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there on its edges, sprinkled the tame bank that accompanied iss meanders ; and when it disappeared among the hills, Thades, de scending from the heights, leaned towards its progress, and framed the diftant point of light under which it was loft, as it turned aside to either hand of the blue horizon,
• Thus dealing in none but the colours of nature, and catching its most favourable features, men saw a new creation opening before
The living landscape was chastened or polithed, not transformed. Freedom was given to the forms of trees; they extended their branches unrestricted ; and where any eminent oak, or master beech, had escaped maiming and survived the forest, bus and bramble was removed, and all its honours were restored to difinguisti and shade the plain. Where the united plumage of an ancient wood extended wide its undulating canopy, and stood venerable in its darkness, Kent thinned the foremost ranks, and left but fo many
de. tached and scattered crees, as fofiened the approach of gloom, and blended a chequered light with the thus lengthened thadows of the remaining columns.
Succeeding artists have added new malter strokes to these touches ; perhaps improved or brought to perfection some that I have named. The introduction of foreign trees and plants, which
we owe principally to Archibald Duke of Argyle, contributed effentially to the richness of colouring so peculiar to our modern landscape. The mix. ture of various greens, the contralt of forms between our forest-trees and the northern and Welt-Indian firs and pines, are improvements more recent than Kent, or but little known to him.
The weeping willow, and every florid throb, each tree of delicate or bold leaf, are new tints in the composision of our gardens.'
These extracts are fully fufficient to give our Readers an idea of the entertainment this history of modern gardening will afford them. We shall conclude this article with expressing our fincere wishes that those living artists, who do so much honour to their country and the age we live in, may have their merits estimated by a writer of talents, taste, and industry, equal to those of Mr. WALPOLE.
Art. IV. Thelyphthora ed Edition, enlarged.
The singularity of its principles excited the curiosity of the Public; and with many, its licentiousness was a most powerful argument in its favour. But Ms. Madan flatters himself, that the rapid sale of his book is chiefly to be attributed to its own merit:-' that it hath made its way by dint of that intrinsic truth which it contains-the importance of the subjects treated ; --the important ends proposed-and that conformity to the oracies of God which it profefledly makes the basis of its contents.' And doth the Author seriously think this to be the cafe? If he is in earnest, we imagine we see in him a most melancholy instance of the fascinating power of self-love; and are
really affected to behold a man, who is not destitute of learning and good fense, and whose pretensions to sanctity of life run to a more than common height, so lost to the purity of Christian doctrine, so indifferent to “ things which are of good report," as openly to avow, and even zealously contend, for practices, which, if they had the sanction of law, would overturn the peace of society, and, under the pretence of securing female virtue and happiness, would leave them open to the inroads of uncontrouled luft or tyrannic cruelty.
Mr. Madan complains of ill treatment;- but as the complaint is general, it is imposible to give any particular reply to it. He speaks of some critics, who are wont to depreciate a work by separating some given subject from the rest, and thus destroy its connection with the main argument. Who those critics are that have dealt so unfairly with Mr. Madan's treatise, we know not. We cannot apply the reflection to ourselves ; nor do we imagine, that any of his other opponents have misrepresented his general idea, respecting marriage and polygamy. It is sufficiently clear and intelligible, however clouded some of his incidental reflections or digressional criticisms may be,
Mr. Madan, instead of thooting his arrows in the air, would have better shewn his ingenuity and adroitness, if he had directed them to some particular mark, that we might have distinguished his object. Instead of complaining of unfair representation,' he should have thewn his Readers in what respects he hath been misrepresented, and where his argument was misunderstood, And inttead of running into a diffuse and verbose declamation on the opposition which the first reformers met with, and affecting to draw a parallel between their characters and his own, he would have been much better employed in acknowledging those gross blunders in criticisin which we defied him to support, or in defending those positions which he hath left totally unguarded.
