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vacant appointments on the flaff, the due reward of fervices foregone, and to ftimulate others to imitate their patient examples.

A reg mental furgeon can no more add a filling to his income than he can add a cubit to his fiature; he remains often 20 years on the fame fender pay which he first fet cut upon; and fees, during this long probation, every one around him progreffively advancing in rank and pay. He fuffers mortifications which, with manly fpirit, he banishes the reflexion of from his own bofom, keeping ftedfaftly in view the object of his honeft purfuit, an appointment to the itaff. If depriving him of this does not amount to an abfolute violation of an exifting ftipulation, it may be regarded at least as a kind of breach of an implied contract, the custom of the army having hitherto given him a prefcriptive right to it. The colonels of regiments, and field-officers commanding corps, are deeply interested in their being fupolied with proper furgeons: thefe gentlemen well know, that no furgeon (who knows what he is about) will flay in a regiment an hour longer than he can help, if no difcrimination is to be oblerved between the fervices of half a year and half a century; and the British eftablishment affords no other than the faff appointments hitherto in general appropriated to that end.

I will at prefent only add, that, if there were no injuftice in the fuppofed new plan, the impolicy of it is fufficient to let it afide on mature deliberation, But why fhould the regimental furgeons be fingled out as the only officers in the corps bearing the King's commiffion to whom ὐδὲν ἰχύς πόν

Yours, &c.




Nov. 15.

OR the letter fubfcribed by William Graham, addreffed to me, this parting word must be fufficient. Called upon, I ftated my reatons for giving the anecdote. What has been urged in reply contains no argument or fad. If Dr. Morton's note be allowed to have any meaning at all, it conveys a reflexion on Mrs. Macaulay in a manner too clear to admit of a doubt; and my probity cannot be reafonably fufpected, ince I have only published an Anec dote, which, whatever foundation it has, I, in common with many others, have heard repeated.

The gentleman who gave me this in

formation (who is well known, and re fpected as he is known) will, I flatter myfelf, be enabled to throw a clearer light on what fill wears an air of myf. tery. There are many things which we believe to be true, and which it is not always poftible immediately to prove; and fuch is, perhaps, this anecdote of our Historian.

I reply not to the low abufe of this Reverend Gentleman; which might have been lefs virulent, as I have at leaf ferved as a pillar to hang trophies to the memory of his unhappy Lady.

It is probable the difmiflion of Mrs. Macaulay, which alfo accompanied my information, is not known to every officer in the Museum. It must have happened about thirty years ago; many of the officers were not then in place, and I was not born.

I conclude by repeating what I have faid in my former letter, that I shall ever be ready to attend to any decifive fact, and will then be the first to crafe what I have been the first to write. Yours, &c.



Mr. URBAN, Sept. 30. REQUEST the favour of a place in your entertaining and ufeful Mifcellany for the following account of a very curious and remarkable phænomenon, the unexpected appearance of a piece of water at the diftance of two miles from Settle in Craven, as it may not be familiar to, or unworthy the obfervation of, a few among your numerous and ingenious readers.

The method I fhall purfue, in order to defcribe it in the most intelligible and fatisfactory manner, is, ft. by relating the circumftances attending its rife, continuance, and fituation; zdly, by fubjoining a delineation of it with the admeasurement.

it. This water was first discovered about three years ago; and, as far as I can recollect, did not increafe gradually, but was of its prefent magnitude focn atter, if not immediately upon, its first appearance. There was not, according to the information I have received, any remarkable fall of rain at the time, nor any other vifibie cause which could account for fuch a phænomenon; but, even if rain could be fuppofed to be the firft cause of its appearance, fince it has continued with little alteration for the ipace of three years, and during the jivere drought of the prefent jummer, wo may fairly conclude that the supply of



Remarkable Phænomenon near Settle, in Craven,

water will be regular and permanent, The quantity produced in the course of twenty-four hours must be very confiderable, as it furnishes water for fixty large cattle, exclufive of what must ne ceffarily be carried off by evaporation.

It is fituated on the fummit of a high mountain, furrounded on all fides with limestone rock. The ground near it is remarkably dry, nor was there ever before that time known to be any water in

the place. The above circumftances are in direct oppofition to those which ufually attend fimilar phænomena, as low and fwampy ground, with others, generally are fufficient to afford a plain and eafy folution. There are no fprings in the lands adjoining, except one at the distance of half a mile, and that much below the level of this now under

confideration *.


