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THE ADVOCATE OF PEACE.
No. 1 Somerset St., Boston, Mass.
Address American Peace Society, Boston, sent by mail 25 for 15 cents, 100 for 50 cents, 250 for $1.00, 1000 for $3.00. Use them.
BOOK OF ESSAYS.
ADDRESS TO BOYS ON TWBACCO. TO MINISTERS
DANCING. HUMAN GOVERNMENT.
A MILLION SUBSCRIBERS WANTED FOR
We present above a specimen of a new pictorial envelope,
which we are sure will be regarded as one of the most beautiAn Illustrated Christian Weekly!
ful and expressive things of the kind.
The Society has now four kinds of envelopes, three pictorial, (Unsectarian) for all classes and all ages.
and one other containing brief paragraphs in relation to war FOR EVERYBODY!
and the object of Peace Societies. They are not only envel
peace tracts in miniature, and iheir use will promote 416 super-royal octavu pages, double columns, and nearly 100 the Cause perhaps a hundred or a thousand miles away. The beautiful illustrations yearly. The cheapest paper in America. price of these envelopes has been reduced to 15 cents a pack, The only illustrated PENNY WEEKLY in America. Only age, 50 cents a hundred, $ 1.00 for two hundred and fifty, and 50 cents a year. Subscribe to-day. Address,
$3.00 per thousand. Being so cheap, and what almost every THE WAYSIDE,
one has to purchase somewhere, we are selling thousands every 607 Market St., Wilmington, Delaware.
week, and those who buy them are sending these messages of Peace all over the Continent.
SAVE YOUR MONEY!
THE MESSENGER OF PEACE
is published monthly by the Secretary of the “Peace AssociaEverybody should Buy the
tion of Friends in America.” It is filled with facts and argu
ments to prove that war is unchristian, inhuman and unnecesCHOICEST TEAS AND COFFEES
sary. That if men and women of intelligence were as anxious 10 find a remedy as they are to find an apology for war, this self-imposed scourge of our race would soon be banished from
the civilized world. It advocates the brotherhood of mankind, JOHNSTON'S
and that we cannot injure another without injuring ourselves.
Terms, 50 cents per annum, in advance, or 5 copies sent to one Τ Ε Α STORE address for $2. Free to ministers of the Gospel of all denomi
nations who will read it and recommend it to their congregaCorner of Shawmut Avenue and Indiana-Place, tions. Also, a well-selected stock of peace publications, both
for adults and children. (Opposite Morgan's Chapel)
DANIEL HILL, BOSTON.
New Vienna, Clinton County, Ohio.'
On Earth Peace, ... Nation SHALL NOT lift up Sword against Nation, NEITHER SHALL THEY LEARN WAR ANY MORE.
BOSTON, NOVEMBER, 1874.
Address of His Excellency, M. Kawase, Am-
87 THE GENEVA CONFERENCE.. 84 The luterational Association................
88 Opening of the Session hy M. Carteret, Presi. dent of the Council of State - Extract from
ANGEL OT PRACE. Address by Hon. David Dudley Field, Presi. Living and Dead..
1 dent of the Conterence.-Lellers of sympathy A Pleasing Incident.
1 and approval received from Count Sclop's, 6. The Old Woman."
2 John Bright, Sir John Lubbock, etc., etc., - You Can't Please Everybody. The Conierence addressed by his Excellency, Hattie's Molio......
2 M. Kawase, or Japan, and Profs. Mancini and Walt Willow
3 Pierantoni- Interesting papers presenled and Be Kind to Everything..
3 discussed. - Grand public demonstration at Birds in the Woods.
4 the Hall of Reformation, etc., etc.
Three Wishes..... Mr. Winthrop's Letter......
87 Sammy Hick« and His Pipe..
DYMOND ON WAR.
H. C. DUNHAM. the Trustees of the Lindley Murray Fund, of New York city,
for a new grant of several hundred copies of this most excellent A BOOK FOR THE MILLION!!
