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182.] Abstract of Foreign Oceurrences.

499 proper publicly to disavow it, as far as Stanhope caused his troops to cease firregarded his Sovereign, the Emperor of ing, and, after long persuasion, the few Russia. Still the old jealousy of Russian that remained were induced to surren. hostility and intrigue operated power- der. Endeavours were made to save the fully on the minds of many of the other party in the same way, but they Turks. Warlike preparations against continued to fire, and it was not until the Greeks were carried on, however, two six-pounders had been brought with great activity. The Janizaries were against them with grape, that they could armed and assembled ; and the fleet be induced to give in. Almost every which was busily preparing for sea, one of the few remaining were badly would be ready to sail, it was expected, wounded, and the whole found alive in a few days. Great strictness was ex. amounted only to 50 or 60. The woercised towards all who were suspected men, children, and peaceable inhabitants, of any intercourse with the Greeks : se- had gone off into the jungles, and the veral arrests had been made, and two Brahmins had retired, with Colonel more Greek Bishops beheaded. The Stanhope's approbation, to a pagoda undisciplined Turkish recruits had com: outside the town; so that retribution mitted so many depredations on private bad fallen alone on that class which property, that the English Minister bad never gave, and consequently never exe found it necessary to expostulate perso- pected to receive quarter. The Lieut.. pally with the Porte : his remonstrances col. bears the most honourable testi. were listened to; proper arrangements mony to the conduct of all the officers were made by the police: and the Eng- and men under himn. The return is, lish merchants felt satisfied that the for. killed, 4--wounded, 29; including three mer irregularities would not again take officers, Captain Soillieux, Lieut. Mare place.

riott, and Lieut. Cassan.

A Letter from Capt. Thompson, the By dispatches from Bombay we have political agent at Kishma, dated Mus. the satisfaction to learn a brilliant and cat, Nov. 18, 1820, confirms the intelli. successful achievement by Lieut.-col. the gence, which had previously been reHon. Lincoln Stanhope. It is announced ceived of the failure of the expedition in the Bombay Gazeite in the following against the Arabs of Alashkarah, in general order:-" The Hon. the Go. the Gulf of Persia. The object of the vernor in Council has had the gratifica expedition was to co-operate with the tion of receiving a report from Lieut.- Imaum of Muscat against those Arabs, col. the Hon. Lincoln Stanhope to the

who were of the tribe of Beni Ben Ali. address of the Adjutant General, of the

The dispatch is of considerable length, first operation of the forces under his and not uninteresting. The ill success command, in the province of Okaman- of the expedition seems to have been del, in the reduction of the fortress of occasioned by the cowardice of the na. Dwarka. The Governor in Council bas tive troops (Sepoys), who, wben in front much satisfaction in noticing the judi- of the enemy, turned round and filed cious and prompt decision of the Licut from the scene of action. The Imaum, Colonel commanding, and his consi- who behaved most gallantly, was woundderate humanity in the hour of victory, ed by a musket-ball, which passed thro' as well as the skill

, discipline, and gak bis wrist. He had endeavoured to reslantry, evinced by the officers and troops

cue an European, who was cut down, of every rank and description.” He and one of the enemy fired at him so also expresses his regret at the severe

close that the powder entered the wound. wounds of Capt. Soillieux and Lieut. Two of the officers, also, whose names Marriott. The fortress was carried by

are not mentioned, appear to have acted escalade. The garrison, consisting of with a gross disregard of military disciabout 550 men, endeavoured to effect a pline. Instead of obeying the orders retreat in the adjoining junglés, but given to them by Capt. Thompson, to were met by the different piquets posted defend a particular position, they marchi by Col. Stanhope, and, hemmed in as

ed away, carrying with them every per. they were, a dreadful scene of carnage

son belonging to the artillery. The loss ensued. One party of them were driven

of the detachment engaged was neces. into a back water, deep and muddy, sarily most severe," as must always be through which they passed, and they

the case," says Capt. Thompson, “when made a stand on the bank, and bere troops wait to be attacked with the Capt. Soillieux received two wounds, sword, and then give way.” Lieut. Ros. one of which deprived him of his right well, 1st batt. 2d regiment, and Capt. hand. From this the enemy again threw Thompson himself, were the only ones themselves into the water.

known to have survived, at the time of numbers bad been killed, Lieyti-col. writing the dispatch.


