" between ities ; hut poeis, philanthropists and statesmen did not clearly fulfilled. discern how international wars could be averted, nor did they

Perhaps that day may not be far distant, for already many realize the magnitude of the loss and suffering which they entail upon the other nations of the earth. So that while our the lifetime of some of us, nations may thus begin to “ beat

run to and fro, and knowledge is increased ; possibly within ancestors felt that war mist be unnatural and unholy, because their swords into plough-shares, and their spears into pruningit violates the commands of Christ and his apostles, and defaces hooks, and to learn war no more." the brightest visions of the Hebrew prophets; and because it reverses natural law, by so often compelling parents to bury their children, still The bursting shell, the gateway wrenched asunder,

MR. WASHBURN said that the cause which had been so forThe crash of musketry, the clashing blade,

cibly presented this evening by Dr. Miles needed no advocacy And ever and anon, in lones of thunder, The diapason of the cannonaue,"

from him—indeed, it was so strong in itself that it could hardly

be said to need advocacy from any one. The reasons why of which our orn poet has sung. were classed with “pesti- wars should cease, being wasteful and demoralizing beyond lence and famine am'ng the inevitable calamities with which expression, barbarous and wholly unnecessary, accomplishing an All-wise but inscrutable Providence had been pleased to nothing that could not be secured in a better way, were so afflict the lot of humanity. But it is fast becoming evident to many, so obvious and unanswerable, that one felt embarrassed right-minded and intelligent men, that war is not only one of in speaking upon the question. He could say nothing that the greatest possible evils to the belligerent nations, but a everybody did not see and feel as well as he did. He could serious injury in all the rest of the world ; so serious, indeed, only repeat what he had said-war was the spring of infinite as to justify their interference in behalf of international peace, evils, of woes unutterable ; and it did, it could do no good. It as might easily be shown on principles of strict political econ- could not cast out evil, being itself the prince of evils. The omy. Besides, international war is now seen to be both use- statement of Dr. Miles that the number of picked and ableless and unnecessary.

bodied men in the armies of the world exceeded eight millions, Useless, because it settles nothing in dispnte, deciding only had impressed him deeply, as to the cost of war, as to its exthe single question of temporary military superiority: Unnec- hausting effects upon the nations. Consider, he said, not merely essary, because everything in dispute might be setiled finally the burden of taxation required for the maintenance of armies so and equitably in a peaceful manner.

vast, but the loss to the productive industries of the world, and

ADDRESS OF JUDGE C. W. GODDARD.

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ADDRESS OF HON. ISRAEL WASHBURN.

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the evils engendered by the existence of such armies, the demor-running ; no fitting out of Alabamas and no hospitality to alizations and crime ! Perhaps the unprofitableness of war Shenandoahs." could not be illustrated better than by the history of England The assistance from foreign lands, which protracted the war for the last hundred years. At the commencement of the more than two years, and cost this nation, in one way and Revolutionary war her debt was but a few millions ; at its another, more than three thousand millions of dollars, and half close, when the colonies had been lost to her forever, her debt a million of lives, would never have been given if there bad was two hundred and thirty-nine millions sterling. Unwilling been such a code in existence, and a proper tribunal for the ento stop here, with the loss of the brightest jewel in his crown, forcement of its provisions. Would not the cost of such a triher obstinate and insensate king, discarding the counsels of bunal have been small indeed compared with the good it would Fox, the soundest thinker and wisest statesman of England, have accomplished ? swaying and controlling the narrower minds that were prepared Was such a tribunal impracticable now? He did not think to accept any policy he might favor, he plunged the country so. Dr. Fiill has told us that what ought to be done can be into a war with France, for ends which did not really concern done, and Daniel Webster had said, “If a thing ought to be him. This war begun without right and without plausible done, an ingenious man could tell how it could be done.” Surely excuse, was protracted with slighi interruptions for nearly a the wisdom of the Christian peoples of the earth is adequate to quarter of a century. And what good came of it to him, to his this work. The interest in it which will lead up to its accomkingdom and people, or to anybody else? No man can tell. plishment has begun to be manifested. Men will think of it Nor can any man enumerate or adequately describe the suffer- and discuss it more and more ; its importance and feasibility ings and woes that he occasioned by this war, not to the people will be more clearly apprehended, and their hearts will go of Great Britain alone, but to those of all Europe. He restored freely with their convictions. We shall see, some of us who the Bourbons, indeed, to the throne of France ; but were they are now living, the triumph of this cause so dear and so sweet worth restoring at such terrible cost? And what benefit to Eny- to every Christian human heart. land, France or any nation resulted from that restoration ? And I do not forget, continued Mr. Washburn, what may be where are the Bourbons now? But although George the Third regarded, perhaps, as the best defence of war-if one defence failed to permanently strengthen the House of Bourbon, he suc- can be better than another-the one which Tennyson, who had ceeded in weighing down the island kingdom with a debt of before and has since said so many true and grand things in the four thousand millions of dollars ; a debt to this day unpaid interest of humanity, made in the remarkable poem of Maud." to raise the interest upon which the people have been taxed for Somehow the idea seems to have possessed him that peace was sixty years, and will continue to be taxed from year to year so dull, sluggish, mean, sordid, grovelling ; that it nurtured little long as the government shall endure—a debt that is the efficient that was higher or better than fraud, trickery, petly thieving, cause, pledge, occasion and excuse for evils, abuses and wrongs grand larceny, and the detestable lust of gain in all its forms; which the wisdoni of all her statesmen have been unable to re. and that the thunder and lightning of war were needed to clear move or essentially mitigate-a debt involving a measure of the atmosphere, in whose purer and bracing airs men might taxation such as no other people in the world have ever en- lift themselves to higher planes, and become heroes, thrilled dured-taxation whether men eat or drink, walk or ride, work with grander ideals and inspired to nobler hopes and purposes or play, sleep or wake, live or die.

