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Meteorolog. Diaries for July and Aug. 1791 690 Fête at Gibraltar in Honour of Prince Edward 716
Printed for D. HENRY by JOHN NICHOLS, Red Lion Paffage, Fleet-ftieet; where all Letters to the Editor are defired to be addreffed, PosT-PAID.
1. Wind fo brifk, as to blow the hay, in loading, over the meadows.-12. A general want of grafs.-13. Gathered first ripe goofeberries.-16. Cobwebs upon the hedge banks, blackberry in bloom, wheat in bloom, vegetation again going forward, the brown hue of the fields fomething changed, grafs fprings a little.-18. About fix o'clock this evening, the wind round the compafs in the courfe of ten minutes, and with violence.-25. Thunder, and a violent hail-ftorm, at a village not far diftant.-28. Hay harveft chiefly finished, the crop not fo heavy, but fuperior in quality to the coarfe long grafs of last year. Hay well got. Fall of rain this month, 2.5-10ths of an inch; evaporation, 4.4-15ths.
METEOROLOGICAL TABLE for Auguft, 1791.
Height of Fahrenheit's Thermometer.
Height of Fahrenheit's Thermometer.
,2 thunder at night
BEING THE SECOND NUMBER OF VOL. LXI. PART II.
Mr. URBAN, Hinckley, Aug. 18. *XXX YESTERDAY took a ride to High Crofs, havK ing heard the evening I before that it had been ftruck by lightning. By XXX the inclosed sketch you will fee the prefent appearance; all the upper part of the Crofs was thrown down, and many of the ftones fplit by the lightning, and thrown about, in part, perhaps, by the crampings of the iron within the ftones.
The fituation is high, and it was more expofed than any other object in the neighbourhood. It happened about 20 minutes before one o'clock on the morn ing of the 16th inftant. The flash of lightning, and the explosion of the thunder, were noticed at Hinckley at the diftance of about five feconds of time, which agrees pretty well as to the diftance. The preceding day was hot and fultry. Reaumur's thermometer ftood at 20°, that is, about 77° of Fahrenheit's. I apprehend the ftorm was not lo violent at Hinckley as at many other places, for I believe it was very extenfive; but we had a great deal of vivid, pale lightning for many hours. The first appearance of the ftorm and thunder, I oblerved, came from the South and South-weft, gradually approaching the latter part of the afternoon of the 15th inftant. J. ROBINSON.
Aug. 19. YOUR readiness to encourage whatever may contribute to the happinefs or welfare of others tempts me to fend to you the following obfervations, which, if put in practice, might, I think, conduce to the health of thofe alluded to in it.
Having, fome years ago, had frequent occafions of going into Buckinghamshire, in which the manufacture of lace is a conftant employment of the women, I much lamented their univerfally dif eafed appearance. Their countenances are generally pale, and of a yellowish colour; and not a few of them are de formed in their bodies. It evidently appeared to me that thefe imperfections are brought on by their courfe of life. Reflecting on thefe circumftances, I refolved to try whether thefe bad effects might not, in fome degree, be prevented.
While working of lace, they lead a fedentary life; their bodies bent forward over their cushions, which reft on their laps. Their bodies being bent, the lungs have not a free play; whence arife various complaints in their breafts. The liver and bowels being alfo preffed upon, the circulation of the fluids in their feveral veffels is impeded; whence flatulences and obftructions, and confequent pains in the abdomen.
The fchools in which the boys and girls are taught are low rooms, kept clofe and warm, because their employ does not require the degree of exercife neceffary to create warmth. In fuch rooms grown women generally affociate together. The air in thefe rooms becomes loaded with perfpirable matter, and other effluvia, arifing from their bodies. Their breathing in the confined air renders it unfit for refpiration. It is well known to medical practitioners, that very dangerous fevers, and other difeafes, arife from confined air. The boys educated in thefe fchools are foon
692 Bad Effects of vitiated Air.-Chocolate and Tea. [August,
Called forth into the open air, to be variofly employed in active life; and thus, generally, foon get, the better of the bad effects contracted during their education.
As there was a school in the village to which my bufinefs occafionally called me, I refolved to try fuch means as occurred to me to be pioper for preventing the abovementioned inconveniences.
In order, in the first place, to prevent the bad effects of vitiated, confined air in the fchool, I made an opening in the cieling of the fchool-room, close to the chimney flue; and from that opening I caufed a flue to be built, as high as the chimney, the fide of the chimney making one fide of this new flue. The heat of the fire warming the chimney-flue, the motion of the air in the new flue was thereby accelerated; and by these means there was a conftant current of air upwards from the fchool in the new flue, efpecially when the door or windows were opened: and as the noxious, putrefcent animal particles are known to afcend in the air, they are thus conftantly carried off, and hereby a perpe. tual ventilation is formed, the fchool continuing as warm as before. Such openings in affembly (or other crowded) rooms would be found convenient. To prevent the inconveniences arifing from the bent pollure of the body while at work, I caufed a frame to be made, to fupport the pillow to fuch an height as to be at a proper diftance from the eye when the perfon working stood upright; and, in order to give them occafional relief, I caufed a refting fupport for the feet to be made in the lower part of the frame, when they were inclined to fit on a feat placed behind them. By this means the body was confiantry upright. This kind of relief is found to convenient, that, in many merchants' offices, their writing-defks are of such an height as to admit of the clerks ftanding or fitting, thereby occafionally refing themfelves. While in the country, I prevailed on a fmart, fenfible girl in the neighbourhood to work at a frame which I had made for ber, which pleafed her much. I am forry to mention, that, on enquiry, I have not been informed that this practice is followed. S. A.
