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17 E brifk

18 SE brifk

19 SE moderate

20 NW gentle

21 S calm

22 S brisk

23 S calm
24 SW calm
2 W gentle

26 NW brifk
27 W/gentle
28 SW calm
29 S brifk
30 SW brifk

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Meteorological Diaries for June and July 1794.

Barom. Therm

feet in.

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15 59





13 57




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61 6373 82

64 69


67 -8



68 78 60


79 60

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.5 clear expanfe, fine day

.5 clear, thunder and rain P.M.


3. Gathered ripe ftrawberries.-4. Fox-glove in bloom.-5. Cuckoo-fpit (cicadula) upon different plants.-8. Grafs has grown much in the courfe of laft week.-11. Gathered a Provence rofe.-12. Several Fields of hay-grafs cut.-13. Thunder at a distance.-14. Barley in the ear.-16. Bees fwarm.-17. Wheat in the ear. Thermometer 96 out of doors four o'clock P.M. Hay harvest become general.

Fall of rain, 1 inch 5-10ths. Evaporation to the 23d of the month, 3 inches 7-roths; after that, owing to accident, no certainty.

Walton near Liverpul,








METEOROLOGICAL TABLE for July, 1794. Height of Fahrenheit's Thermometer.

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61 30,22 fair


32 fair

,28 fair

,01 fair

14 2.0 clear expanfe, fine day
1.1 rain, moift, fpringing day
.6 blue sky, very pleasant
dark fky, clears up






clouded, cold without fun
.9 dark fky, fun, and pleafant
.8, black clouds, pleasant

61 29,98 cloudy

66 30,15
It fair



,26 fair

State of Weather in June, 1794




,20 tair

69 29,98 fair



68 30,18 fair


,28 fair

dark sky, clears up, but little fun
dark fky, cold raw day
after rain, clouded, fair

.8 dark fky, fhower at night

.4 black clouds, flight shower
dark fky, fhower at night
clouds, clears up, and fine
blue sky, fultry


2.0 clear expanse, scorching

.4 clear expanfe, fine day
clear expanfe, fine day


.2 dark morning, fhower in the night
r.8 black clouds, flight shower P.M.
.6 dark thick morning, fine day

2.2 blue sky, white clouds, fine day

1.5 blue fky, white clouds, flight shower P.M.

.6 blue fky, white clouds, fine day

2.0 blue sky, white clouds, fine day

.o blue sky, black and white clouds, fine day
clear expanfe, fine day



in. pts. in July 1794.


.1 overcast, clears up, fine day

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49 fair

,18 fair

25 58

70 57 ,go 'fhowery


59 ,86 showery

W. CARY, Optician, No. 182, near Norfolk-Street, Strand.

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Gentleman's Magazine:






Mr. URBAN, Dryburgh Abbey, July 12. HE very long intermiffion of my correfpondence with you has been owing to my particular engagements in literature, which have prevented me from contributing to your useful undertaking. Being of opinion, that the wide diffemination and extenfion of useful knowledge in both fexes, in all ages and ranks, ought to be the primary object of every friend to humanity, I have uniformly, with my illuftrious friend the Great Washington, been a promoter of cheap and well-digefted periodical publications. I have, for three or four years paft, furnished a good deal of matter for Dr. Anderfon's Journal in Scotland, called The Bee; which, from fome difficulties in the circulation of it, has been lately fufpended by the Editor. Juft attachment to my own country induced me to give a preference to that Journal; but now, finding myfelf difengaged, I chearfully reaffume my literary connexion with the Gentleman's Magazine, that truly chafte and refpectable repofitory of crudite and ufeful information.

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from that charity, fuch as the world never before exhibited. She, therefore, offers to the reflecting and inquifitive mind confiderations and hopes that enter deep and far into a happier futurity. I am, Sir, with efteem, your obedient humble fervant, BUCHAN.

Dr. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, Minifter Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary from the United States of America to France, to the Earl of Buchan.

"MY LORD, Paffy, March 17, 1783. "I received the letter your Lordship did me the honour of writing to me the 18th paft; and am much obliged by your kind congratulations on the return of peace, which I hope will be lafting.

