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grandfather, father, and fon, fucceffively Clerks of the Privy Seal,

William, the grandfather, had but two fons, both named Thomas; their wives both Amys; their heirs both Henrys; and the heirs of Henrys both Thomas; both their wives were inheritrixes, and both had two fons and one daughter, and both their daughters if fuelefs; both of Oxford; both of the Temple; both officers to Queen Eliza beth and our noble King James; both juftices of the peace together; both agreed in arms, the one a knight, the other a captain. S. H.

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which appear to us to have a higher origin, as they are ftill induftriously circulated, for the moft part by anonymous writers, in fome of the public prints.

ADDRESS to the People of England.

WE, the Committee of the Protestant Diffenting Laymen and Minifters of the three Denominations in the Weft Riding of the County of York, now affembled at our flated Quarterly Meeting, cannot, in juftice to ourselves, and to the general caufe of Religious Liberty, pafs over in filence the atrocious acts which have been lately committed in the town and neighbourhood of Birmingham. On the illegality of the violence which hath been offered to the property of our brethren in that part of the kingdom by a deluded populace, the Civil Judge has already decided in the regular exercife of his office; and we fincerely compaffionate the unhappy wretches, who, as a falutary example to others, have been fentenced to expiate their crimes with their lives. But we deem it fill necefiary, on our part, to obviate the invidious mifreprefentations of our principles and conduct which have produced this fanatical fpirit, and

The fpecious cry of Church and King hath been artfully affumed by our ene mies, with an evident defign to make the ignorant believe that we are enemies to both, and that neither can be safe while we are fuffered to exift.

That we are not members of the Church of England we have always openly avowed by (the clearest and most decifive of all declarations) an uniform course of conduct. We cannot fubmit to her authority in matters of faith. We cannot appropriate to ourselves, in a folemn act of religious worship, a Form of Prayer which we fhould not be permitted to adapt to our own views by the alteration or omiffion of a fingle fentence. We cannot difcover in the difcourfes of Chrift, or the writings of his Apoftles, any foundation for that dif tinction of ranks in the Chriftian miniftry which is prefçribed in the Epifcopal form of church government. We cannot accede to rules of faith, or modes of worship, in which the civil magiftrate claims a right of interference. In our religious fentiments, and in fuch of our actions as are purely religious, we call no man Mafter upon earth; we reft entirely on the fufficiency of the Scripture, and the right of private judgement. This is a right which the Reformers of the English Church themfelves exercifed when they feparated from the Church of Rome; and it is the only right which we affume as the ground of our diffent. In the exercife of it we are led to a great diverfity of fentiment; and we certainly difagree with each other in religious opinions more than fome of us differ from the doctrinal parts of the established Creed. But in this we acquiefce, as the unavoidable effect of perfonal enquiry in the prefent ftate of the human understanding. It is a liberty which we equally give and take: for we dare not judge another's fervant, knowing that to his own mafter he must fand or fall; we fhould think it impious to intrude be tween the confcience of a brother and that venerable Being who alone knorueth his heart.

With thefe fentiments it is not poffible that we fhould have an unfriendly difpofition to the members of the Eftablishment. We cannot deny them that right to a perfonal choice which we ex


ért ourselves. We may esteem it our duty to address them by argument, and to urge upon them the reafons of our own belief and practice; but we cannot, without a total dereliction of our principles, and a shameless oppofition to all our profeffions, have recourfe to violence, or employ any illiberal artifice in fupport of our caufe. While they retain their prefent opinions, we must be earneftly folicitous that they may pre ferve the undisturbed enjoyment of their Articles, their Liturgy, and their Epifcopal Government. We have, indeed, no private intereft which can ftimulate us to acts of unchriftian hoftility. We have no defire that our own opinions, or mode of worship, fhould be fupported by the civil magiftrate, or by the aid of a legal impoft. We are willing to truft their prefervation and increafe to the force of truth, and the conviction of mankind. And whatever may be our views concerning the abfolute authority, or general expedience, of a religious eftablishment, we rejoice in the benefits which are actually produced by the diligent inftruction and exemplary conduct of its Minifters. We efteem a clergyman who refides in his parish, and is at once the friend, the guide, and the patron of his flock, to be one of the moft refpectable, becaufe he ranks with the mot ufeful, of human characters. We are so far from withing ill to any of the Clergy of the English Eftablish ment, that we should feel a lively pleafure in the removal of every circumftance which appears to us, at prefent, to impede their comfort and ufefulnefs. We will not hesitate to declare that, in our apprehenfion, their fituation would be liable to much fewer objections, if they were left to the free ftudy of the Sacred Writings, unfettered by fubfcription to human explanations; if pluralities were abfolutely prohibited; if the poorer livings were increafed by a diftribution of the ample revenues which are now attached to finecure dignities; and if their ftipends were not railed in a mode which has a manifeft tendency to perpetuate jealoufies between them and the occupiers of lands. In fuggefting thefe imperfections in the prefent adminiftration of the Church, without any view of entering ourfelves into its communion, we do not conceive that we are acting the part of its enemies; for whatever increases its usefulness muft furely add to its strength and ftability: but if we should happen to be mistaken in the

