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1821.] REVIEW.-Stuart's City of Armagh.

139 18. Historical Memoirs of the City of Ar- uncouth form, and composed of two pieces

magh, for a period of 1373 years, com- of hammered iron, connected with brass prising a considerable portion of the Ge- solder and by twelve rivets. The bell itneral History of Ireland ; a Refutation self has probably been designed for the of the opinions of Dr. Ledwich, respect- internal use of a chapel, being only 9 ing the Non-existence of St. Patrick; inches in height, 5 in length, and 4 in and an Appendix, on the Learning, An- breadth. When struck by the tongue, tiquities and Religion of the Irish Nation. dull, solemu tone is produced *. So far By James Stuart, A. B. 8vo. pp. 860. there is little interesting about it, except Longman and Co.

that it is an instrument of considerable THIS closely-printed Volume is an antiquity. But it is accompanied by a acceptable present, not ooly to the splendid cover, unique in its kind, which

serves at once to preserve it from injury, Topographer, but to the General Historian and the lovers of Biogra- it had been held in former times. The

and to announce the veneration in which pby, of which it contains an ample taste, costliness and beauty of the nustore, comprising the following sub

and singular decorations of jects.

this cover, demonstrate it to have been " ist. Historical Memoirs of Armagh, the production of a much later age with a statistical account of that city.--2d. than that of the bell itself. The ground Biographical sketches of the various pre- of the cover is brass, edged with coplates who presided, in succession, over the per, and enriched with a great variety see of Armagh, from the year 445 till the of elegant ornaments, raised in all its Reformation.-3. A Biographical Account parts. Its top represents a compressed of the Protestant Archbishops of Armagh, mitre, one side of which is adorned Primates of all Ireland, from the period with a fine gold fillagrean work, and silver of the Reformation till the year 1818.- gilt. The silver work is partly scrolled in 4th. A similar account of the Lives of the alto relievo, and partly in bass relief, reRoman Catholic Archbishops of Armagh, sembling the knots in the collar of St. or titular Primates of all Ireland. --5th. Patrick. In the centre of the top is a A parrative of various important events in blue stone, set in fine gold, and insphered the General History of Ireland, in which in a glass bead. In its centre are four the Archbishops of Armagh, and the pearl-coloured stones, with four green Church of Ireland, were either directly or ones of a smaller size, representing an indirectly concerned. 6th. An Account

intersected cross. Under this is a circuof the establishment of Presbyterian con- lar space, now vacant, which had probagregations, and of other religious societies, bly been once occupied by a gem. The in the city of Armagh; with biographical other side of the mitre is silver, cut into sketches of the Preshyterian Ministers in

various crosses." regular order.-7th, Various matters re- “An inscription on its four edges, or lating to the trade, manufactures, anti- margins, in old Irish characters, indicates, quities, manners, customs, learning, and

as far as it has been deciphered " that religion of the country, &c. which are the bell was presented by Domnald O'Lach. either interspersed through the work, or lin, to Domnald, the comorbha of Patrick.subjoined in appendixes.”

After minutely describing this fine In giving a biographical account," cover, Mr. Stuart add's, says Mr. Stuart, “ of the Roman Catho

6. Domnald Mac Amalgaid, the prelate lic Archbishops of Armagb, subsequent to

evidently alluded to in the inscription, is the Reformation, and in discussing many sometimes styled the comorban, and other topics comprised in these Memoirs,

sometimes the chief comorban of St. Pathe author has attempted to elucidate

trick; and his successors received the subjects hitherto untouched.”

same appellations. He was the only preIn an elaborate Introduction of late named Domnald, (or Donald), who 70 pages, Mr. Stuart, supported by presided over the see of Armagh. In the Bale, Polydore Vergil, Camden, and

year 1092 a fire, which wasted a copsi. Milton, very ably combats the argu-churches, and, of course, ruined the bells.

derable part of Armagh, destroyed the ments adduced by Dr. Ledwich to prove " that St. Patrick never ex

It is not improbable that the antique bell

in question may have been one of a comisted.” Prefixed to the volume is a de naid, to his namesake and friend, the

plete set presented by the Monarch Domscription of “a curious Relick," with Bishop, to repair his loss. From the ex. the existence of wbich Mr. Stuart was pensive materials so profusely lavished unacquainted till the volume was on that curious piece of workmanship, the nearly fioished at the press.

