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“ * The field of blood !" Oh! no such thing! - It is the field of joy ! "6 The beautiful City; that lifts her fair head in the valley, and says, I am, and ihere is none beside me!"-Who says she is vain ?--Julia will not say sonor yet Honora-and lealt of all their devoted

J. ANDRE. * Field of blood.--Here is a small mistake-Lichfield is not the field of blood, but “ the field of dead-bodies," alluding to a battle fought between the Romans and the British Christians in the Dioclefian Persecution, when the latter were massacred --Three slain Kings, with their burying-place, now Barrowcop-hill, and the Cathedral in miniaiure, orm the City-arms. Lich is still a word in use. The church-yard gates, through which funerals pass, are often called



Art. X. Political Conferences between several Great Men in the

lait and present Century; with notes by the Editor, Thomas Tyers, Esg; of the Inner Temple. The second Edition, with Additions. Svo, 3 s. Cadell. 1781.

AVING already given our opinion of the first Edition

of this agreeable and entertaining work (See Rev. for June Jast, p. 453), we have only to add, that the second contains three conferences more, between persons of the highest political character, and on subjects extremely interesting to the lovers of English history. The conference held at Whittington in Derbyshire, between Lord Danby, Lord Devonshire, and Lord Delamere, immediately before the Revolution in 1688, relates to the most important events in the annals of England. The conference held in St. James's Park, April 25th, 1657, between Cromwell, Fleetwood, and Desborough, exhibits, in striking and faithful colours, three of the most ļingular characters to be met with in the annals of mankind. The third additional conference is between the Duke of Shrewsbury, and Lord Somers, held the first week of January, 1705.

Beside these additions to the text, the commentary is also confiderably augmented. The author'shall speak for himself:

• The Commentary is become as large as the Text, and the pamphlet is swelled into a volume. A candid critic, in a Monthly Publication, seemed to hint, that more anecdotes would be acceptable : this has produced fo large a harveft of them. The fenfible author alluded to, is mistaken, if he supposes, that the Editor does not ab, hor tyranny and corruption as much as any of his readers. He cannot but be an advocate, with hand, heart, and voice, whilft in his senses, for public Liberty, for he is one of the People. The personages, in these serious political scenes, hold their own language, on liberty, arbitrary power, anarchy, monarchy, fanaticism, a republic, and military usurparion. The reader seems to be as much an auditor, as the interlocutor, and to have the conversation almost contrived for his amusement. Some readers have pronounced, that the diction of these great men is sometimes floveniy and ungrammatical. A proof, if


wanted, that it was not fabricated, but the genuine effufions of those times. But which of the moit unembarrassed spokesmen of either House, even in these times, though possessed of all imaginable elocution, pretends to speak with correct eloquence? The debates in the Senate of Lilliput, composed for them by our great Philologer, in his younger days, display the arguments of those deceased orators to the best advantage, and adorn them with the best flowers of rhetoric, But every body now acknowledges those speeches to be made for them, and not by them.- If the following dialogues had been of elaborate composition, and suffered to finell of the lamp, might not another Bentley, who found out the factitious epiftles of Phalaris, by the assay of Thericlean cups and Sicilian talents, have discovered their spuriousness, and exposed the Sophift ?..-But to be more serious, and to have done.-A number of characters pass in solemn review before the Editor : but it is hoped, he has not wantonly, in his annotations, dipped his pen into fullome praise or defamatory petulance. He means neither to offend the living, nor belie the dead. To take advantage of those who have been snatched away before us, and to pursue their reputations with seigned or false accusations before the Tribunal of the Public, for the entertainment of the Writer or the Reader, would demand severe reprehenfion. Anthony Wood's charge of corruption, in his laborious Biography, against Lord Clarendon, at the distance of more than thirty years, occasioned the burning of his book, by a sentence of the University; who took that method of vindicating their chancellor.-- Ere memory's soft figures melt away, the Editor tries to look back on some acts and actors who attracted contemporary notice, and to bring forward some persons who have had their day upon the stage; and who, according to the light in which they are placed, will be variously talked of by the present and by future generacions.'