"With regard to the terms on which lands may be acquired in America, and the manner of beginning new fettlements on them, I cannot give better information than may be found in a book lately printed at London, under fome fuch title as Letters from a Pennsylvanian Farmer, by Hector St. John. The only encouragement we hold fail, aubolefme air and water, plenty of proviok to ftrangers are, a good climate, fertile fions and fuel, god pay for labour, kind neigh"bours, good lacus, and a hearty welcome.


reft depends on a man's own industry and virtue. Lands are cheap, but they must be bought. All fettlements are undertaken at private expence; the publick contributes nothing but defence and justice. I have long obferved of your people, that their fobriety, frugality, industry, and honesty, feldom fail of fuccefs in America, and of procuring them a good establishment among us.

"I do not recollect the circumstance you are pleased to mention, of my having faved a citizen at St. Andrew's by giving a turn to his diforder; and I am curious to know what the diforder was, and what the advice I gave which proved fo falutary*. With great regard, I have the honour to be, my Lord, your Lordship's moft obedient and most humble fervant, B. FRANKLIN."

*It was a fever in which the Earl of Buchan, then Lord Cardrofs, lay fick at St. Andrew's; and the advice was, not to blifter according to the old practice and the opinion of the learned Dr. Thomas Simfon, brother of the celebrated geometrician at Glasgow.

B. Mr.

Weft end of St. Nicholas's church, Aberdeen.


July 10.

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On the front of the pedestal, which fupports the figures, the artist has happily perfonified the idea of Shakspeare,

Patience on a monument fmiling at Grief." On the tablet is the following bio relieve the mother, nearly expring, is committing to the arms of the father their ofant fon; white he, kneel

ing at her bedside in an attitude of grief, the countenance concealed, is receiving this pledge of their mutual affection. In this tender n oment, with a mile of patence and refignation, the points with one hand to the child, indicative of comfort here; her other hand is lifted towards Heaven, expreffive of her confidence that a happy union of all their pirits hall take place hereafter. The infcription is,

"Sacred to the memory of ANN, the wife of Alexander Allardyce, of Dunottar, daughter of Alexander Baxter, of Glaffel. She was married the 7th Auguft, 1786; gave birth to her fon Alexander Baxter Allardyce

the 23d July, and departed this life at Aberdeen the it Auguft, 1787, aged 28 years. As a tribute juftly due to the eminent virtues, gentle manners, and perfonal accomplishments, of a most amiable woman, her difconfolate hufband dedicates this mondment."

Yours, &c. VIATOR. P.S. The monument is placed in the


July 23. BE pleafed to accept a few mifcellaneous on fome of your preceding Magazines.

Vol. LXII. p. 985, col. 1. Is not the expreflion, "the affair is on the tapis, or carpet," borrowed from the Houfe of Peers, where the table ufed to be, and probably still is, covered with a carpet? If fo, it is eafy to fee how "to be on the tapis." i. e. on the table before us, came to fignify, to be under confideration or difcuffion; which is, I believe, its meaning. I understand it is alfo a French phrafe.

P. 1078. In contrasting a bishop and a temporal pcer, your correfpondent L. L. overlooks one material difference between them. The bishop is intrufted with an office as well as invefted with

dignity; but the temporal peer is invefted with dignity only. The bishop does not "affume a dominion;" he merely exercifes, with more or lefs prudence and difcretion, what is given him, day were upon an equal footing with and it may be "over thofe who yefterhim;" that is, if they are now part of his charge. But the temporal peer has no authority to "exercile over his former comrades;" what he received was with valuable privileges, but, finâ¡y honourable rank, accompanied indeed fpeaking, with no power. I will nat here enquire into the degree of author ty poffeiled by bithops; but the fad, that authority, be it more or lefs, is joined to their office, I hope your correspondent himfelt will allow.


P. 1188. The remark of the Jews (John viii. 57), "Thou art not yet fifty years old," feems by no means to warrant the inference" of your correfpondent S E. that our bleffed Lord "must have then been upwards of thirty-three." It is not always easy, from the looks of a person who is in the vigour of lite, to afcertain his age within fix or eight years; and, if they thought it even poffible that our bleffed Saviour might be forty, they would na. turally take the next round number; and half a century, as Grotius juttly obferves, was nothing to the period in question, which was about eighteen centuries.