“ This curious relick consists of an * It is to be observed, that there is a antique four-sided hand-bell, of rather hole in it, worn by time.

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Review --Stuart's City of Armagh. [Feb. cover, it seems manifest, that the bell itself,

Absque bonis moribus ; the principal object of former veneration,

Mulieres nudæ, had belonged to a cathedral or monastery,

Carpes crudæ, and had been viewed as a precious relic

Paupertas in ædibus." of antiquity, in the eleventh century. These doggrel rhymes are attributed It is improbable that after the Reforma- . by Ware to the Archbishop bimself, but tion, it had fallen into neglect."

it is not probable that so learned' a man The First Chapter of the History would have condescended to scribble such begins with a description of the City execrable lines. Accordingly we find that of Armagh, the capital of the county Moryson, who informs us that Armagh, of that name, in the Province of ui.

which he styles the metropolitan of the ster, and the Ecclesiastical Metropo- the rebellion, adds that the lines in ques.

whole island, was ruined in the time of lis of Ireland.

tion were composed by an Italian friar. • The river Callan flows in its vicinity, “ John Kite, a native of London, who and, in some parts of its meandering had been embassador to King Henry in course, approaches within less than a Spain, was advanced to the primacy by quarter of a mile of the city. The sur- provision of Leo X. before the end of 1513. rounding country is highly cultivated, He was a man remarkable for beneficence agreeably diversified with hill and dale, and hospitality. On the third of August, and rich with rural scenery, pleasing, pic. 1521, he resigned the See, and was made turesque, and varied. Armagh, situated Archbishop of Thebes in Greece, and Bion the sloping sides of a gently.asceuding shop of Carlisle in England. He died in hill, and adorned with many public edifices extreme old age, at Stepney, near London, built in a simple but correct and striking on the nineteenth of June 1537, and was style of architecture, is probably the most buried there near the midst of the chanbeautiful inland town in Ireland." The cel, Northward, under a marble, on which ground on which this city was built, was is inscribed an epitaph in miserable Engoriginally denominated Druimsailech, the lish rhyme.--In 1513, the great Earl of hill of sallows. • Afterwards,' says Col- Kildare died, and his son Girald was apgan, it was styled Altitudo Sailech, or pointed in his place. The independent Ardsailech, the height of sallows.' This spirit, rude manners, and manly eloquence city, venerable for its antiquity, and fa- of the Anglo-Irish warriors of those days, mous in the annals of our country, owes may be estimated from the following quoits origin, and its ecclesiastical pre-emi. tation of a part of a speech made by the nence, to St. Patrick, the acknowledged Lord-deputy Girald, in reply to a fornal Apostle of Ireland. By this pious and accusation, brought against him by the indefatigable Christian missionary, it was haughty Wolsey, who charged him with built in the year 445, on a hill then called wishing to reign in Ireland as' in his kingDruimsailech, distant about two miles dom: from the ruined palace of Eamhain. Our «•I would, my Lord, that you and I biographical sketch of the Bishops of had changed kingdoms but for one month. Armagh must, of course, commence with I would trust to gather up more crumbs the founder of the see."

in that space, than twice the revenues of The history of the Patron Saint,

my poor earldom. But you are well and

So hold you and upbraid not me and of his successors the Catholic Pri

with such an odious term. I slumber in mates, interspersed with the principal a hard cabin, when you sleep in a soft events of Ireland, and notices of the bed of down. I serve under the cope of contending Chieftains, occupies a Heaven, when you are served under a considerable portion of the volume ; canopy. I drink water out my skull, and becomes more particularly in. when you drink wine out of golden cups. teresting as the great changes effected My courser is trained to the field, when by the Reformation are developed.

your jennet is taught to amble. When We furn, therefore, to the reign of you are graced and be-lorded and crouchHenry VIII. which began in 1509.

ed and kneeled unto, then find I small

grace with our Irish borderers, except I “ Octavianus de Palatio died extremely cut them off by the knees.'» old, in June, 1513. In his time, Armagh “ Kildare was of a generous disposition, had been reduced, by various causes, open, hasty, irritable, yet soon appeased. from its former splendour to the state At a particular time when he was enraged of extreme wretchedness and insignifi- with some of his servants, for some improcance, sarcastically described in the priety of conduct, one of his horsemen following Latin rhymes, written at that sportively offered Boyce (his gentleman) period;

an Irish hobby, if he would pluck a bair « Civitas Armachana,

from the Earl's beard. Boyce went up to his master respectfully, in the very tem



Civitas vana,

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1821.] Review.-Stuart's City of Armagh.