We are glad that Mr. Tyers has taken the hint given in our journal, and confirmed the most doubtful passages of his work, by citations from contemporary authors. We rejoice also that the suspicion glanced at in that criticism, has given him an opportunity of justifying his intentions, and of making a profession of his political creed, which might otherwise have been miftaken by several readers as well as ourselves.


Art. XI. First Principles of Philofophy. For the Use of Students.

By John Bruce, A. M. Professor of Philosophy in the University of Edinburgh. 8vo. 25. 60. Bound. Cadell. 1780. HOUGH this work is chiefly intended for the use of

those students in the University of Edinburgh, who attend the Author's Lectures, and contains only the outlines of those Lectures, yet the philosophical reader may peruse it with confiderable advantage, as it may direct his attention to some important subjects, which may possibly have escaped his notice, and point out the proper method of prosecuting his enquiries concerning them,


As far as we are able to judge from such a specimen ; Mr. Bruce appears to have an enlarged and liberal turn of mind, and to be very capable of explaining and illustrating, with no small degree of accuracy and precifion, the many curious and interesting points, which are the subjects of his lectures.

The first philosophy or logic class in the University of Edinburgh, is placed, in the academical course, immediately after the study of the languages. Now logic, our Author justly obferves, was originally formed, and in a great degree has continued, an art without science. The treatises on this subject, (Lord Bacon's excepted) have been limited to commentaries on ihe antient systems, or to detached essays on metaphysics and criticism. Hence the present imperfect state of this art, compared with the other branches of knowledge.

"To remedy this defect, says Mr. Bruce, The method of observing and applying the laws of nature is to be explained, as forming a science of logic, which may serve as the rudiments, or first principles of all philosophy.'

The object of philosophy, we are told, is to examine the properties and relations of the works of nature, and to discover the laws which they follow. The general departments of philosophy are, logic, or general philosophy; which treats of the method of observing and applying the laws of nature; physics, which treat of the laws of material objects; ethics, which treat of the actions of mankind. The subdivisions in these departments, are termed sciences. The knowledge of the laws of nature, any general or particular department, constitutes a science. The end of science is to create, and to improve the arts. An art is the application of the laws of nature to some useful purpose in life.

The object of the first principles of philosophy, is to explain the method of discovering the laws of nature, by observation of phenomena, and of applying these laws to the useful and elegant arts. — The first principles of philosophy divide themselves into two parts : 1. The method of observing and studying nature: 2. The application of this method to the proper fubjects of philosophical knowledge. The first part comprehends the following sciences; pneumatology, or the history of the powers and faculties of the human mind; logic, or the method of directing our faculties in observing and applying the laws of nature; metaphysics, or an analysis of the foundations of the other sciences and arts. The second part comprehends the following articles : 1. Application of the first principles of philosophy to the Itudy of nature: 2. The history of philosophy.

We are informed that Part I. which treats of the method of studying nature, is given as an elementary course of philofophy in the University of Edinburgh. And that Part II. is the subject of aparate course, to more advanced students. ---

In this course, the method of observation and experiment is applied to the history of nature; the sciences which explain that history, and the arts which these sciences create and improve, and next to the history of philosophy, divided into the periods in which the sciences and arts assume new forms.— The tables for both are plain, and simply arranged, and, with proper explanations, seem calculated to give the student a view of the future articles of his pursuit, and to enable his genius and taste to make their selection.

But we must now refer our readers to the work itself, where they will find the heads of Mr. Bruce's Lectures, together with some accurate definitions, and very pertinent general obfervations,



For MAY, 1781.

ART. 12. The Patriotic Mirror; or, the Salvation of Great

Britain in Embryo. 8vo. 1 s. 6d. Faulder, 1781.
Violent invective against the Opposition,—the diabolical Con,

gress,-the Republicans, -the Economists, he Yorkshire Committee, - American Commanders,-Lee-More Admirals, &c. &c. all in the usual low, intemperate style of our common run of pamphleteers, or news-paper politicians; who seldom fail to manifest more zeal and promptitude, than knowledge or good manners.