Peace Document. We call the special attention of ministers to The Life and Times of Charles Sumner, his boyhood, edu- the fact that it will be sent to them free, whenever they remit cation and public career, by Elias Nason. Three hundred and six cents postage. It is a book of 124 octavo pages. Its retail sixty pages, substantially bound, with a capital likeness and fine
price 50 cents. Address all your orders to Rev. H. C. Dunly illustrated. Mr. Nason, evidently con amore, has wrought
ham, No. 1 Somerset St., Boston. ont with a vivid hand the facts in the life and times of the great statesman and advocate of peace, allowing him to speak for himself by giving the reader many passages of the masterly
MEMBERSHIP. speeches which electrified and purified the nation. This book The payment of any sum between $ 2.00 and $ 20.00 conwhich will repay many times reading, ought to go into every stitutes a person a member of the American Peace Society for library and family in the land, especially into the hands of one year, $20.00 a life member, $50.00 a life director, and every young man and student as an inspiration to pure and $100.00 an honorary member. lofty aims; for Charles Sumner" being dead yet speaketh” to The Advocate of Peace is sent free to annual members for one his countrymen and the world of justice and peace.
year, and to life members and directors during life. Price only $1.50 and will be sent, postage paid, for price, by If one is not able to give the full amount of a membership, or addressing Rev. H.C. Dunham, No. 1 Somerset St., Boston. directorship at once, he can apply whatever he does give on it,
with the understanding that the remainder is to be paid at one CHARLES SUMNER ON PEACE AND WAR.
or more times in the future. The True GRANDEUR OF Nations and the War-System of The Advocate is sent gratuitously to the reading rooms of rue CommonwEALTH of Nations bound in one volume, will be Colleges and Theological Seminaries—10 Young Men's Chrissent postage paid on receipt of $1.00, by addressing Rev. H. tian Associations—to every pastor who preaches on the Cause C. Dunham, i Somerset street, Boston.
of Peace and takes a collection for it. Also, to prominent inWe have but a limited supply of these great orations of the dividuals, both ministers and laymen, with the hope that they great Senator, who was a “ tower of strength” in our noble will become subscribers or donors, and induce others to because, and believe there are many who will be glad to receive come such. To subscribers it is sent until a request to discon a copy on the above terms.
tinue is received with the payment of all arrearages.
Commendation of the Peace Cause by Prominent Men. OFFICERS OF THE AMERICAN PEACE SOCIETY. “The cause of Peace we regard as an eminently philanthro
Hon. EDWARD S. TOBEY, Boston.
VICE-PRESIDENTS, needs, a large increase of funds. The American Peace Society,
Hon. ALEXANDER H. Rice, Boston. charged with the care of this cause in our own country, and
Hon. William B. WASHBURN, Boston. whose management has deservedly secured very general appro- Hon. GERRITT Smitu, Peterborough, N. Y. bation, we cordially commend to the liberal patronage of the
Hon. John Jay, New York City. benevolent."
Andrew P. PEABODY, D.D , LL.D., Cambridge, Mass.
llon. AmAsA WALKER, LL.D., North Brookfield, Mass A. P. Peabody, D. D. LL. D., Cambridge, Mass.
Elihu BURRITT, Esq., New Britain, Ct. A. A. Miner, D. D., Pres'ı Tufis' College, Boston, Mass
John G. WITTER, A. M. Amesbury, Víass. Hon. Wm. A. Buckingham, Ex-Gov. of Conn
1. C. SCOFIELN, Esq , Elgin, Ill. Luke Hitchcock, D. D., Cincmnati, Obio.
Myrox Phelps, Esq., Lewiston, Ill. Leonard Bacon, D. D., New Haven, Conn.
Gov. Conrad BAKER, Indianapolis, Ind. Rev. Juhn H. Aughey, St. Louis No.
Bisyop Tuomas A. Morris, Springfield, Ohio. Stephen H. Tyng, D. D., New York:
R. P. STEBBINS, D.D., Ithaca, N. Y. Howard Malcoin, D. D., LL. D., Philadelphia.
Hon. ROBERT C. WINTHROP, Brookline, Mass.
Tutuill Kixo, Chicago, Ill. Bishop Thomas A. Morris, Springfield, Ohio.
Hon. Felix R. BRUNOT, Pittsburg, Pa. Rev. T. D. Woolsey, D. D, LL. D., Ex-President Yale Collego.
Hox. REVERDY Johnson, Baltimore, Md. E. O. Haven, D. D., Evanston, Ill.
Theodore D. WOOLSEY, D.D., LL.D., New Haven, Cone Hon. David Turner, Crown Point, Ind.
Hon. Emory WASHBURN,
Cambridge, Mass. J. M. Gregory, LL. D., Champaign, II.
Hon. WM. CLAFLIN, Boston, Mass. R. M. Hatfield, D. D., Chicago, II.
