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proves, that the Orichalcum of the ancients, was a mixture of copper and calamine, or the lapis calaminaris, and that it was not in such high esteem, as many (who suppose it to have been a mixture of gold and copper) have erroneously imagined. Memoir. Containing an Examination of the Opinion of several ancient and modern Authors, who maintain that there was formerly a Communication between the Euxine, Caspian, Baltic, and White Seas. By the Abbé MANN. In treating this subječt, which is worthy of particular attention, on account of its connexion with the theory of the earth, our Academician begins by laying before his readers a summary of what preceding writers have said on the matter, and afterwards examines the physical objećts, actually existing, which are adapted to clear it up. The result of all is; that the ancient junétion of these seas is sufficiently ascertained. Results of the Meteorological Observations, made in 1778, at Franeker in Friesland. By Professor Van Sw1NDEN. This Memoir contains an hundred pages. Memoir. . Concerning a Method of measuring the Degree of 2uickness with which Ice thaws. By the Count de FRAULA. Results of the Meteorological Observations made at Brussels, during the Year 1778.-ExtR Act of the Meteorological Observations made at Brussels during the Year 1779. By M. du RoNDEAU. These two tables terminate this Third Volume.
community, and where vice, of consequence, may not only have innumerable asylums, but may even riot in obscurity at noon-day ! The environs of Lucerne, Soleure, and Berne, the valley of Lauterbrun, and the famous cascade of Staubach, the Glaciers of Grindelwald and Rosenlavi, the route of Engelberg, by the Cantons of Underwald and Schweitz, to Einsiden, or our Lady of the Hermites, as also the route of Glaris by the country of the Grifans, to the sources of the Rhine, and the passage from thence through Truns, Ilantz, Richenau, Coire, Trogen, St. Gall, Zurich, Scaffhausen, Waldshut, Lauffenburg, and Rhinseldt, to Basil; furnish rich materials for the natural historian, and sublime landscapes for the poetical painter: and neither of these kinds are negle&ted in this Discourse. Among the multitude of singular and striking obječts that presented themselves to M. LABorde in this philosophical excursion, we cannot help mentioning the Martis-Loch, or hole of St. Martin, bored through the summit of the mountain of Falzaber, by which the Sun in the months of March and September enlightens the steeple of the village of Elm, in the Canton of Glaris. This natural meridian is remarkable. The hole in the mountain is round, and, when seen from the village appears to be about three feet in diameter. On the 3d, 4th, and 5th of March, and the 14th, 15th, and 16th of September (old stile) the sun passes behind the hole; its whole disk is seen the 4th and the 5th, and then it casts its light on the steeple of Elm. The inhabitants maintain that the hole is very large, and that its real diameter is about 25 feet. It is easy to judge of the height of this mountain, since the village of Elm, which it covers, is deprived entirely of the fight of the sun during fix weeks of the winter season. How strange such a country in the centre of Europe. The Description of Switzer LAND that follows this Discourse, is a very learned and extensive work, comprehending amply what the title announces, and drawn from all the best sources of information, ancient and modern, which are mentioned in notes, full, perhaps too full, of erudition. It consists of forty-five ART1cles. In the first six, we have an account of the situation of the country, the origin of its names, its elevation above the other countries of Europe, its Alps, Mountains, and perpetual Glaciéres. In the description of these latter (the icy-mountains) our Author has followed Gruner. The sources of the Rhine, the Rhone, and other great rivers, which are replenished by the Glaciéres or icy-mountains, and direct their courses through the Helvetic territories, form the subječt of the two following articles. In the EIGHTH and NINTH the five great lakes of Switzerland, and nine others of a second rate, are particularly 8 described.
described. In the Fourteen succeeding Articles the Author treats of the mineral waters, salt-pits, mines, caverns, and water-falls of this singular country, of the diversity of its climate in the northern and southern parts, of its earthquakes, and other phenomena, of the nature of its soil, of its rural improvements, grain, vineyards, fruit-trees, plants, vulnerary herbs, pastures, ituds, forests, woods, quarries, marl-pits, animals, fish, reptiles, inse&ts, and petrifactions. The Seven following Articles give a curious account of the population of Switzerland, of the languages spoken in that country, of the respective limits of the Reformed and Roman Catholic religions, and a very candid and interesting portrait of the protestant and popish clergy. We find here also ample details, relative to the bishopricks, abbeys, convents, and commanderies of the Romish Cantons, and to the ecclesiastical conflitution of the Protestant States. The divifion of the Helvetic Body into cantons, co-allies, and allies; the aristrocratical, democratical, aristo-democratical States, and those which have a form of government approaching to monarchy, are circumstantially and accurately described in the Frve foilowing Articles. The thirty-sixth and the six succeeding Articles treat of the political system of the Helvetic confederacy, of its general and particular diets or assemblies, of the different ranks and privileges of the subjects in each canton and state, of the coin, revenues, militia, arsenals, public roads, &c. and the THREE Articles that conclude this great work, exhibit a view of the general connexion of Switzerland with the Empire, France, and the House of Austria, and its particular connexions with the See of Rome, Spain, England, Naples, Savoy, Prussia, Venice, and Holland, as also of the employment of its troops in foreign service.
A colle&tion of Records, Aéts, and Historical Dissertations, is subjoined to this work, as proofs and illustrations of its contents, which form a rich and diversified fund of natural, historical, political, and literary science. The two volumes, which are of the largest folio size, contain above 400 pages, and we suppose, though without any authority, that it will be followed with similar descriptions of the states of Italy, corresponding with the prints and views of that country that are given in the collection above mentioned.