141 pest of his passion, and said, “So it is, February 1559, by Thomas Walsh, re. and if it like your Lordship, one of your gister of the court of Armagh. The folhorsemen has promised me a choice horse, lowing two lines may serve as a specimen if I pluck one hair from your beard.' 'I of its style : agree,' said the Earl, “but if thou pluck

". Dum patriæ studio celebres proficiscor any more than one I promise thee to

ad Anglos, pluck my fist from thine ear.'

Londini summum fata dedere diem." Did Shakspeare read this saying when he wrote

“ Dowdall had obtained, as we have • Take thou thy pound of Aesh, &c.'?

stated above, possession of the primacy, “ The simplicity of the Irish chieftains approbation or concurrence of the Pope.

by donation of Henry VIII. without the may also be fully proved by the followivg But Paul III. had conferred the See on example. In the year 1522, the embas.

Robert Waucop, (or Venantius), a Scot, sador of Mac Guilla Phadruic Prince of

a divine eminent for talents, learning, and Upper Ossory, met the proud despot virtue. This prelate had been blind from Henry VIII. on his way to chapel, and

bis infancy, yet by intense application confronting him face to face, delivered his

to study he had made such proficiency in message in the following pithy and laco

literature, that he had obtained the denic terms- Sta pedibus, Domine Rex,

gree of Doctor of Divinity, at Paris. He dominus meus Gill-Patricius me misit ad

was present at the famous council of te, et jussit dicere, quod si non vis casti

Trent, from the first session, in 1545, till gare Petrum Rufum, ipse faciet bellum

the eleventh, in 1547. The Pope placed contra te.'

considerable confidence in this divine, and “ Ireland was afflicted with a dreadful he was sent by his holiness, Legate à La. plague in the year 1523, and another in tere to Germany, and from this circum1525. The Sudor Anglicus revisited the stance, it is said, originated the German country in 1528, but with less mischievous proverb, 'A blind legate to the sharpeffect. The alleged peculiarity in the sighted Germans.” • Sweating sickness" of those times, viz.

6 Waucop, prior to his appointment by that it was confined to persons of English the Pope, to the Archbishoprick of Armagh, descent, would probably require to be had, in 1541, introduced the order of Jesupported by stronger evidence, than has

suits into Ireland, under the patronage of ever yet been offered in proof of its truth.

Paul III. John Codure was the first of We do not recollect that Lord Verulam

the society received there. He was folhas noticed this extraordinary circum

lowed by Alphonsus Salmeroa, Pascha. stance. Yet, if authority can establish

sius Broet, avd Francis Zapata. Waucop the truth of such assertions, it appears in

is said by Cox to have been famous for dubitable, that some nations have been

riding post the best of any man in Chrisoccasionally exempt from particular dis.

tendom. It is not easy to conceive why eases, to which others were subject.

a blind ecclesiastic should have been so “ George Cromer, an English divine, laboriously occupied, and how he could was consecrated Archbishop of Armagh possibly have overcome the difficulties in April 1522, and in the July followióg wbich, in the course of such severe and he was made Lord Chancellor of Ireland. hazardous exercise, his defect of vision He was a learned, grave, and courteous man, must necessarily have produced. Wau. and died on the sixteenth of March 1542. cop died at Paris, in a couvent or meetA short vacancy in the See ensued, in ing of Jesuits, on the tenth of November which Edmund dean of Armagh was custos, 1551. and George Dowdall subcustos of the me.