Rev. Mark Hopkins, D.D., LL.D., Williams College. John V. Farwell, Chicago, Ill.
Rev. W. A. STEARNS, D.D., LL.D., Amherst College. Hon. Wm. R. Marshall, Ex-Gov. of Minn.
Rev. Dorus CLARKE, D. D., Boston. Hon. James Harlan, U. S. Senator, lowa.
Hon. Wm. E. Dodge, New York. Rev. P. Akers, D. D., Jacksonville, II.
GEORGE H. Stuart, Esq., Philadelphia. Rev. Noah Porter, D. D., LL.D., Pres. Yale College.
Hon. Jacob SLEEPER, Boston. Rev. Prof. Samuel Harriss, D. D., LL. D., Yale Theo. Seminary.
Rev. E. E. Hale, Boston. Mark Hopkins, D. D., LL. D., Williams College.
WILLIAM H. Baldwin, Esq., Boston.
Hon. HENRY L. PIERCE, Boston.
HOR. Anasa WALKER, North Brookfield, Mass
Rev. L. H. ANGIER, Everett, Mass. Hon. Peter Cooper, New York.
John FIELD), Esq., Boston, “
H. H. LEAVITT, Esq.,
SAMUEL RODMAN, New Bedford, Mass.
Tuomas GAFFIELD), Esq , Boston, Mass. Hon. Edward S. Tobey, Boston, Mass.
JUDGE MAY, Lewiston, Me. Amasa Walker, LL. D., No. Brookfield, Mass.
Rev. Sidi H. BROWNE, Columbia, South Carolina George F. Gregory, Mayor of Fredericton, N. B.
Rev. Geo. W. Thompson, Stratham, N. II. Hon. Wm. E. Dodge, New York.
WM. G. HUBBARD), Delaware, Ohio. Hon. G. Washington Warren, Pres. Bunker Hill Mi. As'uon.
A BEL STEVENS, LL.D., Brooklyn, N. Y. Hon. John J. Fraser, Provincial Secretary, N. B.
Rev. Pullips Brooks, Boston, Mass. C. H. B. Fisher, Esq., Fredericton, N. B.
Rev. G. N. BOARDMAN, D. D., Chicago, Ill. T. H. Rand, Chief Superintendent Education, N. B.
Hiram Hadley, Esq., Chicago, Ill. A. F. Randoll, Esq., Fredericton, N. B.
T. B. COOLEDGE, Esq,, Lawrence, Mass. J. B. Morrow, Esq., Halifax, N S.
Jay Cooke, Esq., Phila., Pa, John S. Maclean, Esq., Halifax, N. S.
SAMUEL WILLETTS, Esq., N. Y. D. Henry Starr, Esq., Halifax, N. S.
Hon. EDWARD LAWRENCE, Charlestown, Mass. M. H. Richey, Ex-Mayor, Halifax, N. S.
ALBERT TOLMAN, Esq., Worcester, Mass. Geo. H. Starr, Esq., Halifax, N. S.
Hon. C. W. GODDARD, Portland, Me. Jay Cooke, Esq., Philadelphia.
ALPIIEUS HARDY, Esq., Boston. John G. Whittier, Amesbury, Mass.
DANIFL PALMER, Esq., Charlestown, Mass. Hon. Charles T.'Russell, Cambridge, Mass.
Rev. S. HopkiNS EMERY, Bridgport, Conn. Samuel Willetts, New York.
A. S. MORSE, Esq., Charlestown, Mass. Joseph A. Dugdale, Iowa.
Hon. D. K. Ilircucock, Newton.
Rev. B. K. PIERCE, D. D., Boston.
H. H. LEAVITT, Esq., Boston. JULIUS CONVERSE, Governor of Vermoni.
Rev. L. H. ANGIER, Everett, Mass
Rev. Wm. P. TILDEN, Boston. SETH PADELFORD, Governor of Rhode Island.
Hon. G. WASHINGTON WARREN, Boston. ISRAEL WASHBURNE, JR., Ex-Gov. of Maine
Joun CUMMINGS, Esq., Boston. L. A. WILMOT, Governor of New Brunswick.
Hon. C. T. Russell, Cambridge.
S. D. WARREN, Esq, Boston. JOHN T. HOFFMAN, Governor of New York
Rev. DORUS CLARKE, D.D., Boston. JOHN W. GEARY, Governor of Pennsylvania
Joux W. FIELD, Esq., Boston. E. F. NOYES, Governor of Ohio.