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Foreign News.--Domestic Occurrences. [May, AMERICA AND WEST INDIES. paper, and more time than I can afford, New York Papers have arrived to the to give you a faint idea of what the un15th ult. The loan for the year, for the fortunate people suffered who were unservice of the United States, has been der his iron yoke. The waste of human negotiated. Its amount is four millions lives was incredible; and I hear, from of dollars, and the whole has been con- the first authoritity, that Ferrier alone tracted for by the Bank of the United cost fifty thousand lives, and at least States, on terms considered so favour- thirty thousand more annually died of able to that establishment, that tbe hunger and fatigue at the public works, shares in its stock immediately expe. besides the many tbousands sacrificed in rienced a considerable improvement in cold blood, to gratify the thirst which value. Bank Stock, by the latest ac- the ruffian had for human blood.” counts, was at 115.

BRAZILS. The following is an extract of a letter On the 17th of February the Manfrom Port-au-Prince, dated 10th March : chester packet arrived at Rio de Janeiro

“ You will, no doubt, have been in- with the news of the revolution at Bahia, formed of the disturbances that have which excited much alarm, and gave broken out at Gonaives. The insurrec- rise to such vague rumours as commonly tion was to bave been general through obtain currency in moments of popular the North at the same time. The vigi- agitation, This state of uncertainty lance of General Magny (the Governor continued for several days. On the 22d of the Cape), and General Marc, at St. the Icarus arrived, with the Conde de Marc's, prevented it from taking place, Palma on board ; and on the 24th a by arresting all the chief conspirators. Royal Decree appeared, dated the 18th, General Richard and 23 others, who bave in which bis Majesty announced, that, arrived at Port-au-Prince, are under influenced by a view of the circumtrial, and will be shot. To form an idea stances in which the monarchy was of the barbarous atrocities of the most placed, and by anxiety for the welfare of bloody monster (Christophe) that ever his people, he had resolved to send his disgraced the human form, you should own son, Don Petro, to Portugal, to devisit the North as I did ; see the mi- termine on and execute the measures serable victims that escaped from bis necessary for the restoration of tranquilcells, hear their tales of woe, and view lity, to hear complaints, to reform their emaciated and mutilated bodies. abuses, and to consolidate the Constitu. I went through his famous citadel and tion. And, considering that the Laws palace of Sans Souci. In the former, on and Institutions of Portugal might not the highest bastion, I saw the body of be eyually adapted to the kingdom of the monster; it was slightly covered Brazil, and his other ultra-marine terriwith lime and earth, which I caused to tories, his Majesty ordered the convocabe partially removed ; he had been dead tion at Rio de Janeiro of Attornies (Prothen six weeks. His cells were improve- curadores), elected by the municipalities ments on the celebrated black hole of of the Azores, Madeira, Brazil, &c. for Calcutta. Men of the best constitutions

the purpose of deliberating on such allost the use of their limbs in 24 hours, terations and improvements as might be and it was a miracle if they survived the necessary in the Constitution agreed to fourth day. It would take a ream of by the Cortes at Lisbon.


It was



PARTS OF THE COUNTRY. the authority of the King and Barsby, and CAUTION TO PARISHES.An interesting some others, quashed the order for reCase to Parislies came on to be tried at moval. We insert the Case as a caution the Warwickshire Sessions.

to Parishes in general, to elect two Churchappeal against the removal of a Pauper, wardens in future, unless an immemorial upon the ground that an Indenture of Aps custom to elect only one can be establishprenticeship was illegal when signed by ed. An Act has been introduced into Parthe Churchwarden of a Parish in which an liament to cure the defect; but as it will immemorial custom to elect only one probably only have a retrospective effect, Churchwarden could not be supported. the caution as to the election of two Mr. Stockdale Hardy, from the Ecclesias, Churchwardens is necessary, in order to tical Court, produced a number of antient prevent future inconvenience. documents to prove, that at former periods A beautiful and perfect Roman pave. two Church wardens had been elected, and ment has been discovered by Mr. Artis, acted for the Parish which now had only house-steward to Earl Fitzwilliam, situated

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1821.] Intelligence from various parts of the Country. 461 in front of the manor-house at Castor, a great body of water, which soon return; near Peterborough: it has since been re. ing with the same violence and rapidity moved.