“ We have now, in these historical tropolitical Church. A convocation of sketches, arrived at that particular point the English Clergy was held by Dowdal, of time when the Church of Ireland began in October 1543, in St. Peter's Church,

to be separated, by the law of the laud, Drogheda.

from the See of Rome. Two distinct ec“ George Dowdall, a native of Lowth, clesiastical hierarchies, shortly after this succeeded Cromer in the See of Armagh period, coexisted in Ireland ; tbe one prein 1543. He was a grave and learned siding over the religion of the State, the man, and very assiduous in the exercise of other over that long adopted and steadily his episcopalfunctions. This prelate wrote adhered to by the great majority of the some sermons, and traoslated from Latin, people. Waucop ought, of course, to be into English, the Life of John De Courcy, classed as the first titular Primate of all the conqueror of Ulster. Ware says, that, Ireland, in right of his appointment by the his " Ecclesiastical Constitutions” Pope, or in other words, as the first Roman extant in his days. He died in London, Catholic Archbishop of Armagh, nominated on the fifteenth of August 1558. His in this country, after the commencement epitaph was registered on the twelfth of of the Reformation, by the Papal See.

(To be continued.)

19. The



p. 209,

142 REVIEW.-Shuttleworth on the Church, &c. (Feb. 19. The Church and the Clergy, exhibit- the crew of a sinking vessel, out of

ing the Obligations of Society, Literature, anarchy, and starting the rum-casks. and the Arts, to the Ecclesiastical Orders ; Distressed beyond measure, they faand the Advantages of an Established

bricated a tremendous vision ; and Priesthood. By George Edmund Shut

the astounded multitude were instantleworth. Svo. pp. 306. Rivingtons.

taneously submissive. All this is a “ IN all ages and in every country," chemical treatment of minds which says Mr. Shuttlewortb,“ taken as a body, the Priesthood have been a learned, cannot be decomposed by any other Jabourious, and indefatigable class of so

process. Barbarism, or an uneduciety : science and government, litera.

cated state, is, as Mr. Fosbroke obture and religion, are all seriously indebted serves," a permission of Providence,to their zeal and perseverance, and whe- resulting from deterioration of faculther at the pinnacle of worldly glory, or ties, consequential upon the fall of buried in the deepest recesses of the con- Adam. We do not mean to speak vent, the splendour of their talents has thus in the pretended onction of Evanilluminated the sphere of their existence.” gelicals, who neglect divinity as a

science, because it has not the effect The object of Mr. Shuttleworth's of mob oratory, but, in conformity well-intended and well-executed book, to the principles of a Literary Jouris to shew, that the great work of nal, theologically and philosophically. civilization has been, in every age, The Clergy, as Swift says, bave no effected by an Established Clergy. more interest in mysteries than their Of the fact, there can be no dispute. hearers ; but surely, if our Saviour's In the present day, it is incontrover- busbandman went out to sow wheat, tible, that, from the thinness of the and his enemy intermixed tares, the population in particular districts, Clergy in the present day, may say, in ihere could be no religion at all homely allusion, that they go out to maintained, unless there was a fixed sow turnips, and that the fly destroys appointment of mipisters; and that them, because the soil is not suffi. the education of the gentry, beyond ciently pulverized, i. e. educated, to mechanical acquisitions, applicable to allow the young fibres to root them. business, pot mind, is almost without selves. The inevitable tendency of exception vested in the Regular Cler: all education is to augment common gy. The great statue, therefore, of sense, which is hostile, upon princiEuropean civilization, and therein of ples of self-interest, to intemperance course of European power, is the and folly. God cannot be the author sculpture of the priesthood. The of evil; avd without the Fall, there Almighty Being was the original can be no possible pbilosophical so. creator of the materials; but, as if lution of moral evil, for if there be he intended that they should only be an exception no explication is, acworked up into a demonstration of cording to the laws of philosophizing, their real worth and power, by his solid. All religion implies unseed, own devoted servants, he has resolved unknown action ; and it is evidently that the exhibition of the Beau Ideal philosophical to admit such action, shall be a privilege confined to them. because it actually operates under Paganism and superstition are the passions of hope and fear. The exceptions; for, from temples and question therefore of its existence idolatry arose the arts of architecture, cannot be disputed; and being incor, sculpture, and poetry, and the prin- porated with a living subject, its acciple of the fear of God.