Rev. John W. OLNSTEAD, D. D., Boston. C. C. CARPENTER, Governor of lowa.
Rev. S. E HERRICK, Boston.
Rev. J. B. Milus, V. D., Cor. Sec., and Asst. Treasurer P. H. LESLIE, Governor of Kentucky.
Rev. H. C. DUXHAM, Recording Secretary. HARRISON REED, Governor of Florida.
Rev. David PATTEN, D. D. Treasurer.,
ON EARTH PEACE .
NATION SHALL NOT LIFT UP SWORD AGAINST NATION, NEITHER SHALL THEY LEARX WAR ANY MORE.
BOSTON, NOVEMBER, 1874.
Vol. V. No. 11.
THE GRADUAL TRIUMPH OF LAW OVER compromise with this custom, that the institution of Judicial
Combat, or trial by battle, was introduced among them, and BRUTE FORCE.
afterwards spread throughout Europe. This, indeed, is exAmong the many able papers read at the recent Genera Con-pressly stated in one of the laws of Luitprand, an ancient king
of the Lombards, in the eighth century, who condemns such a ference, was one by that veteran and distinguished champion of method of procedure as impious, though from the hold it had peace, Henry Richard, M.P., Secretary of the London Peace on the minds of the people, he could not prohibit it.
Now, as Society. We give extracts from it only regretting we have not war between nations is really nothing but this custom of judi, room for the entire paper.
cial combat on a larger scale, and is not one whit more rational
or Christian when followed by communities than by individuals, “ War," said the greatest of modern warriors," is the trade it niay help to open our eyes, blinded as they are by familiarity of barbarians." But can no remedy be found for the evil? with the evil, to the extreme absurdity of the practice if we Cannot civilized and Christian nations be brought to adopt some look at it for a moment as it prevailed among our ancestors in other means of settling their differences, than this system of their personal relations with each other. The larguage in hideous waste and wholesale massacre ! Is there anything in which Montesquieu describes the latter is just as pertinently herently absurd in the belief, and in the practical efforts to applicable to the former, could we only regard it apart from which such belief, if it be in earnest, must give rise, that the the prejudices of education. " We shall be astonished," he great organized communities which now inhabit Europe may says, to see that our fathers made the fortune, honur, and be brought to recognize the jurisdiction of a common law, and to life of citizens to depend upon things which were less an appeal seek adjustment for their disputes by a system of judicial ref. to reason than to‘chance ; that they constantly employed erence, in lieu of their present appeal to the arbitration of proofs which proved nothing, and had no relation to either brute force? We have a very strong conviction that this hope innocence or guilt." and aim, so far from being absurd, are in perfect harmony with
Mr. Richard gives a graphic description of the absurd and the progressive and predominant tendencies of civilization. We believe that the history of the past points to this consumma
monstrous customs of trial by batile, and, also, of private war tion as not only possible, but certain ; and, if it be sn, then and traces the gradual triumph of law over them, and closes those who labor for its attainment, so far from deserving to be with a consideration of the third form of the evil which has branded as impracticable Utopists, are only inoving in a line
been abolished. with the ineviiable laws of Providence. li is our intention to attempt to prove this by the light of historical experience and general laws of civilization.
At first the communities above referred to were comparativeOur position is this,—that through all the conflict and confu- ly small, and, while relinquishing the right of war among the sion of the past, there may be traced a powerful and prevailing members of their own confederation, they still asserted and extendency on the part of mankind to unite and mass themselves ercised that right as against other communities similarly conin larger social aggregates, under protection of a common poli- shall find that all the great countries into which Europe is at
stituied with their own. If we go back a few centuries, we cy, based on submission to the authority of a common law. Under the influence of this tendency, customs and practices present divided, instead of being, as they are now, occupied by once generally in vogue have disappeared from civilized society.