that marked its first appearance, carried A turkey, the property of Mr. Fraser, down with it a portion of the surrounding King's Arms, Dumfries, having picked up earth, several feet in extent, which was an acquaintance with a very fine New- instantly buried in the abyss below. The foundland dog chained in the yard, has at water, however, continued to ebb and flow, last established her head-quarters in the more or less, at intervals, during the lower end of his parrow kennel ; where, so whole of that day. Mr. Charnock and far from being disturbed by her cavine another gentleman plumbed this subterfriend, she is watched and protected with raneous pit in the evening of the same the most affectionate care. Although fre- day, when it was found to be 58 feet in quently removed from this situation, the depth; the water has now subsided to returkey always returned to it the first op- main settled within two yards of the top. portunity; and being now placed on the Two large stacks were immediately reeggs she formerly laid, bids fair to grace moved, which, had it happened in the the kennel with a brood of young turkeys, night, would have been swallowed up. to which the dog will no doubt act as Preventive Service.-An affray lately guardian. When any boys or other in- took place between a party of smugglers truders happen to take a peep at this sin- and the Preventive Service, immediately gular pair, the dog appears irritated, and in front of the Ship public house, at Herne immediately prepares for a stero resistance. Bay. A large party of smugglers, in

At the late Dorset Assizes, the Clergy- number reported from 100 to 150, came man of Chardstock was indicted for an as. down from the interior of the country, sault on one of the bell-ringers of the and forming themselves into three divi. parish. The ringers (on the abandon- sions, one proceeded to unload a boat on mentof the proceedings against the Queen) the beach, while the others posted them. determined to ring, in opposition to the selves to the right and left, and kept up will of the Clergyman, who, going to the continued vollies from fire arms, so as to belfry to stay their proceedings, attempto prevent the approach of the parties of the ed to stop the first bell-ringer-this was coast blockade stationed in that vicinity, the assault. - The Counsel urged that the till the cargo of the boat, consisting, it is Minister was authorized not only to prem conjectured, of contraband articles, packed vent the rioging of the bells, but to re- in half-ankers, was conveyed away in move the wrong-doers, and to stop any of carts, which had been brought in readithem for the purpose of ascertaining their pess for the purpose, and guarded by persons, provided no unnecessary force those who had accompanied them. At was used. The Chairman adopted the this moment, while the boat remained on lawas thus stated, and the Jury acquitted the beach with her crew, consisting of the Clergyman.

five or six men, Mr. Snow, a midshipman Leamington is improving, and is filling of the Severn, and belonging to the coast with company very fast. Mr. Elliston's blockade, rushed forward, and alone at. New Rooms will be very superb. Bisset's tempted to seize it, when, being resisted, Paragon is splendid and attractive. There he pointed his pistol, which missed fire, are also new Promenades made round the and he was fired at in consequence by the Royal

persons in the boat, and fell on the beach April 18. SINGULAR PuenoMENON. A dangerously wounded, one ball having phenomenon occurred at Bishop Moncklon, passed through his thigh, and another near Ripon, on the estate belonging to Mr. through bis shoulder, and lodged under Charnock. About two o'clock in the after. the blade-bone. He was conveyed, after noon of that day, the attention of a per. lying some time on the beach, to the Ship son in the service of that gentleman was public-house, with but little expectation suddenly attracted by a kind of rumbling of recovery ; but subsequently the ball poise, which apparently proceeded from in the shoulder having been found, there the stack-yard, distant not more than are hopes of a more favourable issue. thirty yards from Mr. Charnock's house. Another affair, between about two hun. He at first supposed the noise to proceed dred smugglers, the majority of whom from some children playing and throwing were armed, and a small party of the stones against the doors and walls ; but officers and seamen employed on the on going into the yard, he was surprised coast blockade service, took place on the to find no one there. On looking, how- same morning near Hythe. The smugever, up the avenue, formed by a row of glers, it is conjectured, had lapded some stacks, and leading to the house, he oh- parcels of contraband goods from two served a small portion of the ground in gallies; when, on the alarm being given, motion, which, after remaining in a state they were attacked by about a dozen of of considerable agitation for a few mi- the blockade people : a running figlit was nutes, suddenly presented an opening of maintained with great intrepidity by the about a foot square, from whence issued seamen, supported every instant by in

creased stances :

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Country News.- Iron Coffins. (May, creased numbers, but the smugglers got OCCURRENCES IN LONDON their goods clear off, pursued, however,

AND ITS VICINITY. nearly three miles by their gallant assail.