As to su- tion is matter of course, because perstitions and pious frauds, they agency is only the property of inani, were absolutely matters of necessity; mate subjects. Mistake may resolve rough aod undigoified tools, ham. itself into the mere vanity of a far. mers and beetles to pound ores, mer, pretending to explain a baro. which, under the atmosphere of ge- meter; and, if such an unavoidable neral civilization, would pulverize of suggestion of nature, as religion, was themselves. Mr. Mills, in his History absurd in a barbarous age, the cause of the Crusades, relates an ineffec- must be ascribed to the Fall of Adam, tual attempt to persuade the barba- and the imperfect exhibition of rerous army of the Crusaders into a ligion to the effect. If God intended measure of common sense. The ef. man, ever to be a most refined infect was much like that of reasoning tellectual animal, unless, by an abuse



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1821.] REVIEW.-Shuttleworth on the Church, &c. 143 of free-will, he had forfeited that of the predictions were the Priests.” privilege, we cannot see any sound In the same sense, the Holy Spirit pbilosopbical solution of the per- was the prophet, Isaiab, David, &c. mitted existence of barbarism. A the mere utterers, though agents, petitio principii may be started, but of far different character to those of that, of course, cannot be regarded. the heathens.

An opinion of unknown agency, as the We see, therefore, that the modes first principle of all religiou, being es- of agency in religion have been ever tablished, as we presume, thenext two the same, i. e. the magnet pot disagents are Miracle and Prophecy. If playing the high properties of the unknown agency be conceded, there compass, before the promulgation of cap be no logical objection to Miracles, Christianity. It was used for pos. wrougbt in pursuance of its owo inten- trums in barbarous medicine, but its tions as a necessary part of its own polarity was unknown. action. A divine Being, such as It is plain, that Mr. Shuttleworth's we presume Christ to have been, position, could only fiod opponents may have a perfect knowledge of from uophilosophical conclusions conthese laws of unknown agency ; for cerping the priesthood of barbarous it is an analogous inference, from the ages, 'when superstition is matter of partial science of philosophers, that course. such a permission may have been co- In the present day, the Clergy are natural, because it has been impero enlightened teachers and benevolent fectly, conferred. If, therefore, it be philanthropists. Every village spire, do pbysical absurdity to allow un. says Mrs. Barbauld, rebukes the tra. known agency, we see pone in the veller, wbo profanes the Sabbath, by divinity of Christ, or bis sacrifice of reminding him that religion aod virhimself. Without intenseness of phi- tue are cultivated in the country, lanthropical feeling, there may be whose laws he is abusing; and every stoicisms, but there cannot be useful public foundation, as Mr. Shuttlevirtue ; and as Christ, humanly con- worth observes, is either a benefacsidered, only suffered corporally, at tion of the Clergy, or created by their or about the period of dissolution, influence, or founded upon their docwe know, that the laws of life and trines. But the position is best prov. death imply, as Paley says, a con- ed by negatives ; " what would man nection with providential institutions be," says Archbishop Secker, utterly unknown to Bishop he to enter ioto life, without the bias Watson successfully opposes the earth- of one good motive;" and thiok, says quake at Lisbon, to Payne's excision Lord Grenville, what a country must of the Canaanites; and a philosophi- be without religious and moral in. cal explanation of the laws of life struction ? and death, so far as concerns the

And here we must pause for a whole apimal race, is not permitted ment to notice, what we think would to map. The sup, the moon, and ma. be an improvements and is perhaps terial inapimate bodies, appear only a measure highly requisite with reto have indefinite duration : aod, tbat gard to sectaries. We meau no disonly apparently.

respect to our Universities, if we do The next presumed part of un- pot approve the course of studies, koond agency is Prophecy. No per- recommended for graduation. We son will suspect us of undue partiali- capoot be thought so foolish as to ty to Christianity, if we quote that discountenance science of any kind, literary coxcomb, M. Paw, because but we think it an incontrovertible be bas made a happy citation: "They, truism), that men should be educated says Plato, are grossly ignorant, who according to the profession for which think that the prophet is be wbo fore- they are intended. Now, at one Upitels the future; they make bim the versity, perfection in verbs in mun, same as the mantis; aod the mantis is with autient chronologs and geograalways a fool, or un furieux, or a phy, dates, pames, and matters of remaniac." From all this it necessarily ference, are studies for degrees, en. follows, as Plato observes, that the joined upon future lawyers and diprophet was only the interpreter of vines. In the other, mathemalicks, ihe prediction, wbich he never made must be acquired by men who are and could not make himself. The intended for physicians ; as if one Pythia was a lunatick, “the authors



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