2dly. The axis major A B of the fi gure, which is nearly an ellipfe, is 30 yards 1-8th; the axis minor CD is 23 yards 1-8th. Confequently the area is nearly 18 perches, 2 yards, 5 feet, 3 yds. ft. in. inches

The depth at point W is



2 2 2





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The periphery of the figure 83
This admeasurement was made after
a drought of two months, when the water
must be fuppofed less than at any other
feafon of the year.

If any of your ingenious correspondents can give an account of a fimilar phænomenon, they will much oblige a conftant reader.

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military men of that age, that can fix attendance upon any particular fpot of earth. It was as well they did not apply to tillage while they lived near ene. mies who, in one day, would easily detroy the fruits of a year's induftry; they had every thing to feek by the fword and to defend by the word; they would be skipping backwards and forwards to Ireland and Scotland, as neceffity, pleafure, or amufement, directed them. Thus Ireland as well as Scotland was the icene of Fingal's battles, where he had the Belgae and Danes to contend with, as well as with the lat ter in his own country; as in one of the

*There are several fprings at the foot of the mountain, among which is that remarkable one the ebbing and flowing well, none of which is in the least affected by the appearance U the prefent water.



antient fongs, compofed upon an Irish expedition, he is called the Hero of the Hill of Albion, Fah bein Albbin. Yet, however, it appears that at length they made a fettlement in that Britifn ifland; for, though Ammianus Marcellinus found them in Bitain about the year 360, and Porphyry fomewhat earlier, Orofius met with them in Ireland about the beginning of the fifth century, where they raifed themselves into fuch eminence as to give their own name to the ifland. St. Lawrence, Archbishop of Canterbury, who could not be mifta. ken, ca is it Scoria, in a letter addreffed to its own bishops about the year 605. Ifidore and Adamnanus, in the fame century, bear teflimony alfo to this fact, though, at the fame time, it is certain that they kept poffeffion of their dominions in Scotland. People who made war their profeffion, as being the fource of their livelihood, and reckoned it that of their glory, could not be long at reft. Their belt harveft lay towards the South; their neighbours the P&s joned them in their attacks on Valentia and South Britain, as the Irish would do from their country. On the foftem I here lay down, thefe pallages of Claudian may be eally underflood:

Totam cum Scotus Hybernen Movit & infefto fpamavit Remige Thetis. And,

Scotorum cumules flevit glaceales Hyberne. though they often fuffered the torture of fevere criticalm. Thus the Albin Scots, fupported by their friends in the Weftern fles, by the Irith Scots, and by continual experience in arms on a more enlarged focne of action, would at length become an overmatch for the Eaftern Picts; who, if they did not prey upon one another, and full the Grampian deer, had no other emplo ment but when they occafion-lly paffed in their curruchs towards the Southern provinces.


Common-fenfe would have convinced me that the Scots printed as well as their pe shoeurs, without appealing to the reftan one of fide e; yet, in their progrefs towards cov izena, they muft have been pping the barbarous prachu as from the pesty ta ken in their eque-tex Thons to South BAR

nd the c mative they would have kept up with a merchants in the harbou C. rend, they would prov. de hemleves Wita fome cloathis, which would put them under a necetiny of giving spune cuitem or painting; but,

to preferve the diftinctive marks of their fubordinate tribes, they would tranfpose them to their fields. Seneca, I think, fays that they painted their fhields; and I find the fhield of a hero thus defcribed in an old Gaulic poem, which efcaped Mr. Macpherfon's fearch: "he fitted his red-tanned boffy fhield to his left arm, on which was drawn the picture of a lion, a leopard, a griffin, and the biting ferpent." Their chariots of war were allo painted that they might be known in the field. At laft the colours, with the animal drawn upon it which diftinguished the tribe, wis introduced as a farther improvement in the art of war, which they must have learned from the Romans; as we may conclude, from Homer's filence, that they ufed none in the heroic times that he defcribes, though the Greeks and Trojans lived in a much more advanced period of fociety than the contemporary P&ts and Scots. In one of Fingal's battles I find three or four pair of colours produced at once, "dazzling the eve from far with the lufte of Irish