probable effect of all or any of these changes, our error cannot produce any juft occafion for alarm. Not being included within its pale, we have no pre-. tence for taking an active part in its concerns: all that we can with propriety do, is to offer our impartial opinion, and to exprefs our benevolent wishes: if the Church of England be ever found to want reformation, that reformation must originate in the wisdom, and be completed by the virtue, of its own adherents.

Such are the reafons of our diffent, and fuch are our fentiments concerning the Ecclefiaftical Eftablishment of this country; and we are confident that there is nothing in them which can render us enemies to the State. We have as dear an intereft in the public peace and profperity as the proudest and most elevated of our countrymen. The aggre gate of the property which is poffeffed by individual Diffenters is far from inconfiderable. It is, moreover, for the most part, of that kiad which would be the fooneft affected by civil contentions: it is chiefly vefted in commercial stock, or the machinery of manufactories; and much of it may be diffipated in an hour by the fury of bigoted, or the rapacity of unprincipled, infurgents. The State, therefore, has a valuable pledge for our good behaviour, and might reft fecure from any apprehenfion that we are inclined to disturb its tranquillity, even if our paft conduct had not furnished fo ftrong a prefumption of our pacific difpofition. But the experience of a century has witneffed our quict fubinition to the laws, and our active regard to the welfare of our country. We have been engaged in no rebellion. We have favoured no infurrections.

We are not averle to acknowledge that, in conjunction with many eminent characters, who have no connexion with us in our religious capacity, we fincerely congratulate the inhabitants of a neighbouring country on their late deliverance from the power of a defpotic government, and their prefent flattering profpect of being bleffed with the poffelfion of legal liberty. We have not the arrogance to believe that we are competent judges of all the meafures which have been employed for the attainment of that invaluable good; we are well aware that many imperfections have always attended the bett devifed fchemes of human policy. But whatever may be the errors, the defects, or the inexperience,

perience, of fome of their plans, we ahink it fufficiently evident, that more han twenty millions of people, who have long been political flaves, are now become freemen. In this aufpicious change we anticipate a glorious addition to the general happiness of mankind. We exult in the reflexion that we live in an age which has produced a body of legiflators, who, by directly disclaiming all offenfive wars, have prefented a new example to an admiring world.

But, while we declare our fatisfaction in the Revolution which has lately taken place in the government of France, we proteft against the conclufior which has been no lefs uncharitably than illogical ly drawn, that we are therefore defirous of a Revolution in our own country. If a Revolution had been defiable at home, we durft not thus have expreffed our joy the horrid dungeons of an English Badille would have terrified us into filence. But we have always boafted that, by the elevation of the Prince of Orange to the throne, and by the A&t which fixed the fucceffion on the Houfe of Hanover, our general liberties have been fully recognized and confirmed. We have no wish to get the Act of Settlement repealed, or to alter the prefent form of Government. We are attached to the British Conftitution as it confifts of King, Lords, and Commons. We give our hearty fuffrage to the affignment of the executive department, and of a voice in the legiflation, to the perfon of the King. We have a decided preference for an hereditary Monarchy, fubje&t only to fuch reftrictions as directly flow from the precedent of 1688; which we devoutly pray that neither we nor our defcendants may ever have occafion to bring into exercife. We refpect a body of Nobles, which, in a political view, have little or no refemblance to that which lately exifted in France. We regard with a zealous veneration the weight which is given to the people at large, in the management of the national affairs, by the voice of the Houfe of Commons.

We will not, indeed, pretend to con ceal, that we are not perfectly fatisfied with the prefent fate of the popular reprefentation. But this is by no means peculiar to us Proteftant Difenters; in this we only follow, at a humble diftance, fome of the moft illuftrious names that ever diftinguished our country. Here we feel that we are Englifhmen, independent of every religious defcrip