Voi, LXIV p. 145, col 1. As I have not leen Dr. Symonds's Obfervations, L cannot imagine what "puzzles him in


1 Cor. viii. 3: "If any man love God, the fame is known of him; that is, acknowledged or approved by him: as, "The Lord knoweth the way of the ‚" Pfal. i. 6. Compare Matt. righteous,"

Scriptural Criticism, and Miscellaneous Remarks.

XXV. 12.

As to Rev. i. 12 (ib. 146, col: 1), it is, no unufual thing for words belonging to one of the fenfes to be applied to another; as,

"Et poftquam digitis fuerant cum voce lo


"The band Spake with the tongue."

So too Gen xxvi. 27: of my fon," &c. where confulted.




HE ifland of Corfica, now happily united to the Crown of Great Britain, is fituated nearly oppofite to the main-land of Gena, between the gulph of Genoa and the liland of Sardinia, and, according to the bet maps which Bufching had feen*, is in length thirty-two miles, and in breadth twelve miles, divided almoft longitudinally by a chain of mountains; and indeed the greatest part of the island is mountainous. The foil is fruitful even on the mountains, except the higheft, whofe fummits are covered with fnow the greatest part of the year. Corn grows very well, and much flax, and in many places excellent wine, and oil, and chefnuts. In the interior part of the inland is plenty of cattle, and the inhabitants drive a great trade with all forts of them, but more especially goats, whofe Befh is the common food of Corfica. There are feveral mines of iron, lead, copper, and filver, befides ftones and minerals, and a good coral fishery on the coaft. The number of parishes in 1740 was 333; of villages 427; of fires, 46,854; and of fouls, 120,380; which, in 1760, amounted to 130,000, Mr. Bofwell carries it to 220,coo.

The kingdom of Corfica was conquered by the G-noele, who drove out the Saracens A. D. 806. The Pifans

took it from the Genoefe in the 11th


"See, the smell
Patrick may be

But here no words could be more proper than thofe which St. John ufes He turned to fee;" and that which a great occafioned his turning was voice" which he heard behind him (ver. 10); but, till he had looked, he did not know whether there was or was not any perfon; to that "to lee who uttered the voice" will not do: it might be a voice from Heaven, or articulate words formed miraculou, in their, The without any visible appearance. meaning, therefore, which the circum. fances require, cannot, I think, any other way be fo well and fo concifely expreffed as it is by the Apofle, "I

turned to fee the voice."

P. 209, col. 2. The "legendary tale," I believe, is a common one; and it is fingular that a tale fo incredible should be common.

P. 496. The "Hiftoria Literaria" was the work of Dr. Cave, net of Mr.


Pp 497, 498, 599, 617. The old infcription probably is to be read thus :

Muniat hoc templum cruce glorificans


century, ceded it in the following, and recovered it in the next. Alphonfus V. King of Arragon, attempted, without fuccefs, to make himself master of it 1420. In 1533, the French poffeffed themselves of the greatest part of the ifland, hut ceded it by the treaty of Cambrefis, 1559. In 1564, the inhabitants revolted from the Genotfe; and, though reduced to obedience five years after, preferved an inveterate averfion to the Genoefe, who treated them with the utmost rigour. An infurrection, on occafion of heavy taxes, broke out 1726, which were ended by the interpofition of the Emperor. In 1735, fresh troubles broke out, and the iflanders chofe Theodore Baron Neuhof their king; who, after fome exertions, ended his days in prifon for debt at London, where in 1753 a subfeription was raised for him by public advertisement (XXIII. 99). Peace was at length restored during the years 1743 and 1744; and, though our fleet hombarded Baltia 1745, and the malcon

Que genuit Chriftum miferis boc fiat afilum."
The only doubtful words are the two in
Italicks. It is clearly defigned for
verse; and it is an inftance of a practice
which the Roman Catholicks of this
country, I believe, generally difavow,
prayer to the B effed Virgin. They do
not, as they tell us, pray to the faint,
but defire the faint to pray for them:
Holy Virgin, pray for us." But how
fuch an addrefs as this, whether they
choose to call it prayer or not, can be
made with any prospect of being heard,
unless the faint poffeffes one of the in-
communicable attributes of God, his
omnip elence, it feems impoffible to ex-
R. C.
plain or comprehend.


