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the little valley oppofite the fort of the Ifland of Orfowa, expreffed in the Treaty of Belgrade, this fhall for ever remain neuter.
With regard to the limits on the other fide, they are accurately marked in a map drawn on purpose, beginning in the tracts of land on the right of the River Guina, and proceeding, by the ftraightest way, as far as the Unna; and the Imperial Court engages ne. ver to caufe to be repaired, or built, any fortreifes whatever in the whole extent of the district of which the Porte, by this article, cedes the polletion.
Moreover, the Imperial Court, to demonftrate its amicable difpofitions, and in order to confolidate and confirm the happy peace now concluded, declares, in the moit folemn manner, that it acknowledges as definitive the pretent regulation of the frontiers, and engages to return to the Porte all fortreffes, caftles, and fortifications, taken from the Ottomans in the courfe of the war, in the ftate in which they are at prefent, and without demolishing any of the repairs or new works which have been made upon the fame fince their capture.--Thus the long-expected peace between the Turks and Auftrians feems at length to be eftablished on a firmer foundation than ever.
But, what aftonifhed all Europe, an official account was received at Vienna, on the 21st of Auguft, that peace had been concluded between the Czarina and the Porte, at Galacz, on the 11th of that month.-It is highly probable that the Grand Vizier, perceiving what was going forward at the Court of St. Petersburg, and that the Allies had engaged in a manner to compel his Court to accept the terms preferihed, made a virtue of neceifity, and immediately fent Deputies to Prince Repain, with propofals to accept the Conditions of Peace offered by the Em. prefs Lait year, and that without any Foreign interference whatever. This Peace, however, does not, like the former, include precife boundaries, except on the Eastern fide, where the Dniefter is placed by Nature as an immoveable boundary; but as on the other fide lie the Crimea, with the countries bordering on the Black Sea, the Sea of Afoph, and the immenfe tract of Continent extending as far as the Wolga, it must require many months to afcertain, with any degree of precifion, the limits of the two Empires. Accordingly eight months are allotted for this furvey, which would take up to many years to form a demarkation at all adequate to the grand object it has in view, that of precluding future difputes about territory.
Thus, however, this peace, about which the great Powers of Europe have been expenfively occupied for fo many years, has at length been terminated in one fingle day by two individuals, after fhedding the blood of half a million of brave men, many of whom were, no doubt, men of science, and lovers of the fine arts, and who, had they been
permitted to live, might have done honour to their country, and proved an ornament to human nature.
But the reitlefs difpofition of man does not feem at all adapted to the enjoyment of contemplative life; for no fooner are they delivered from the horrors of war in one part of the world, than they are ready to engage in the fame bloody purfuits in another: and pretexts are never wanting to furnith occa. fions for mallacre and murders among na
Spain has long been at reft on the Continent of Europe; but Spain begins to be weary of an inactive life, and, finding itself too feeble to encounter any maritime power of ftrength, has formed the refolution of declaring war against the Moors of Barbary, a ferocious people, in whom Nature has implanted an unconquerable antipathy to the Spaniards.
A myfterious meeting has just been held at Poelnitz, a fummer palace belonging to. the Elector of Saxony, not far from Drefden, the object of which has not yet been developed. His Imperial Majesty, accompanied by the Archduke Francis, were the first who met, between eleven and twelve in the forenoon of the 25th of Auguft, and were followed by the King and Prince Royal of Prutfit, in about an hour later. In the evening of the fame day, Count d'Artois arrived at Drefden; and the next morning his Royal Highness was invited to Poelnitz, where apartments had been provided for his accommodation. On the 26th there was an opera and a fupper, and fireworks, at Poelnitz, to which the principal Nobility and Foreign Minifters were invited; and on the 27th was given a masked ball to the publick, at which thefe illuftrious vifitors, and the Electoral Family, were prefent. Early on the 28th, his Imperial Majefty and the Archduke fut out for Prague; the King and Prince Royal of Prudia went to Markibourg; and the Count d'Artois, in the evening, fet out for Coblentz. His Imperial Majefty was attended by Marthalfcy and M. de Spielman; the King of Prudia, by Prince Hohenloe, General Bifchoffswerder, and M. de Manftein. In the fuite of the Count d'Artois were M. de Calonne, M. d'Efcars, M. d Efterhazy, and Baron Roll. The Prince of Naflau Siegen, the Marquis de Bouillé, and the Duke de Polignac, met his Royal Highness here.