gold." Armorial bearings may very juttly be fuppofed to owe their crigin to this practice; and it is not unlikely that, when patronymicks gave place to furnames, which I know happened in this country fome centuries later than the time I have now before me, thofe who have t. ken up the name of Lion, Wolf, Fox, Hawk, Dog, or of any other animal, made choice of that which distinguithed their tribe from the beginning. In that quarter of the country where patronymicks are ftill uled, none derive their furnames from wild ravenous beatts, the favourite enfigns of a wild rapecious people, except the Mac Mchens, who are deicended of the great Mac Mahon of Monaghan, a fernant porting the ton of the bar, whofe reprefentation on his brealt, back, thied, or colours, did him once no fal horour among his rapacious neighbours as a badge of wild undaunted prowels. I know that fome of the

an.m is mentioned above are not inhab tents of cold climates; but feveral Batons travelled to Rome, where they were produced in public thews; and numerous trangers requented the harbours of the British ifles, who would lead ly exgg rate the wildness of thefe belts, whether real or imaginary, when ticking the fanctes of wild undifcerning people; and, if the griffin on the Blith field abovementioned be to the

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1794.] Dr. Macqueen on the Origin of the Pics and Scots.

wrong fide of any perfon's belief, let
him confider that it is a'fo an English


It is a farther confirmation that the Picts and Scots painted before they had any connexion with civilized nations; that there are very firong appearances that most, if not all the inhabitants of Europe, painted themfelves, for the fame caufes, in early times. How could the custom have become fo univerfal in Britain if the first adventurers had not brought it along with them from Gau', though it ceafed then beyond the reach of any hiftory come down to us; for, the religion, language, and cuftoms of both countries were much the fame, with thefe cdds, that the Phocian colony, increafed with a band of industrious Phoenicians, fettled in Gaul as early as the time of old Tarquin, made gradual impreffions on the manners of the inhabitants. Add to this, the frequent fallies which the Gauls made to Italy from the earliest period of the Roman ftate, and the confiderable colony which had been planted at Narbonne, and there will be the lefs furprize that Cæfar makes no mention of their painting; the military fpirit, which rendered them once fuperior to the Germans, having in his time degenerated through that infectious neighbourhood. Yet still there remain traces of the Gaulic painting in the Roman writers; for, Propertius, in a fatyrical addre's to an old lady who painted (lib. II. 17, 23, &c.), calls the aflumed colour either British or Belgic: Nuncetiam inpictos demens imitare Britannos Sudes & externo tintas nitore caput, Ut Natura dedit fic omnes recta figura, Turpis Roniano Belgicus ore color.

And the fame author's Pieque Britanni Curru is called the Belgica Effeda by Virgil, as being the fae; which Servius calls a Gaulish invention.

The plant glaume, which the Gauls fold, after a tedious procefs in the pie. paration, at high profit, for dying blue, was, according to Piny, that which was ufed in the Bitifh colouring; and to this day we call a dull melancholy blue glas. It would therefore feem, that the Britons learned the preparation and ufe of this plant before they left Gaul, and continued the barbarous application to their pricked bodies, until they yielded to the example of better. polished rangers.

The Tyrians, Carthaginians, and Romans, fettled fo early in Spain as to


introduce the cuftoms of civil life before history could bring down any account that, in the fabulous days of that counof the original favages; yet Juftin fays, try, Habis, after being expofed when a child to a variety of hazards, by which his grandfather the king meant to have him deftroyed, at length, being taken home as a curiofity from the mountains, where he ran wild along with the deer, by the marks that were burnt into his was known to be the king's grand-child body when very young.

mans, but the Arii among them from Not only the long thields of the Ger the bottom of that wide country, were painted, the reft having improved a little by the commerce with the Romans, particularly on amber and furs : but, that this barbarous cofom was more generai, may be inferred from the Marius, who bore the figures of wild appearance of the Cimbri conquered by beats on their helmets with mouths gaping wide.

I could with no great difficulty carry
on this deduction over the face of Eas
rope, and fhew that there were origi
nally countries difiant from civilized fet-
tlements, from the late Tungufians of
Mufcovy to the Illyrians, Thracians,
as alfo to the Daces in the more North-
ern regions of Alia Minor. I could
Philippine Islands, when fira difcovered
a fo fay, that the inhabitants of the
by the Spaniards, were for the moft
part naked, and had their bodies alt-
fu'ly pricked with diverfe colours. I .
Eaft Indies, fo reterive of their antient
could add that the different cafts in the
cuftoms, have fh their diftin&ive
marks; that the Siamefe, who wear
cloaths, dye their legs blue, higher or
lower, according to their dignity; that
heite, was, according to the mode of
Omiab, the late adventurer from Ota-
that he had other marks on his body,
his country, marked in the hands, and
though they lay hidden under hs
cloaths; and that the fame might very
probably be obfervable in the undifco-
but there would be too much lameness
vered iflands of the vaft Southern Ocean;
in this difquifition, and afford little en-
tertainment to any who would give him-
felf the trouble to read it.