than could be gained through the ways of peace. In other Our own great civil conflict has furnished proofs of the waste, words, that civilization was to be promoted by barbarism, that damage and evils of war, too near us and 100 patent to escape devils were to be cast out by Beelzebub. And so when John our attention. For four years the average number of men Bright, that royal man, who, with Gladstone and the Duke of called to the field would exceed rather than fall below a million. Argyle makes a trinity of statesmen such as Great Britain has The men transferred to the camp from the fields of labor and not known before, I do not know but I may say, in all her production were of the halest and strongest in the country. If annals ; for they are distinguished from any group that has prewe reflect upon what these men could have produced and added ceded them, by adding to sagacity, good sense and liberal ideas, to the wealth of the country in four years if they had been em- the strength and the grace of high and pure personal characployed in its usual industries, and then upon what it cost to ter. I say when John Bright addressed his countrymen against subsist and maintain them in the camp at the high prices that being drawn into the Crimean war, a war in which England ruled for everything, we gather but an imperfect idea of the gained no glory and of which no Englishman to-day is either cost of the war in its purely material aspects. For in this view proud or glad, Tennyson could do no better than call him a no account is taken of the hundred millions and more that is re- huckster" and a "broad-brimmed hawker of holy things;" quired every year to be paid as interest on the debt occasioned and he who had written so much that seemed inspired by the by the war, nor of the effect of the taxation which the payment deepest faith that of all things on earth humanity was the of this interest money involves, upon the business of the coun- divinest, could have written :try and the development of its productive forces. But it is not in these material lines-not in chronic derange

Is it peace, or war? better war! loud war by land and by sea,

War with a thousand bailles, and shaking a hundred thrones. ments of trade, debasement of the currency, and prostration of industrial activities, nor chiefly, that the war cost. We cannot Ah, my good laureate, war does not shake thrones so much shut our eyes to its unhappy influence upon the morals and 28 it strengihens and secures them. Thrones the world over habits of the people. I grant that no people ever came out of and always have been established by war. They are laid in a great civil war so sound and healthy as ours did, so ready to the cement of blood. The game of kings is war, and the dice take up the implements they had laid down at the call to arms. used are human bones. It is the impoverishment, ignorance Yet in this country, with its admirable institutions, its schools and barbarism occasioned by war that make thrones possible. and churches, its strong-headed and steady-going people, the Had Christendom given up war two hundred years ago, there evil effects of the war remain, and are seen in the speculator would not be a throne on earth today. The growth in intelliand shoddy-man,

the idler and spendthrist, the swell-contractor gence, the increase of knowledge and wealth, the rich and and the bummer, the broker of offices, the engineer of credit fruitful trophies of peace of all kinds for so long a period, could mobiliers, and kindred robberies.

hardly fail to have so widened men's ideas of their rights and I know, continued Mr. Washburn, that this war was unavoid- privileges as to have secured in all Christian lands what we in able, so far as the defenders of the nation were concerned. It America enjoy,“ government by the people, for the people, and was to save the only great representative of genuine republican- of the people.' ism, and the rights of human nature upon the globe. It is sad Mr. Chairman, I turn with joy from the morbid philosophy, to think, sir, that this salvation could have been secured only the spleen and despair of the Englishman, to the healthier, at such awful cost. Oh, the woe of it, and the pity of it! that breezier strains of our great American poet, who we are so there had not been some way by which the country might have proud to remember as a native of our fair city by the sea, been preserved without such terrible waste and suffering! in which not blood and carnage, poverty and barbarism," the Blessed would it have been is, when the rebellion broke out, ape and tiger" are the pledges and types of a nation's prosperan International Code had said to all nations “ Hands off! no ity and happiness and glory, but the arts of peace and the aid 10 insurrection, hy arms, munitions, supplies ; no blnokade. I works of love rather, whose listening ear heard through ibe

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