This meeting has given rife to numerous conjectures, and, among the reft, that the Emperor, in conjunction with the Courts of Berlin, London, Madrid, Turin, Naples, and St. Petersburg, had declared, that they look upon the cause of the King of France as their own; that they require that his Majesty and his Family be immediately fet at liberty to go where they pleafe; that the facred fubmiffion due from the people to their lawful' Sovereign be restored to him; and, finally,
that they will acknowledge no other Conftitution as legal in France, but what has the unequivocal approbation of the King, given when at fuli liberty to act as he pleafes.
Such are the reveries of fpeculative men, and fuch are the fallacies propagated by the Refugees; with the addition, that fifty thoufand Auftrians, Fandours, Houlans, &c. are en their march to the Low Countries; that M. de Nallau is at the head of twenty-five thoufand Ruffians, who will embark with bim for Oftend about the middle of the month; and that Holland, it is likewife faid, is to fupply two hundred millions, which are to be reitored by France after the war.
Though thefe fictions have no folid foundation in fact, yet it is certain that appearances are ftrongly in their favour; and that the Princes of Germany, who have claims on the frontiers of France, feem determined to embrace the prefent embarr.dled ftate of that country to affert their rights, with a view of being joined by the powerful body of French Emigrants and Refugees, who only want a leader to carry them into action.
That fuch an one has offered his fervices and fupport, wants no great depth of difcernment to difcover: but the carnage that muit enive from fush a contest muft strike every thinking mind with horrer, and excite in the human breaft the most indignant fenfations against the monfter who would involve in blood fo great a portion of the Chriftian world.
Extract of a Letter from the Prefident and
In purfuance of this intention, the army moved with all poffible expedition towards the Moglee País, and camped on the Table Land of Myfore on the 21st of February, without any material difficulty, or the leaft interference on the part of the enemy.
Tippoo, in the mean time, remained near Gingee, apparently waiting the motions of Lord Cornwallis; but he no fooner difcovered their object, than he relinquithed all hope of carrying on the war in the Carnatic, and haftened through the Changamah Pass, for the prefervation of his own dominions.
After haiting two days, for the purpose of muttering the bullocks, &c. Lord Cornwallis marched forward, in the direction of Bangalore.
The forts of Molwaggle, Colar, and Oufcottah, fucceffively fell on the approach of our army. Forage and water were found in abundance on the line of march; and fuch was the confidence of the inhabitants,
that they voluntarily fupplied the camp with every article of provifion.
In the morning of the 5th of March the enemy appeared, for the first time, in force, a few miles on the left flank of the army. Parties of horse approached very near the line, and fome guns were opened upon its rear, but at fo confiderable a dittance, that they neither retarded the progrefs, nor did any material injury to the troops.
Lord Cornwallis encamped within fight of Bangalore in the evening of the 5th; and on the 7th, in the morning, the Pettah was carried by aflault. It was a fortunate circumftance that a confiderable quantity of dry forage was found in it, as Tippoo had deftroyed all the villages around the fort, and the barren face of the country afforded an alarming profpect for the fupport of our cat:le.
The fuccefsful attack which had been made on the Pettal, and the happy confequences attending it, gave us the greatest fatisfaction; but, at the fame time, we fincerely lamented the lofs fuftained on that occafion by the death of Lieutenant Colonel Moorhoufe, whofe military character was fo much diftinguiled, and whofe long, active, and zealous fervices to the Company deferved the highest applaufe.
In order to teflify our sense of fuch confpicuous merits, we came to the following retelutions, viz. Government, having received advice of the death of LieutenantColonel Moorhoufe, who was killed in the affault of the Pettah of Bangalore, the 7th infant, refolved, as a teftimony of respect to the memory of an officer who ferved the Company many years with diftinguished zeal, fpirit, and ability, that his remains be, with the permillion of the Minifters and Churchwardens, publicly interred in the church of Fort St. George, at the Compa. ny's expence, and a marble tablet fixed over his grave, with a fuitable infcription, in commemoration of his merits: Refolved likewife, that a letter he written to Earl Cornwallis, to inform him of this intention, and to request his Lordship to be pleased to direct, that the body of the late LieutenantColonel Moorhouse be removed to the Prefidency, fo foon as the fituation of affairs will permit."
