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the Book of Mormon was published in the early part of 1830, at the cost of Harris, who mortgaged his farm to defray the expense. The price was first fixed by revelation at a dollar and a half, (seven-andsixpence) but the sale being slow, a subsequent revelation judiciously reduced the terms to a single dollar.
In April 1830, the first society was constituted at Manchester, composed of six persons, having Joseph as Apostle and First Elder, and Cowdery as Second Elder. Joseph now resided at a neighbouring village, Fayette, and by October the perverts had amounted to seventy or eighty. A mission party of four had by this time penetrated to Kirtland, a town in the north-west of Ohio, where a Campbellite preacher, named Stephen Rigdon, was convinced (or pretended to be, as there are grounds for suspicion that the whole shew was a mockery, and the result of preconcertion); and very soon a hundred and thirty of his former people followed his example, In November he paid a visit to Smith, and under his advice Mormonism rapidly began to assume a systematic form. In January 1831, Rigdon first, and then Smith, with a train of Mormon families, removed to Kirtland, where extraordinay progress was being made, attended with the wildest fanatic outbreaks, which Joseph, wisely discerning their folly, condemned as the work of Satan. In the summer of this year he and Rigdon, with some others, went on a surveying tour to Jackson County, Missouri, with which he was enamoured as a location for the saints, and having preached and decided on a site for a temple he returned to Kirtland. He
was also active in dispatching elders throughout the land to proclaim the Mormon Gospel; and in stimulating emigration to his Missouri Zion. In the January of 1832, both he and Rigdon were subjected to a brutal mob-assault, tarring and feathering being part of the discipline inflicted ; and on his way to Missouri in April, he with difficulty escaped a repetition of lawless violence. At Zion he was warmly welcomed, and found that two newspapers had been established devoted to his interest. His disciples now numbered 3000. Early in 1833 the gift of tongues again burst forth, and after being denounced as diabolic, was acknowledged as divine ; and in March, he associated with himself, Rigdon and another saint, Frederick G. Williams, “in holding the keys of the last kingdom,” reserving however for himself a virtual supremacy as the special organ of the celestial revelations. Troubles rose in Missouri. Meetings were held by the citizens of Jackson county, and antagonistic resolutions passed, which resulted in the destruction of the Mormon printing press and other excesses, and after a second gathering, and a third in October, which ended in serious conflicts, the Mormons fled over the Missouri river into other counties, suffering greatly in their flight. Smith had travelled in Canada, but returning to Kirtland, it was resolved, May 4th, 1834, that the name Mormons should be eschewed, and that the title of the new society should run, “ The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints," after which Smith proceeded with a hundred and fifty armed followers, and twenty baggage wagons, to carry relief to his people in Missouri ; and in July he retraced his steps to Kirtland, where he issued a new revelation commanding all his travelling elders, about four hundred, to become learned !-which they zealously endeavoured to do ; and in a short time the “ Temple of the Lord” being completed, was dedicated with great formality. This building cost 40,000 dollars, (between £8000 and £9000) on which a debt of 15,000 dollars remained, despite the liberality of the people : a misfortune which strangely coincided with a revelation vouchsafed about this time, that Smith and Rigdon should remain poor no longer. In this year these adventurers and others established a mercantile house, and bought up goods on credit, but pay-day arriving, they were “unable to discharge the debt of 100,000 dollars”, (£22,000). As a last resource they set up a bankrupt bank, in January 1837, (a charter for which had been refused by the legislature of Ohio), the notes of which gained temporary currency by a roguish ruse, but in the autumn of that year the bubble burst, and one night in March 1838, Joseph, with an escort, decamped (by revelation of course), closely pursued by the officers of the law. But
* The account of this RUSE to which so mild an appellation is attached in the text, is quoted by Mr. Caswall from Dr. Clark's volume, in which it appears guaranteed by the name of Cyrus Smalling, a resident of Kirtland. It is to this effect: " As the credit of the bank soon became very suspicious, the holders of its notes came in great anxiety to learn the amount of precious metal in the bank. Smith foreseeing this event, had filled one box with dollars, and about two-hundred boxes with lead, shot, and old iron. Accordingly, when the anxious holders arrived, he very cooly and candidly took them into the vault, pointing at the two-hundred boxes marked "one thousand dollars" cash, and opening one, exter nally similar, exhibited the silver which it contained; he allowed them to feel the weight of the others, and they departed, fully convinced that the bank was worth two-hundred thousand dollars."
he outrode them, and reached Missouri with the most valuable of his effects. Immense immigrations now swelled the Mormon community in Missouri ; and enspirited by this, Smith and his co-adjutor were more unreserved in their statements of the dominancy reserved for the “saints.” At length a secret society was organized, which took the name of the “ Big Fan,” a sobriquet exchanged to the “Daughters of Zion,” and again to the “Danite Band.” Notice was then given that all “dissenters”—those discontented with Smith-must quit the country, and in this class were included Cowdery, and all others who had opposed any of the prophet's measures. By dwelling on their past injuries and on radiant visions of ambition, the Mormon population grew excited to an alarning degree ; and a collision between them and the Missiourians was inevitable. Two election scenes brought the opposite parties together, and a fearful combustion of passion ensued; -civil war succeeded ; and in the fury of the conflict the Mormons assailed the state militia, which was then brought out in great strength against them. Smith at length surrendered himself as prisoner, and narrowly escaped being shot by order of a courtmartial; but was committed to prison—from which he escaped, after one failure, in the spring of 1839, and regained the main body of his disciples in Illinois, who were congregated at a beautiful situation on the Upper Mississippi, where the river makes a noble bend. There a city was planned called Nauvoo, which, in the prophet's Hebrew signified“ beautiful”. In a brief period a handsome capital rose to delight Joseph's eyes ; but his heart was set on power ;
and instructed by his Missouri troubles, he was eager to establish it on a legal foundation. In this he was wonderfully successful, the State Legislature granting (Dec. 16, 1840) his demands for munici. pal and university charters; and in the room of the ill-trained Danite Bands appeared the more martially efficient “ Nauvoo Legion,” numbering 1,700 men, to whose custody the arms of the State itself were entrusted. Of this legion Smith was appointed Lieutenant General, and also Chief Councillor of Nauvoo, and a Regent of the University. In January 1841, he had a revelation respecting a new temple, and one concerning a grand hotel, in which it was provided that “ Joseph and his house should have place from generation to generation !”
On the 6th of April, with a mighty parade of military noise and glitter, the foundation-stone of the temple was laid by the prophet ; and from this time to the abandonment of the structure, a tything was exacted from each saint, levied on all his property. Placed on a noble hill, and built of polished white limestone, the temple was intended to surpass all other edifices of a kindred sort, and though never completed, a million of dollars (£220,000) were expended upon it. Smith's glory had now attained its meridian ; but it began fast to approach the western horizon. This he did not suspect, and was probably, like the king of Babylon, revolving delicious thoughts of future grandeur : for in 1844 he allowed himself to be nominated for the Presidentship of the United States, and issued, Feb. 7, a remarkable address—but without any intention of going to the poll. His enemies in Missouri, however, continued