tion. Here, therefore, we cannot act as a separate body. Here we shall always be happy to co-operate with the wife and good; but we will never connect ourselves with the feditious and intemperate. It is our deliberate judgement, that the evils we lament will admit of a ready redress, and may be conflitutionally remedied without the violation of perfonal right, and with equal advantage to the monarch and the people. As an carnet of the peaceable meafures which on this and all other occafions we are determined to pursue, we flatter ou felves that we may fafely appeal to our general conduct in our late application to Parliament for the repeal of the Corporation and Teft A&s.` A few indifcreet expreffions in the refolutions of a fingle fociety in a neighbouring county have, indeed, been pointed out, and condemned with a willing afperity; but the publick may be affured that they were entirely d tapprov ed by the general body of Denters. Confcious that we have no particular demerits which can render us unworthy of being admitted to the full privileges of citizens, we fpoke in the manly tone of conviction; but in none of our larger affociations did we ever depart from a becoming deference to the Legislative Power. We depend on the juice of our country. And, though we have been thrice difappointed of our reafonable expectations, we have not given vent to our impatience in deeds of turbulence and rapine. We have been guilty of no violence; we have threatened no mifchief to the perfons or property of our most violent oppofers. And we truft we shall never deviate from our accustomed good order. We shall from time to time, as may feem to ourselves, expedient, renew our application to Parliament, and refpectfully repeat the grounds of our complaint; but we will not fuffer the moft mortifying neglect or contumelious treatment to provoke us to a breach of the peace. We will wait, with feady temper, for a change in the public mind, and in the general courfe of our lives will apply, with pa triotic diligence, to the duties of our refpective profeffions. It shall be our conftant ambition to fill our feveral ftations with credit to our felves, and with ufefulness to the community; and if we cannot obtain the cordial effeem of every clafs of our fellow fubjects, we will do all that the Author of Nature hath put in our power, we will endeavour to deferve it.-Signed by order, &c.


III. Refolved unanimoufly, That the Rev. Mr. Moorhoufe, the Rev. Mr. Wood, and the Rev. Mr. Langdon, be appointed as a Sub-committee to prepare a letter to the Rev. Dr. Priestley, expreffing our concern for his fufferings in the late riots at Birmingham.

IV. Refolved unanimoufly, That the letter drawn up, and now delivered in, by the Sub-committee, be figned by the Chairman, and fent to the Rev. Dr. Priestley, in the name of the Committee. "To the Rev. Dr. PRIESTLEY. "Reverend Sir,

"We, the Committee of Proteftant Diffenting Laymen and Minifters of the three Denominations for the Weft Rid. ing of the County of York, cannot avoid expreffing the intereft we feel in your late fufferings from a deluded po. pulace. However fome of us may differ from you in feveral doctrinal opinions, we are well convinced of the integrity of your character, and think ourselves highly obliged to you for your fervices in the caufe of religious and civil liberty. In this caufe we refpect you as a confeffor, and admire the magnanimity and meeknefs, equally honourable to the man and the Chriftian, with which you have borne the loffes you have fuftained. The approbation of your own mind, the esteem of the friends of freedom, and the perfuafion that your per fonal misfortunes, under the direction of a wife and benevolent Providence, will finally prove conducive to public good, will, we doubt not, fill continue to afford you fupport, and enable you to rejoice even in tribulation. Sincerely wishing you every biefling which Heaven can beftow, we remain, Rev. Sir, yours, very refpe&fully.” Signed by order, &c. WATSON SCATCHERD, Chairman. Mr. URBAN, Paris, O. 3. HOUGH I was in Paris when the THO King accepted the new Conflitution, I was not prefent at that ceremony; but I know that what paffed on that memorable day has been faithfully related by (I believe) Mr. Perry, in the "Morning Chronicle" of the 23d of September; and, however I may be difpofed to admire the abilities of the late departed National Affembly, and revere, as I certainly do, many of the individuals who compofed it, and acknowledge their greatnels when they voluntarily pronounced their OWN DEATH, yet I will pronounce this fentence AGAINST THEM, that they were, like the bulk of

their nation, ftrangers to fertiment, and not worthy the appellation of the name of Gentlemen; for, while their King was fpeaking to them, and confirming their opinions in an handfome manner, STANDING UPON HIS LEGS, they were in a fituation unbecoming the reprefentatives of a great nation, fome covering their heads with their hats, which ought to have covered their faces; for what has the prefent King, or their firft magiftrate, done to merit fo rude a mark of the want of common decency from men who plead the rights and equality OF MAN? for he had, before the Revolution took place, done every thing he could do to preferve their efteem. Thole who know the exterior behaviour of this