IRON COFFINS. ants. We are sorry to learn that Lieut. Tur- Gilbert v. Buzzard and Boyer. May 4. ner received several wounds in the affair, In this singular case, reports of which from buck shot ; but it is believed they will be found in vol. XC. ii. 174. 419, the are not dangerous. One seaman was Consistory Court had directed affidavits dangerously wounded. It is thought that to be filed, as to the comparative duramany of the smugglers are severely bility of iron and wood; and these had wounded. The same day the Badger cut- accordingly been obtained from Professor ter sept a galley into Dover harbour, with Brande, Messrs. Aikin, Parkes, &c.; and 120 tubs of contraband spirits on board; Counsel bad been beard at length thereon. and bext day, the Lively cutier sent ano- Sir William Scott, in giving his judg. ther galley into the same harbour with ment on the Table of Fees, observed, that 125 tubs, haviog captured them off that in this case he was now called upon to de. coast. These are supposed to be the boats termine the amount of fee fairly due to wbich attempted to land their cargoes near the parish for the interment of Iron coffins, Hythe.

In delivering bis former opinion, he had As some labourers were lately digging come to the conclusion, that if these Iron for gravel in the open fields of Litlington, Coffins were more durable than those conco. Cambridge, they discovered the founda- structed of the usual materials, adequate tion of a wall, within which were deposited compensation ought to be made to the some human bones. Upon investigation it parish for their longer duration, and a was ascertained, that the foundation of the larger fee paid for their admission. Their wall enclosed a quadrangular area of 34 proportionate duration, however, still seemyards by 24, running parallel to, and at ed a controverted point; and in a case the distance of about ten yards from an like this, where there was no experience to ancient Roman road, called the Ashwell. guide him, and where no experiments street, which was the line of communica. could have been made, to reach any thing tion between the Roman station at Ash- like exactness in fixing their comparative well and that at Chesterford. Within this durability, was an expectation not to be area are found a number of Roman urns, indulged. The fact itself of their duration, quite perfect, of various sizes and forms, was influenced by so many various cir. containing bones and ashes; also a variety cumstances, as to make any general re. of pateræ, patellæ, simpula, some with sult, even when founded on experiment, one handle, some with two; ampullæ and in some degree doubtful. The only illuslacrymatories of different sizes and shapes. tration the case had received, was derived The urns are composed of a red and others from persons skilled in chemistry, but of a black argillaceous earth: those of the they could only give their opinions on a red are much the hardest and most dur- subject, where no experiments had been able; many of the black being in a state made, froin analogy. And in looking at of great decay, and when disturbed by the this evidence, he saw, as was usually the spade of the labourer, have fallen 10 case in matters of opinion, the most conpieces. There has hitherto been only one flicting testimony; por could the Court coin found, and that is a coin of Trajan, presume to give a decisive judgment, with the head of a Trajan on one side, and when those most conversant with the subon the reverse Britannia leaning upon a ject had left it in a state of doubt; the shield, with “BRIT." underneath ; but as judicial apliorism-peritus in arte sua crelabourers are employed in making re- dendum, could in this question have no searches, it is hoped that further disco. ' application; and the only alternative was veries may still be made. There have to look at the opposing evidence, and enbeen already at least 80 bodies found, deavour to ascertain on which side the some of which apparently bave been buried balance rested: looking at it in this point in coffins of wood, as a number of iron of view, be could not but express his con. nails greatly corroded, have been dug out viction, that the balance was on the side of of the graves.

The spot of ground upon the greater durability of irod; and altho' which this discovery has been made, is it might be thought that he was in some called in ancient deeds “ Heaven's Walls," measure influenced by his own prepos. and lies at the bottom of a hill, ou the sessions, he was bound to say, that on resummit of which is a tumulus, called ferring to the affidavits, he thought the " Limbury," and sometimes “Limbloe- weight of the argument rested with Messrs. bill."

Brande and Aikin, who fixed the proporAn Act has recently passed for allow tionate durability of iron and wood, as ing persons who have taken the degree three to one. A test had been suggested of Bachelor of Arts or of Law, in the to him, by a person of much various and Universities, to be admitted as Attorneys, accurate information, founded on the reafter a clerkship of three years.

sults of the casual discovery of these sub.