*Here is fume great mistake; and Mr. Bofwell's meafur-s, hereafter given, are more likely to be correct.




tents feized the town, it was foon recovered from them. May 15, 1763, the Genoefe gave up Cortica to the king of France as a compenfation for the expences that crown had been and was to be at for the reduction of the island. April 9, 1769, Comte de Vaux arrived at Corfica, and made a progrefs. May 13, Paoli and his friends embarked at Porto Vecchio on board a vetfel carrying English colours. July 18, France ceded it to the king of Sardinia; and the Duke de Chablais, the king's brother, prepared to take poffeffion of it. (Vol. XLIV. p. 384).

The clergy are very numerous, and there are 68 convents of Cordeliers, Capuchins, and Servites. The revenues of the island were applied by the Genocle, in time of peace, to maintain governors, officers, and foldiers: the furplus has never exceeded 40.000 Genoefe livres.

The chain of mountains divides the inland into two unequal parts, and thefe again are fubdivided into diftricts or pro vinces of different tribunals and fiefs, and thefeagain into pieves, parishes, and paezes.

Thus much from Butching's Geography, XII. 297-306. For farther particulars we must refer to a map of the inland in our vol. XXVII. p. 441; to Mr. Bofwell's defcription of it, and of its chief Paoli, publithed 1778; and our abftra&t of it, XXXVIII. 172.

Mr. Bofwell makes the length of the inland 150 miles, the breadth from 40 to 53 miles, and the circumference 322 miles. It is charmingly fituated in the Mediterranean, whence continual breezes fan and cool it in fummer, and the furrounding body of water keeps it warm in winter; fo that it is one of the most temperate countries in that quarter of Europe. The air is freth and healthful except in one or two places. It is remarkably well furnished with good har bours. The great divifion of it is into the country on this and on that fide of the mountains, reckoning from Baftia, into nine provinces, and into many pieves, containing each a certain number of parithes. Every paɛfe, or village, elects annually a podea, and two other magiftrates, called padri del commune; and once a year all the inhabitants of each village afiemble and choose a procuratore to repelent them in the gential confulta or par iament of the nation, made up of feveral who have been formerly members of the fupreme council, or have loft near relations in the fervice of their country. The megates of each province fend

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alfo a procuratore; and two of thofe of the provinces, together with the procuratore of their magiftrates, are chosen to elect the prefident to prefide in the general confulta, and an orator to read the papers fubjected to deliberation. The General's office much refembles that of the Stadtholder. The government exhibits a complete and well-ordered democracy. Paoli appeared to Mr. B. to have no great propenfity to an alliance with any foreign power; but we trust our nation have fince been fafficiently undeceived in their opinions of the Corficans, and the latter have overcome their ob jections; and that Paoli's firm persuasion that God would interpofe to give freedom to Corfica, and the prefentiment of Rouffeau, that one day this ifland would aftonish Europe, will be accomplished. July 16. REMEMBER, when the French minifters were treating about Corfica many years ago, that the neutral and hoftile nations dwelt much upon the importance of that ifland to the French as a repofitory of growing naval timber, and more efpecially advantageous as being in the vicinity of Toulon. Now, Mr. Urban, I have never heard any authentic fo'ution of that question; and the publick would be obliged if, through your medium, any intelligent correfpondent would determine the fame, and in what part the woods (if any) for the fupply of a navy grow. It has a coarfe cheap white wine in tolerable plenty, and, I believe, a good harbour in St. Fiorenza; which, during any poffeffion of by friends in future, may be looked upon by us both as a negative and pofitive good, but not to that amount as to be equivalent to the expence of keeping it ourfelves. I have viewed it myfelf from the fea many years ago, when in the hands of the Genoefe, but faw, what I only thought it to have, a barren furface devoid of woods.

Whilft we are on the wing of enquiry in one article of Natural Hiftory, permit me to ak, whether any informant can denounce if the Cafpian lake, or fea, as it is fometimes called, be in any degree falt or brackish? I have often had thoughts of afking the late good and inquifitive commiffioner Jonas Hanway this question, who could have precitely folved it, but as often forgot. I have not his Travels by me; but others may remember what he fays on this fubject,

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