It is with the most thorough contempt that we read Mr. Madan's reflections on his opponents. They bear the marks of the most disgusting vanity and self-importance : and, instead of trembling at the vengeance which he seems ready to denounce on thote who have stepped forward to expose the danger of his principles, and detect the fillacy of his arguments, we pity his weakners, and smile at his displeasure, without any dread of the consequence. The folemnity of the following expoftulation may affright fome timorous fouls, who are wont to be affected by a ruetul appearance of sanctity; but it hath the contrary efft & on us, who have been long let into the mysteries of priestcraft. • Let them take care left their wit, raillery, and pious sarcasms, do not ultimately tend to vilify and ridicule the God that made them :- let them beware, left that question once put on a very
ferious occasion, be not put to them, in an hour, when they will find more difficulty, than they seem at present aware of, to answer it-Whom haft thou reproached and blasphemed? and against whom haft thou exalted thy voice, and lifted up thy voice on high? even against the Holy One of Ifrael.' Mr. M. had iaid just before, that if the subjects of his book were not treated in a direct confonance with the Law of God, revealed by Mores, they should have his free leave to say what they please.' This concession is doubtless very modeft and candid! But whatever our Author meant by the liberty he hath condescended with such fingular courtesy to grant, we have nothing to do but to take him at his word. Now, because we are thoroughly convinced, that Mr. Madan's principles have no consonance with the Law. of God as delivered by Christ and his Apostles, therefore we have delivered our free sentiments on them ; and, at some future time, may deliver them again more freely and fully, without fearing to offend thereby the Holy One of Israel, notwithstanding Mr. Madan Alatters himself that the cause of his Thelyphthora is the cause of God. But (to borrow his own solemnity) let him take care left he be found in the class of those mentioned by the Apostle, who “ having itching ears, turn from the truth, and are turned to fables :- deceiving, and being deceived !”
Mr. Madan's enlargements, as announced in the title-page of this 2d edition, are very inconfiderable. He hath totally omitted to take notice of the most effential objections to his work; and suffered every detected error to stand just as it did before. We gave him a bold defiance, and instead of considering ourselves as Ilighted by his omitting to answer our objections, we hesitate not to avow our triumph, and consider him as having yielded us the palm by quitting the field. He bimself ready to answer
candid critic who may alk á candid question. For our parts, we were above affecting any great degree of complaisance to Mr. Madan. We esteemed him unworthy of ceremony. We aimed at truth : and our abhorrence of his system, and apprehension of its pernicious consequences, led us to speak the truth with firmness. Our language in some places was perhaps warm and indignant. We thought the occasion justified our severity.
But after all, the question is not, whether our observations.. were candid (in Mr. Madan's idea of the word); but the question is-" were they justly founded ? Did we prove what we advanced ?” In short, the matter is to be considered, not the manner in which it was delivered. It is commodious
way of getting rid of an antagonist by telling him, that he hath not candour. The excuse is easily made ;- but will it be as readily admitted !--Mr, M. may fay, that the objections do not af
fect his own views of things. But what is that to the public.? He doth not write for himself,
There is indeed something like an attempt to evade the force of our remarks on Exodus xxii, 16, 17. (Vid, the first part of our Review of Thelyphthora, Rev. O&tober 1780); but the attempt is feeble and aukward ; and the Author is reduced to the necessity of understanding the words as they are translated in our common version of the Bible. His rendering by though instead of if (as it now stands and ought to be rendered) destroyed the whole meaning of the text, and at once cut at the very root of what was so sacred among the Jews, viz. parental authority. This point we have argued before. We shall briefly observe, that Mr. Madan, in attempting to accommodate the plain meaning of this passage to his own system, entirely overthrows those fundamental principles which he had before adduced to support it. He supposes (for argument fake) that the text referred to, doth actually include a reservation of the father's authority, so that he might, even where matters had gone so far as described ver. 16. invalidate the contract by withholding his consent; yet (says he) this doth nat affect the principal point which I contend for, namely, that it is taking poffeffion of the woman's person which creates the contract or marriage.obligation.' How inconsistent this writer is with himself! His concession annihilates his whole plan; which will appear by this plain deduction of its primary principles. Porsession is marriage : marriage as an ordinance of God is indirsoluble by any power on earth ;-what he hath joined together let No MAN put asunder.–And yet a parent had the power of diffolving it by refusing his consent! Therefore, on Mr. Madan's conceffion, either possession was not of itself marriage, or if it was, marriage was not indiffoluble by the Law of Moses. We here give him his choice, let him take either of these positions, and what will become of the first chapter of Thelyphthora?