The Opposition,' says this Mirror of political knighthood, shall as soon persuade me a Padow can be converted into a real substance, as that they are not meditating the subversion of the state, and the ruin of old England.' Can our readers require a stronger proof of this gentleman's candori Art. 13. A Petition, written with an Intention that it should

be presented to the House of Lords, concerning Freedom in Religion, wherein are stated the Principles of that most glorious Inftitution, the Philosophical Society in London. It is high Time to break the Fetters of Mankind. Together with Notes, Axioms of Freedom, an Address to the Inhabitants of Great Britain, like Looking-Glass, which Mews a Monster all its Deformity, &c. &c. &c. &c, 8vo.

Stockdale. 1781. The Domillar rages ! - Nay 'tis past a Doubt." Remarks on the Dutch Manifesto. 8vo. 6 d.

Cadell. 1731. These remarks though brief, are pertinent. Brief because the present conduct and professions of our old friends the Dutch, require no more than a direct comparison with their former obligations and engagements ; and pertinent, because she loose justification they laiely offered in their counter manifeito, is pointed out to be obvioully equivocal and fallacious. But it is with bodies of men as wiin india widuals; when a people are wholly devoied to the pursuit of gain,

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Art. 14.


no confideration whatever, foreign to the immediate object, is fuffered to check the eagerness of their prosecution of a profitable expectation. Art. 15. Considerations on the Propriety and Expediency of the

Clergy afting in the Commission of the i'eace. Svo. 6d. Jonnson. 1781.

This gentleman, who confeffes himself to be both a clergyman and a magistrate, is an able advocate for the eligibility of his reverend brethren to the judicial bench, in every point of view, excepting that which appears even to himself as the trongest objection, namely, the incompatibility of civil offices with the prieitiy character. We understand their peculiar province to be prayer, exhortation, and persuafion; and how far it may become persons of this mild descripzion to wish to be armed with magiiterial power to punish the disobedient, will require some ingenuity to determine! It is indeed urged that the interests of civil government affect them equally with other men; and a person whose acquirements, behaviour, and conduct, give him respect in his neighbourhood, and are the ground, of his authority in it, can very essentially extend his usefulness by the additional character of the magiftrate. It is not pleaded that the clergy fhould follow the vain pursuits of pleasure and diflipation, become familiar to the world at large, but increase their usefulness toward mankind in the serious departments and relation thip of active life, and the cultivation of science and knowledge, all which tend to civilize the human mind, and make it more ready to receive the awful impreffions, and sanctions of religion.' This is however a retrograde mode of reasoning; the operation of religion on the mind having hitherto been understood as necessary to fit us for active duties, and not active duties to prepare us for the reception of religious impressions. The more a person is entangled in worldly af. fairs, the more his passions are awakened and stimulated; and the more we are actuated by our passions, the less we are influenced by Teason: or why is the priesthood released from worldly attentions, and funds fet apart for their support? A conscientious diligence in parochial duty, which, in North Britain, leads a paftor, not merely into his pulpit at fated times, but into the private houses of his neighbours on many interesting and benevolent occasions, will leave him little room to wish for an enlargement of his sphere of activity, were such a line of utility fashionable in the South. But it may be fairly presumed that there are few clergymen in the commission of the peace, who do not disburden themselves of the troublesome duties of their order, by delegation on easy terms; to qualify themselves for, perhaps, more defireable society, and different objects of pursuit.

Another motive is urged for seating divines on the bench of justice, but we honestly confess, not to our conviction. “An active spirit must be employed to preserve itself from deviations from the paths of innocence and virtue, and the peculiar duties, offices, and studies of the clergy, do not require of them the confinement of the cloister, or that they should lead the ignoble, debasing, and useless lives of monks. In order that they may be as burning and shining lights among men, they must keep up an intercourse with them, and amidst the varicty of temptations presented to them in the course of their


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