We are affared your Hon. Court will be well pleafed to find that proper respect has been paid to the memory of one of the beft officers that ever ferved the Company; and, we are confident, this public teftimony will be gratefully received by the whole army.
Since the alfault of the Pettah, no official advices of the fiege have reached us from Lord Cornwallis. But by means of the public tappals, difpatched from camp as opportunities offered, many private letters of undotted authority have been received; and from thefe we learn, that the first batteries were opened against the fort on the 12th,
and that the approaches were carried on with unremitting alliduity, and in the face of Tippoo's whole army: that on the 21st, at night, about eleven o'clock, the ftorm began, and was crowned with the molt complete and brilliant fuccefs. The garrifon gave way on all fides; an! though the lofs of the enemy on this occafion was confiderable, we have the fatisfaction to oblerve, that ours is ftated at a very fmall number. The mifcarriage of Lord Cornwallis's official advice of the capture of Bangalore will justify our tranfmitting a private copy of the General Orders iffued to the army a day after his fuccefs; and we beg leave to conclude this account by tendering our fincereft congratulations to your Honourable Court on an event fo glorious to your arms, and fo important to your interefls in this country.
We have been honoured with two letters from Lord Cornwallis fince the fall of Bangalore, which we fend as numbers in the packet-one, dated the 27th of March, advifing us, that, as he had received information of the actual march of Rajah Tauje Want, the Nizam's General, with a confderable body of cavalry, towards him, and being fenfible of the great importance of fecuring the junction of this force, and the probability that Tippoo would ufe every means in his power to harras and obftruct their march, he had determined to move to the Northward, in the direction in which the Rajah was expected; and that he was further induced.to adopt this meature, from the affurances which he had received that the friendly Poligars in that part of the country had collected a large quantity of grain, and a great number of cattle, for the ufe of the army, within fifty miles of Bangalore.
His Lordship added, that he could not then form a precife judgement whether he fhould be able to attempt the reduction of Seringapatam before the rains, or whether he muft limit his views to Ouffore, an citablifhment of that part of the Myfore coun try; but that he could affore us, that nothing but abfolute neceffity thould make him abandon his former plan: that, with a view to expedite the re-equipment of the heavy artillery, he had appointed Colonel Duff to command in Eangalore, into which place he had put the 75th reg. and three native battahons that the quantity of military fores found in it was astonishing; and that there was, in particular, more gunpowder than we could poffibly have occafion for during the prefent war.
The fecond letter from Lord Cornwallis is dated the ad inft. and advised us that he left
his camp, to the Southward of Bangalore, on the 28th ult. and on that day fell in with the rear of the enemy's line of march at Elevancum: that, although our infantry could not come up in time to gain any material advantage, his Lordship purfued him
clofely for feveral miles, and obliged him to relinquith the obiect which he appeared to have in view, of getting between our army and the corps of the Nizam's cavalry: that Tippoo retired to Pedibalaboram, leaving behind him one brafs nine-pounder; and that he had fince moved towards Sheveganga.
Lord Cornwalls, in his letter, complains of the inactivity of Rajah Turje Want; to whom he had written, that, if he heard of any more delays and excufes, he should proceed with his own troops to the executiort of his future plan of operations.
The latter part of the letter is of fo pleafing a nature, that we shall give it in his Lordship's own words: "We have been most plentifully fupplied with forage fince we left Bangalore, notwithstanding the attempts of the enemy to burn it; and this day fome Banjarres of this country brought to camp above four thousand bullocks, half of them loaded with rice, and the other half with grain, doll, ghee, and other Buzar articles."
Lord Cornwallis having received a letter from Tippoo on the 27th of March, making an overture for a feparate accommodation with us, replied, "That he could encourage no propofition that did not include our allies." Copies of the letter and the answer having been tranfmitted to us, we forward them as numbers in the packet.
A large force having been left to the Southward at the time General Medows moved from Trichinopoly, Lord Cornwallis expreffed to us his defire that it might be ordered to Amboor. Inftructions were in confequence given to that effect; and we have the pleature to add, that the detachment reached its place of destination on the 22d ult By a letter from Lieutenant-Colo~ nel Oldham, who commands it, dared the 6th inftant, we are advited, that, in confequence of orders from Earl Cornwallis, he was to move from Amboor the next day, and to advance to the head of the Chauts, where he was to take poft until he heard further from his Lordthip.