1821,] Sir W. Scott's Judgment in the Case of Iron Coffins. 463 stances : both wood and iron have fre

It appears in an affidavit made by quently been found together deposited in three persons on behalf of the patentee, the soil, where they had been laid either that on taking up a child's coffin which accidentally, or in pursuance of the an. had been deposited for only a short time tient usage of the country, and discovered in the soil, it was discovered to be afterwards at very distant periods of time. greatly covered with rust; but the Court Three different states of the soil in which could not infer any thing from this one these substances had been found, might instance ; various accidental circumbe presumed ; one where the ground bad stances might have concurred to produce remained dry throughout the wbule pe- this effect; the covering of rust, besides, riod; in such a soil both substances might would, he imagined, have tended to probe supposed entitled to a sound looge- tect the metal from further decomposition. vity; rust would not corrode the one, nor It was upon these species of evidence, his rottenness decay the other, where mois- own impressions, imperfect as they were, ture and the external air were excluded.

upon the subject, the common apprehen. In this state Egyptian mummies, ascer. sions of men, and the result of various extained to be of 2000 years standing, had periments by scientific persons, that he was been discovered, composed, as it was now called upon to act, such being the oply said, of the sycamore of the country; evidence that he had been able, by great which might hence be aptly termed, as industry of his own, and the valuable asPliny had characterized the larch, the sistance of those much more competeot * immortale lignum.In the very interest- on the subject, to collect; and should the ing account given by Sir Henry Halford, conclusions he had come to, hereafter, apof the disinterment of Charles I. at Wind. pear to be erroneous, it was for the justice

it is observed, that the wooden coffin of the parish to correct any error ; and if was found to be very much decayed, they failed in their duty, it was for the though it had been protected from exter- Court to enforce it. The mode of fixing aal injury by being inclosed in lead, care- the increased taxation was now the refully soldered, and internally secured from maining question to be considered ; and those gaseous vapours proceeding from bere he apprehended that no general meadead bodies, by searcloths and spices, sure of quantum could be established, as Another state in which these substances it depended upon so many various cir. had been found in contact with the soil, cumstances, acting differently in different was where they were entirely or partially parishes; the size of the burial ground, covered with water, either salt or fresh; with reference to the population, the posfrequent instances had occurred of old sibility of enlarging their ground, tbe faanchors, bolts, and chains, having been cility of purchasing new ground, these, fished up, after having remained under and many other circumstances, rendered water for an unknown length of time; and the fee to be established for one, no rule the keys of Lochleven Castle were reco- for other parishes. Amongst the fees that vered from the sea 250 years after they

bad been laid before him, as agreed upon had been throwu in upon the flight of by various parishes, there were demands Mary from that Castle. It must, how- which he confessed startled him. That of ever, be allowed, ihat the piers of Trajan's St. Duustan in the West had been proposed Bridge over the Danube, and the Cowey to be 251. but then it was to be considered stakes in the Thames, supposed to have that this parish was extremely populous, supported the bridge over which the army in the heart of the Metropolis, closely surof Cæsar passed, are striking instances of rounded by buildings, with churchyards exthe durability of wood 'under certain cir- tremely circumscribed, and at a great discumstances. The third state of the soil is tance from the environs of the city. The that in which these substances are sub. fee of 211, for the parish of St. Mary, Islingjected to alternations of moisture and dry- ton, appeared exorbitant, as grouud there, ness; bere both decay, but at different though highly valuable, was much more periods: and it is a well-known fact, that attainable; he was, however, not prepared of ibe various weapons that are frequently to say that it might not be justified. Au discovered in the antient tumuli or bar. objection had been made to the applicarows, the metallic heads of spears, and tion of the fee and the proportion allotted the blades of swords and daggers, are to the incumbent; but the present party found in a condition from which they had no right to look into this; if the fee might easily be restored to their antient

were a proper one, that was enough for or any other metallic use; whilst the him; and it would be foreign to the prewood that formed the handle, the haft, sept question, to show that the freehold and the connecting parts, were entirely was in the incumbent, although in many decomposed and associated with the soil, instances in London, parishes have ac. so that no fraces could be found of quired by time a concurrent right. In them. Numerous instances of this are the Table of Fees before the Court, the mentioned in the English Archeologia. sum charged is, for a metallic Coffin ; and


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