RECEIPT for making CHOCOLATE and TEA.
Dear Sifter DAWSON, ESTERDAY, by the carryer Yates, I fent you a chocolet-pot,
the best and most fashionable. I could meet with, and likewife a tea-pot and finall parcell of very good tea; all which I freely prefent to you, and beg of you as freely to accept, as a fmali demonftration of my gratitude for your by-paft kindneffes and obligations you have heaped upon mee. I have fent them in a little box, in which is alfo a little broke, which I hope may be acceptable to Jofias and William. Underneath I have fent you the beft directions I could get for makeing the chocolet and tea. Pray a line or two of the receipt of the box, and prefent my duty, love, and fervice, as you know is due, from your most obliged and affectionate brother, and most humble fervant, JON. DAWSON.
3 March, 1687, from my chamber in Bernard's-inn, by a good fire-fide.
For makeing the Chocolet.
Put into the pot halfe milke and halfe water, and let it boyle well; then put in two ounces of Chocolet, and two ounces of fugar, and ftirr it up well together till it be diffolved, and then boyle it well up. Scrape your Chocolet well before you put it into the pot. If you make it with all water you must put in three ounces of Chocolet.
Let a pint of faire water boyle well, and when it boyles take it from the fire, and then put in the fame quantity of tea you will find wrapt up in a paper which I have put into then let it stand neare the fire (but not to the tea-pot, or more if you thinke fitting; boyle) about halfe a quarter of an houre, and then you may drink it.
On a Marble in Chefterfield Church,
A tender husband, and a friend fincere,
Thefe lines, Mr. Urban, are melodious enough, and were written by the late Bishop Halifax, whole fifter Mr. Burton had married. But this, however, is a very bad epitaph, as it informs not pol* Pope.
terity of the particular circumftances of the fubject of it, viz that he was a native of the borough of Chesterfield, where his father had been a member of the cor
poration; that he married one of the three daughters of Mr. Robert Halifax, an apothecary of Mansfield, in the county of Nottingham; that he died without iffue, and left his wife a widow.
And as to the last line, in which we are to fuppofe the poignancy of the infcription to confift, one can hardly think it true, because it is equally applicable to the late John Elwes, efq. and many another worthlefs character, who are often found to have a strict regard to juftice, to meum & tuum, without one grain of goodnefs of heart. And thus mere integrity, when fole and unaccompanied by other virtues, falls fo far fhort in value of the exalted virtues of benevolence and beneficence, that it can never place a man on a level with Mr. John How ard, with faints and angels, who, nevertheless, were all the works, the nobleft and beft works, of God. L. E.
Aug. 16. IN N your useful and entertaining Magazine of last month there is a letter figned W. C. rafhly charging the Quakers with Deifm; and as boldly alert ing, that the author of a book, called "The Snake in the Grafs," best knew how to detect them, &c. &c.
Now this anonymous calumniator may be fecure in his hiding-place, as a perfon beneath the notice of writers of ability and character. It is enough juft to condefcend to obferve, that, by unfounded accufations, he has manifefted, moft glaringly, both his malice and his ignorance. Mrs. Knowles, in the Johnfonian dialogue alluded to, fully clears their Society of the Doctor's infinuation of Deifm; and their numerous writ ings prove them alfo to be incontrovertibly found in the Chriftian faith. "The Snake in the Grafs" fpeedily met with an effectual answer, in a publication intituled "A Switch for the Snake." This whole fome Switch prefently whipped him into cover, whence he never after ventured to peep out his head. If W. C. expects to be attended to, let him manfully fupport his charges with his name! Heroes draw not their fwords on fhadows! M. N.
in proof of the famenefs of two diftant nations, as of the Americans **, for example, being defcended from the Britons of this island, because the name of a bird, penguin, fignifies in Welth white-bead, agreeable to the defcription of the fowl, which may be only a cafual coincidence; and though ftill lefs can be inferred from the Naraganfet-rock infcriptions, once thought to be Phoenician, and that an argument might be drawn from thence, that the Carthaginians or Pani had been there t, but at last turned out to be only either fome unmeaning fcratches, or at beft Tartarian characters; yet, furely, Mr. Urban, we have good and fufficient grounds now for believing, from the va rious authorities and probable evidence produced in your Magazines for this year (pp. 329, 396, 612), that certain Britons do actually exift in North Ame rica, and are at this time a great and powerful nation. Query, therefore, whether it would not be well worth while for the Government to interpofe, and to fend out fome adventurers at the public expence, furnishing them with all manner of neceffaries, and promifing them foine competent, or rather liberal, rewards, if fuccefsful, in order to explore more fully the latitudes alluded to in those papers, for the purpose, first, of ascertaining the matter of fact; and then, if the tatements of the feveral papers fhould prove true, of profecuting a trade with that congenial nation, which, as one has a bundant reafon to believe, would prove at least as beneficial as that of Botany Bay, or Nootka Sound. I would propole then, that the adventurers fent on this important difcovery, for fuch I esteem it, fhould be four or fix in num. ber, for fear of accidents or fick nefs; that they fhould be fent from hence to Canada in a king's fhip; and, laftly, that they fhould be all Britons from North Wales, healthy and robuft, fenfible and intelligent, and the more literate the better, for the making of all proper obfervations on what they may fee, and hear, and feel. From the public fpirit of Mr. Pennant, Sir, I cannot at all doubt but he, though he has taken a folemn leave of the nation as a writer, would condefcend to give himself the trouble, if properly applied to, of feeking out in his own country the required number of perfons to qualified as above. L. E.