This detachment, with the reinforcements fent from hence, confits of about 700 Europeans, 4200 natives, and 450 cavalry.
General Abercrombie, with the Bombay army, took poffetlion of the Coorga Pafs on the 27th of February.
The advance, under Lieutenant-Colonel Hartley, was ftrongly pofted on the top, and the Ceneral was buily employed in fending up fupplies. Since that time (as we are informed by private advices), the fecond divifion of the 73d reg.ment, fent from hence on your fhip the Queen, and the 14th Car natic battalion of native infantry, have joined, and rendered General Abercrombic's force very refpectable.
The Coorga Pafs is about fifty miles from Selingapatam.
"Head Quarters, Camp at Bangalore, G.A.O. March 22, 1791. "Lord Cornwallis feels the moft fenfible gratification in congratulating the officers and foldiers of the army on the honourable iffue of the fatigues and dangers which they underwent during the late arduous fiege.
"Their alacrity and firmnefs in the exe. cution of their various duties have, perhaps, never been exceeded; and he shall not only think it incumbent upon him to reprefent their meritorious conduct in the strongest colours, but he fhall ever remember it with the fincereft fentiments of esteem and admiration.
"The judicious arrangements which were made by Colonel Duff in the artillery department, and his exertions, and thofe of the other officers and the foldiers of that corps in general, in the service of the batteries, are entitled to his Lordship's highest tpprobation; to which he defires to add, that he thinks himself much obliged to Lieutenant-Colonel Gells, for the able manner in which he directed the fire during the day of the 21ft.
"Lord Cornwallis is fo well acquainted with the ardour that pervades the whole army, that he would have been happy, if it had been practicable, to have allowed every corps to have participated in the glory of the enterprize of last night; but it must be obvious to all, that, in forming a difpofition for the affault, a certain portion of troops could only be employed.
"The conduct of all the regiments which happened in their tour to be upon duty that evening did credit, in every respect, to their spirit and difcipline; but his Lordship defires to offer the tribute of his particular and warmest praife to the European Grena-, diers and Light Infantry of the army, and to the 36th, 72d, and 76th regiments, who led the attack, and carried the fortress, and who, by their behaviour on that occafion, furnished a confpicuous proof, that difciplined valour in foldiers, when directed by zeal and capacity in officers, is irresistible.
"The activity and good conduct of Lieutenant-Colonel Maxwell, in the command of the Pettah for several days previous to the affault of the fort, were, in every refpect highly commendable; but his Lordship defires that he will accept of his particular thanks for the judicious arrangements which be made for the alfault which was committed to his direction, and for the gallantry which he displayed in the execution of them.
"He likewife returns his warmeft acknowledgements to Major Skelly, who undertook the command of the corps that commenced the attack of the breach, and who, by animating them by his own example, contributed effentially to our important fuccefs.
the most grateful remembrance of the valuable and fteady fupport which that officer affords him, by his military experience and conftant exertions to promote the public fervice. And although his Lordship is unwilling to offend General Medows's delicacy, by attempting to exprefs his full fenfe of the able and friendly affiftance which he uniformly experiences from him, he cannot avoid declaring, that it has made an impreffion on his mind that can never be effaced. "A true copy, from a private copy. (Signed) W. C. JACKSON, Sec." [Here follow copies of the two letters from Lord Cornwallis to the Council of Fort St. George; the first dated Camp at Bangalore, March 27; and the other, Camp at Chinabalaboram, April 2: the full purport of which is given in the above letters.] "To W. C. Jackson, Efq. Secretary at Fort St. George.
"Lieutenant-Colonel Stuart may be affured, that Lord Cornwallis will ever retain
"I am directed by Lord Cornwallis to tranfmit to you copies of a letter received from Tippoo Sultaun, and of his Lordship's answer to it.
"His Lordship defires that copies of them in English and Perfian, for which purpose a Perfian copy is alfo inclofed, be forwarded to the Refidents at Poonah and Hydrabad. "I am, Sir, your moft obedient, humble fervant, (Signed) G. F. CHERRY, "Perfian Interpreter to the Governor General.