one empire or kingdom, consisted of a large number of indeAud first we note the
pendent kingdoms, and even of separate nationalities, who had, or imagined they had, divers and antagonist interests, and who
watched each other as jealously, and fought as fiercely, and The first rude impulse of men, when brought into any sort vowed against each other eternal enmity as emphatically as the of social relation with their fellowmen, was for each individual larger bodies who now call themselves the nations of Europe to defend his own rights and to avenge his own wrongs, by, are still in the habit of doing. sheer brute strength. And it is surprising how long this ini- Let us first look at our own country when this island began pulse lasted, and how difficult it was to induce men to surrender to emerge out of barbarism. In the Anglo-Saxon period of our their right of personal relaliation, for the far higher and better history we find that there existed, in what might be called security of law. In all ages, legislators, in order gradually to England Proper, seven distinct kingdoms, known as the Hepbring under control this barbarous propensity, have had fór a tarchy. But the whole western portion of the island continuime to enter into some sort of compromise with it. Such was ued to be held by the Celtic race, and their territory was again the case with Moses, in regard to the “Goel,” or Avenger of divided into five kingdoms, namely, Cornwall, South Wales, Blood, a custom which he found so deeply rooted in the habits North Wales, Cumberland and Strathclwyd. Besides all which of his people that he durst not at once abolish it, but was there were in Scoiland, at least two independent tribes niore. obliged " for the hardness of their hearts,” to be content with And in what relations did these several communities live as remodifying and regulating it, which he did by the institution of gards each other? Why, in relations of mutual repulsion more the Cities of Refuge. In the account given to us by the Ro- vehement, and of strife more desperate and deadly, beyond all man writers of the ancient Germans, we are told that they cir- comparison, than those which exist now between the least concumscribed the jurisdiction of the magistrates within very genial of the European nations. narrow limils, and not only claimed but exercised almost all the • The island of Great Britain," says Sir James Mackintosh, rights of private resentment and revenge. And when these referring to this period, was then divided among fifteen petty trihes became, in process of time, Christianized after a fashion, chiefs, who waged fierce and unbroken war with each other. they clung tenaciously to the habit of disposing of their pri- The lies of race were gradually loosened. The German invavale quarrels by the law of arms. It was, no doubt, as a ders spilt their kindred blood as freely as that of the native
Britons. The events of this period scarcely deserve to be close of that century these various races were blended into one known. The uniform succession of acts of treachery and great nation under one common rule.” We have seen this cruelty ceases to interest human feelings. It wears out not national amalgamation accomplished, as respects Italy and only compassion but indignation. There are crimes enough in Germany, under our own eyes during the present generation. the happiest ages of the world to exercise historical justice ; Now, there are some points connected with that process of and it can scarcely be regretted that our scanty information re- unification we have attempted to trace, to which we would ask lating to the earliest period of Saxon rule should leave it as the special attention of our readers. In the first place, let it be dark as it is horrible. If any one had then predicted that observed that distinction of race has been no barrier to politithis chaos of fiercely conflicting elements might and would be cal assimilation. There is an immense amount of sentimental fused into one homogeneous and solid commonwealth, cohering nonsense talked in these days about what is called the question in the most perfect social unity, and obeying a common central of " nationalities.” There are many who clamorously insist anthority, would it not have appeared a far more Utopian and upon it that every collection of human beings that has, what improbable dream than that of a united Europe would be now? they call “ethnical distinctness,” is entitled ipso facto to politAnd yet that dream has long ago become a substantial historical cal separation and independence. How far back they would reality. First, the seven Saxon kingdoms melted into each carry the application of their theory we know not. To be conother and became one. The Celtic provinces of Cumberland sistent they ought to go to the deluge, or at least to the tower and Strathclwyd were next incorporated, then Cornwall, and of Babel. For our own part we must avow our belief that the finally Wales itself, after many ages of intense national antipa- fewer nationalities there are the better. The progress of civthy, which seemed to defy the possibility of amalgamation ilization has been marked by the wider and wider absorption of between the two races. How long and to what a comparative these sectional distinctions which have divided the human race. ly recent period, England and Scotland were in mor:al' feud is There is no great country in Europe at this moment that does familiarly known to us all. But that also has passed away, not consist of a number of absorbed and amalgamated nationaland now all the inhabitants of Great Britain, from the North ities. In England we have Celts, Saxons, Danes and NorForeland to Holyhead, and from the Land's End to the Pent- mans. In France, there are the Roman, the Goth, the Frank, land Firth, are one people, between any portion of which and and the Breton races. In Russia there are the Sclaves, Teuanother, a war would be as impossible as it would be between tons, Fions and Tartars, besides many other races comprised Middlesex and Surry. As for Ireland, the process of assimi- in its Asiatic dominions. And so on in regard to other Eurolation has been going on under our own eyes, and is yet unhap- pean countries. It must be admitted, moreover, that in no pily far from complete as a matter of feeling, however, it may country in the world more than in our own have the ascendant be as a matter of fact.