nation, as I did twenty-three years ago, would not believe it to be the fame nation now: fear then moved the civil hat and the ready hand of all the nation; liberty moves now, but in a very oppofite line; the very dealers in fish and fruit will give you a blow if you refufe to give them the price they afk. The Nobility, it is true, is annihilated, but then every Frenchman is now a Lord. The National Affembly have certainly effected wonders, but they have ftil wonderful difficulties to encounter; difficulties much greater than to oppofe the powers of the French emigrants and their borrowed troops. I am convinced that, were a foreign army of Germans, Pruffians, &c. &c. to enter this kingdom, few of them would return volunteers into their own. This is the time for Princes to look at home, and support their own codes of law, not to attempt redreffing thofe of other nations; and I muft obferve, that, if the National Affembly of France could overcome the power of the Nobility, the Clergy, and the Lawyers, and they certainly have done fo with the approbation of all the people, what power under the fun can overpower them? Yet a prieft, under the roof in which I write, affures me that, before the month of January is expired, I fhall fee a counter-revolution; and then he will recover, he thinks, the four thousand pounds fterling a year he has loft, and, inftead of letting his houfe out to lodgers like me, live en prince like himself. When I was last at Paris, the noise of the bells almost diftracted me; and therefore I rejoice to have fome of their bells in my pocket. A French lady of literature and good fente, however, fays the blushes for her coun try; and I was glad to fee a lady in France capable of fuch an act of fentiment,

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To add to this, once or twice a week they go to fee the combats of their gladiators; who, to pleafe their admirers, break the heads of each other, or put all in gore. However, you are not to fuppofe the English women cruel in every refpect: they are favourable enough to their lovers; they are led by them eafily enough to the tavern or alehoufe, where they tipple together, make their lovers drunk, or are made drunk by them. There is an alehouse near a place they call Moorfieldst, where the company are entertained with mufick and Merry Andrews, who perform in their turns from morning till night on purpose to divert thofe who come to drink, and where the company give themfelves up to every kind of gallantry. There are a number of actors of both fexes, who are painted to appear fair; and, as the place is built like an amphi theatre, the principal fports are made upon the open grafs-plat in the middle, which being the fame in this place as the ftage in a theatre, a very numerous company may enjoy the diverfions very much at their eafe. I am, &c.

Origin of Falfe Breafts-Theatre in
Moorfields, &c.-From the French of
Manf. Le Pays, written in 1690. By

To Monfieur D——



08. 14.

SHOULD have told you in my last, that we came from Dover to London upon poft-horfes; and that upon an English faddle-horfe one is as little at one's ease as upon the wooden horfe of a garrifon (which is a punishment for foldiers). We have feen in London a number of fine women, who have a copious share of breafts, which are manufactured here; and, being scarce enough in France, we had determined to fend you fome by a veffel, attached as they are two together by a flame-coloured ribband, which, you know, is here looked upon as very fine. The only thing that has caufed us to change our THIS HIS word, to gallop, runs through all minds is, the fear of their being spoiled the provincial languages, French, by the commiffaries of foreign trade, Italian, Spanish, as alfo the German; who fuffer nothing of this fort to pafs and they have taken it, probably, one without examination; and more efpeci- from another: we may be thought to ally, as you may guefs that this is a have had it from the French. As to the kind of merchandize that is foon fpoiled. origin, Monf. Menage brings it from -We have been at the theatre; and I caluparet, citing Salmafius for this need not tell you, that the English po- word, who efteems it to be of Greek ets flatter the humour of the fpectators extraction §; but this is going very deep, by introducing fcenes that would fhock and therefore I fhould rather think it of one of our audiences; and that they fel- Northern original, and in fact to be a dom play a piece where fome one is not compound word, quafi ga loop, for which hung, affaffinated, or torn to-pieces! fee Sewel's Dutch Dictionary. A lope and that their women clap their hands, way in Kent is now a fhort or quick or join in the loudest peals of laughter! way, or bridle-way. L. E. * It is reasonable to fuppofe that, in this place, Monf. Le Pays principally alludes to the lower claffes of people.

Note by the Tranflator. The alehoufe alluded to, near Moorfields, is the Flying Horse, and is ftill distinguished by the fame fign. It is on the Eastern fide; and but a few years fince the large yard of the houfe had an entrance into Union-freet, which is now ftopped up. According to the relation of aged perfons, now living, it was in this yard that the diverfions defcribed by the French Author were carried on. They remember the small houfes in the yard having their tops covered with feats, though within their memory only cudgel. ing and boxing were exhibited in that place, except that children and women ufed to ride upon the feats in the wings of a large wooden horte, that had a mechanical motion for that purpose upon a platform, and run in grooves. The affemblies at this place being prohibited, probably on account of the gallantries alluded to by M. Le Pays, the diverfions of boxing and cudgelling were ftill carried on in the middle of the Upper-field; where, till within forty years paft, the ring, as it was called, was under the direction of a Mafter of thofe Ceremonies, very well known by the appellation of OLD VINEGAR.-Moorfields was, till within about twenty years paft, divided into Upper and Lower, by a wall, that ran from the end of Chifwell-freet to the oppofite fide.

Menage, Orig. Franc. in v.

See alfo Junii Etymologicon in v.

160. The

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