"Some time ago your Lordship defired that feveral matters fhould be replied to in writing, and fent to you. I embrace this opportunity of writing, that in matters of great importance the fecrets of the hearts cannot be known but by the verbal communication of a perfon of confequence, nor can affairs be adjutted. Therefore, if your Lordfhip pleafes, I will nominate a perfon of confidence, and, vesting him with full authority, will fend him to your prefence, in order that, by perfonal converfations, our antient friendship may gain daily strength. Your Lordship must confider me defirous of your friendship, and must act in a manner that peace may take place between us, the difagreements existing be removed, and the happiness and quiet of mankind be establifhed.
"Dated 22d Rubany Saul Sutty 1218 Mahomed, or the acth Rejeb 1205 Hejery, 27th March, 1791."
To Tippoo Sultaun. Written March 27, 1791.
"I have received, and have understood the contents of, your letter: (recapitulate that received the 27th March, 1791).
"The moderation which always marks the character of the British Government,
and my own personal difpofition and feelings, unite in making me with moft earney for the restoration of the blethings of peace, 15 foon as a juft reparation can be obtained for the injuries and loifes that the Company and its Allies have fuifered.
"If the two Circus alone were engaged in the prefent war, I thend not object to receive the person of confidence whom you defire to fend to me, and I thould liften as favourably to your propofitions as the duty of my station would adroit: but fo direct and expeditious a mode of negociation is not now in my power; for when I found that, by your disregard to all my conciliatory offers, i mult nec farily be forced to engage in a war, I emered into the most folemn treaties with Nizem Ally Khan and the Peshwa, declaring that we would adlift each other, and that no one of the Powers would luten separately to any advances from the enemy, without fubmitting the terms propofed to the general confideration and approbation of the different parties of the confederacy.
"I cannot, therefore, confiftent with honour and good faith, receive, in the firft inftance, a perfon of confidence from you, for the purpose of adjusting the feparate terms of peace between you and the Company: but if you fhould think proper to tranfmit to me, in writing, the propofitions that you are willing to make, as a foundation upon which aegociations may be opened for a reftoration of peace and friendhip between the Company, the Nizam, and the Pethwa, en one tide, and your Circar on the other, 1 thall on my part give them the most ferious confideration, and, after communication with the other Members of the Confederacy, I shall convey to you our joint fentiments upon them.
(Signed) "Tue copies. "GEORGE PARRY, A&. Dep. Sec."
It is impodible to clofe the military account which recites the death of one of the moft genuine ornaments of the military profettion, without recurring to the aweful theme of fuch a life, and fuch a fa e; a life which, as it had rifen to its zenith, and fhone with uncommon fplendor, could only fet with correfpondent glory. Distinction and honour had ever attended him in the council and in the field of war. Succefs had ever juli:fied the intuitive fagacity of his mind; and Victory had ever crowned his dauntlefs valour with her choiceft wreaths. He had fought and conquered by the tide of Smith and Coote --he fought, and fell in the arms of Victory, under Medows and Cornwallis. It was his fortune to ferve under the most illuftrious characters; it was his ment to concihate their efteem. Honoured by the confidential friendship of his commanders, he was the chofen brother, GENT. MAG. September, 1791.
"G. F. CHERRY, P. I.
the familiar oracle, of his brother officers, and the idol of every foldier. And though he lived and breathed, and, when war was the theme, feemed to have his being only in his profeffion-the profufion of honour and of arm ---ve was no mind more open to the facial cofions, no heart more fufceptible of friendship and affection. See p. 851.
On the 13th inftant, the post-boy carrying the Wicklow mail was robbed by five villams of all the different bars. Two of them have already been taken, in endeavour ing to pafs one of the bills; and bills to the amount of 70cl. found in their cuftody.
The fcaffolding was taken down from the Weft front of Hereford cathedral the firft week in June. Were it the front of a new church, it would be aired; but it does not, nor ever can, correfpond with the Saxon arches in the infi te and other parts of the nave. The work goes on rather better than it has done, but still a great deal remains to be done before the upper part of the nove will be carried on to join the great tower. The magnificent inn and hotel, projected by the Duke of Norfolk, in that city, is, from a miftake in the estimate, entirely at a stand.
On Wednetday the 6th of July, about one o'clock in the morning, the Barb and Brital watchmen were alarmed by a violent ruhig noife in the air, occasioned by an immenfe globe of tire parling in the direction nealy from Eat to Welt, which illuminated the earth equal to the brighteft full moon.