At present we must take our leave of Mr. Madan, though, by an Advertisement, we are taught soon to expect the pleasure of another interview.
ART. V. Observations on the Mutiny Bill: With some Strictures on
Lord Buckinghamshire's Adminitration in Ireland. Dublin printed, London reprinted. 8vo. I s. 6 d. Stockdale. 178/..
HIS very spirited and acute remonstrance against the con
dud of the British ministry, and of the Irish parliament, being universally ascribed to that distinguished patriot Mr. Grattan, there is little danger of mistake in supposing that gentleman's title to be well founded. In considering the English Mutiny Bill, he observes
• The object of this code is to bring those who are reached by it to a state of implicit subordination, and to create in their fovereign ao absolute authority. - It furnishes a perfect image of arbitrary power. Accordingly the people of England, whose maxims we should admire and emulate, jealous on all subjects which relate to liberty, have exceeded, on the subject of the army, their usual caution ; they have, in the preamble of their annual Mutiny Bill, claimed their birthright; they recite part of the declaration of right, starding armies and martial law in peace, without the consent of parliament, are illegal:” and having stated the fimplicity and purity of their ancient conftitution, and set forih a great principle of Magna Chasta, they admit a partial and temporary repeal of it; "they admit an army and a law for its regulation, but they limit the number of the former, and the duration of both; confining all, the troops themselves, the law that regulates, and the power that commands them, to one year. Thus is the army of England rendered a parliamentary army, the conllitutional ascendency of the subject over the foldier, preserved; the military rendered effectually subordinate to the civil magiftrate, because dependent on parliament, the government of the sword controlled in its exercise, because limited in its duration, and the King entrusted with the command of the army during good behaviour only. And yet, that wise people have hitherto considered the army thus limited, thus dependent, thus qualified, and feathed, as, a necessary evil; and will not even admit of barracks, leit the soldier should be still more alienated from the itate of a subject, and thus alienated and armed have a post of strength, and the dangerous nature of his condition be aggravated by fituation.'
The Writer then contrasts British prudence with the conduct of the Irish parliament in the same instance :
" When the Parliament of Ireland proceeded to regulate the army, I conceive it should have adopted the maxims of the Britith Conftitution as much as the rules of British discipline. I conceive that it ought to be the policy of this country to go step by step, with the British nation in all her wise regulations, and not only adopt her constitution, but pursue the wife and aged maxims which the has formed for its preservation; that mucual liberty may be common strength; that England may not be our tyrant, not be a prerogative country
with a constitution inverted, a bad lesson to Kings, poisoning their minds with false notions of government, and arming their hands with unconftitutional powers. We have, however, departed from the example and maxims of England; we have done fo in the molt important concern, the government of the sword; and in three molt material instances : in our Mutiny Bill, we have omitted the preamble which declares the great charter of liberty, we have left the number of forces in the breast of his Majesty, and under these circumitances we have made the bill perpetual.
This is to depart from the prodence of England, and in the very case where we thould have furpassed her in caution, because we have all her reasons to dread a itanding army, and many of our own like: wise : .we have no foreign dominions to preserve, and we have a Conftiiution to lose by the violence of an army, by the encroachments of the Prince, and by the usurped authority of the British Parliament.