painted on their enfigns five beafts, the
I will only obferve, that the Romans
minotaur, the horfe, the wolf, the boar,
first four, and retained the eagle. Ac-
and the eagle. Marius abolished the
cording to my fyftem, these animals


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were the diftinctive badges of five of the military heroes who became companions and allies in the infancy of the State, and joined the teftimonials of their prowefs together. I cannot doubt that this mark of honour was bestowed by fentence of the affembly of the tribe; and at length, like other matters of property, became hereditary; and that none could take it up at his own hand; for, the piña fcuta labici were honourable, when the parma inglorius alba was a reproach to the wearer. It is obfervable, that the bulk of the foldiers among Marius's Cimbri wore white fhields, for receiving, no doubt, the fymbols of future exploits. Now, in extenfive States, thefe marks of courage and conduct are procured by other means. Money, interf, and aris, are become mighty engines to raise the plebeian and coward from the duf, and rank them among the nobles of the land!

When thefe diftin&tive family-marks were laid afide, genealogy was long carefully ftudied, and preferved uncorrupted; while, for want of law, or the power to bring it into execution, the Arength of the clan or tribe was the fupport and fafeguard of every individual; in fo far, that it was established by an act of legal authority in our own country, that, when a man committed a trefpafs against any of another clan, it was lawful for the offended tribe to take up whomfoever they could lay hands on, and keep him in durance until fatisfaction was made both to the man and to the tribe. Yet this connexion, which was once lawful and facred, before avarice and luxury, the enemies of all virtue, were introduced, began to lofe its ule, and to be reduced within narrow bounds by the flattery and falfehood of the genealogifts. Thus the genealogical table fell into difrepute even among thofe who were meant to be coaxed by it: Cardinal Mazarine laughed at the French parafite who undauntedly traced his pedigree to T. Geganius Maceraus, conful in the first age of the commonwealth. Arms, genealogies, and titles of honour, when in the "difpofal of mean bands, and are bestowed without aifcernment on perfons void of merit, become contemptible and veglected; though, in a certain period of the progrefs of the buman mind from barbarity, nations as well as individuals are fond of theje trappings and ornaments; until farther difcerument, and the promiscuous uje of them, leave them to the share of the

vain and of the thoughtless. The Scots were once fond of an Egyptian descent, which is now given up; and our Picti ancestors were fonder of their honourable scars than our beft men of their armorial bearings, though they allow themfelves to be carried down by the tide of fashion.

N. B. I have faid fomewhere above, that the Caledonians did not deal in fish, None till very lately meddled with the trouts, which fwam plentifully in the facred lake of Dieg clofe by me; and one folitary fish took up his refidence in a beautiful spring at Uig, on the borders of Kilmuir, which, when women or children to k up in their pails, they would throw in again.



Cambridge, Nov. 1. ERMIT, me to flate to you a very remarkable fact, which was mentioned by Dr. Symonds, of this univerfity, in his lectures last year, and which, he faid, had never been noticed by any of our travellers. It is as follows:

In the mountains near Barano there

are feven villages inhabited by the defcendants of the Cimbri who invaded Italy in the time of Marius; there are alfo twelve more about ten miles from Verona inhabited by the fame people. They fill fpeak the Cimbrian language; and, when the King of Denmark vifited Verona about fixty years fince, they came down to fee him in great numbers, and converfed with him in the Danish language, fo fimilar was it to their own. The Doctor Ipent fome days among them, and found them in every refpe&t a different people from the Italians.

1 fhail be much obliged to any correfpondent who can answer me the following queries:

Some of our filver coin is marked on the reverfe with roles and fleurs-delis, fome with roles only. This last is underfood to be English filver. For what reafon are the fleurs-de-lis impofed on the other?

Is Mr. Marsh employed in tranflating the fecond part of Michaelis's Introduction? or does he ftop at the fickt part?

I cannot help expreffing my wonder that, at this day, when public-spirited bookfellers undertake fo many works for the encouragement of literature, that no one has ever sent forth a GreekEnglish Lexicon. I cannot think that any more effectual fep could be taken for the promotion of Grecian literature than this. MAGDALENIENSIS.


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