rares,-first the Saxon, then the Normans,-shown a more abLet us now turn to see how the same tendency to centraliza- solute contempt for the rights of nationality, or employed more tion has been at work in France, drawing floating masses of ruthless means to suppress and extinguish them. society into an ever-enlarging unity. If we go back only as Perhaps it may be said that this amalgamation of races has far as the twelfth century, we shall find that there existed only been brought about by war, and could not have been affected by the merest nucleus of what we now call France. “ The terri- another means. But this we wholly deny. War has not protory,” says M. Guizot," which Louis le Gros could really call moted, but prevented, or prorogued to a much more distant day, his own, comprised only five of our present departments, the union into which neighboring races have otherwise a tennamely, those of Seine, Seine-et-Oise, Seine-et-Marne, Oise, dency to gravitate. Indeed, it is absurd on the face of it to say and Loiret." Any one looking at a map of France may see the contrary. How can a practice, the very essence of which what an utterly insignificant fragment that is of what now is is to alienate and divide, to excite the strongest antipathy and comprised under the same designation. It is not necessary that repulsion, to drive men away from all friendly contact with we should trace minutely how province after province became each other-how can this be the means of cementing and congradually annexed to the central power, as by a law which solidating them into one? It would be as rational to assert that resembles what in physical nature we call the attraction of the explosive power of gunpowder is a good agent in the cogravitation. The first step towards this was the recognition of hesion of material bodies, as that war is an instrument of union. a supreme royalty, not only above all the feudal powers, but The reason which leads men to maintain so strange a paradox apart and different in kind from them, distinct from suzerainty, is this: that often amalgamation ensues after long centuries of unconnected with territorial property, having a purely political conflict. But those who ascribe this to the influence of war are character, with no other tiile or mission than government. only confounding the post hoc with the propier hoc. Amalga“ This right,” says the great writer whom we have just cited, mation comes after war, simply because it would be impossible " was at first vague and practically of small effect ; the politi- it should come during war, but the whole current of history cal unity of French royalty was not more real than the national proves that antagonist races are confederated into unity, not by unity of France, yet neither the one nor the other was absolute-fighting, but by ceasing to fight. Sometimes, indeed, an atly chimerical. The inhabitants of Provence, of Languedoc, tack from without may have served to promote or strengthen Aquitaine, Normandy, Marne, etc., had, it is true, special the internal concord of the nation or aggregate of nations thus names, laws, destinies of their own; they were under the va- assailed—just as we are told by the French historians that the rious appellations of Angevins, Manceaux, Normands, Pro- invasion of France by the English, in the fourteenth and fifvencaux, as so many petty, nations or states distinct from each teenth centuries,“ powerfully contributed 10 the formation of other, often at war with each other. Yet above all these various the French nation, by impelling it towards unity.” But it does territories, above all these petty nations, there hovered a sole so exactly in the way we have indicated, by obliging the inand single name, a general idea, the idea of a nation called habitants to abstain from fighting or quarrelling among themthe French, of a common country called France.” But it was selves, and by bringing them into closer relations of mutual a long, a very long, time before this idea became embodied in sympathy and dependence. In the history of all countries it actual fact. It was not until the fifteenth century that there will be found that it is precisely at the point where armed conwas anything like a real French nationality, and far later down flicts have ceased that real national unity has commenced, and than that we find traces of local jealousies, alienations, and that just in proportion as policy has been substituted for force, conflicts.
and justice for violence, has this unity become extended and By precisely the same process was Spain formed into national confirmed. M. Guizot gives a striking illustration of this from unity. • For several hundred years alter the Saracenic inva- the early history of France, even when the policy used was of sion,” says Prescott, " at the beginning of the eighth century, a very low kind. He is contrasting the means of government Spain was broken up into a number of small but independent adopted by Charles le Téméraire and Louis XI. « Charles," Siates, divided in their interest, and often in deadly hostility he says, was the representative of the ancient form of govwith one another. It was inhabited by races the most dissimilar ernment; he proceeded by violence alone, he appealed incesin their origin, religion, and government. By the middle of santly to war, he was incapable of exercising patience, or of the fifteenth century, the number of States into which the addressing himself to the minds of men, in order to make them country had been divided was reduced to four-Castile, Arra- instruments to his success. It was, on the contrary, the pleasgon, Navarre, and the Moorish Kingdom of Granada. At the ure of Louis XI. to avoid the use of force, and take possession