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relative to this illustrious family, which some of your Correspondents may be able to explain; viz. Edmond, Lord Butler, was created Earl of Carrick in 1815, and his son, James, was created Earl of Ormond in 1328. Lodge does not inform us whether the honour of Carrick was surrendered on accepting that of Ormond. inclined to suppose it was, from the circumstance of the Duke of Leinster's admission as premier Earl, though the date of the Kildare earldom is subsequent to that of Carrick. It may also be a question, how such a surrender would bear on the descendants of the younger sons of Edmond, created Earl of Carrick, on the failure of the male branches of the Earls of Ormond. Would such descendants be precluded from the Peerage, though proving a lineal descent from the grantee of 1315? or would they be admitted to the newer honour of Ormond? In Scotland there are many instances of change of titles, but they almost invariably retain the old date and precedence.
"Paris, July 20, 1801. "Yesterday I was introduced into the company of the noted Mr. Thomas Paine; he received me with the greatest politeness; showed me a curious Iron Bridge he had constructed, in his leisure hours, at Paris. Informs me, he is about to return to America, to end his days. Though a very sensible man, yet is the most positive and dogmatical I ever met with: had a long conversation on the Evidences of Christianity. He now positively asserts, that there never existed such a man as Jesus Christ, and his Twelve Apostles; but that the Christian religion is founded upon the worship of the Sun, and that Jesus Christ and his Twelve Apostles are the twelve signs of the Zodiac*. I said to him, 'Sir, the Bi
See a late publication by Sir William Drummond.
shop of Llandaff's Apology is thought to be a good answer to your Age of Reason; and it is expected in England, you should take some notice of him. Sir, the Bishop is a very weak man; I have noticed him in my Third part of the Age of Reason, which has been ready for three years past; but has not been published, owing to the intolerancy of the British Government; but, as soon as I arrive in America, it shall immediately go to the press.''Mr. Paine, don't you think the argu ment conclusive, that God might with as much justice destroy the Canaanites by the sword of the Israelites, as by an earthquake or deluge? No, Sir; an earthquake or deluge are not moral agents; war will make men bloody and vicious.' I replied, Sir, I cannot see the strength of that argument. King William the Third, General Washington, and the first Consul Buonaparte, have been valiant and victorious in battle, but in peace, are they more vicious, bloody, and immoral than other men?' Mr. Paine, have you seen Archdeacon Paley's Evidences of Christianity? a clearheaded man, whose book is thought to be unanswerable. He has made good use of Dr. Lardner's works, in his writings.'-'Dr. Lardner, Sir, was nothing but an old woman; and Dr. Priestley is not much better: he enjoys no popularity in America; for he not only writes against superstition, but also against reason; had he only followed Chemistry, he might have done well enough in America.'
"I have visited the National' Library; Mr. Vanprat, the librarian, is remarkably polite and attentive.
Here I have looked into the works of the infidel Boulanger, so much cried up in France, out of which Mr. Paine has drawn, I may say, all his arguments in his Age of Reason, without acknowledging it. I was one day walking in the garden of the Thuilleries, admiring the spoils of Italy; some companies were discoursing on the news of the day, whilst I observed a small collected round a solid groupe looking man, aged about fifty, who was preaching Atheism, the eternity of the world, and the production of men from slime by the heat of the sun, &c. The French are a nation without morals, and so, consequently, unfit to enjoy the liberty of a pure Republican government. The friends
of Freedom on your side of the water, in general, have very mistaken views of French liberty; the same as I had myself, till I was here, and had examined every thing with my own eyes: you may read inscriptions almost on every public gate and place in Paris, Liberty, equality, fraternity, and indivisibility, and hear this cant from all the placemen; but it is vox et præterea nihil.
"I have just peeped into Bossuet's writings, 12 large volumes in 4to. filled with eloquence and sophisms against the Protestant religion, and palliating the absurdities of Popery; though a violent persecutor of the Protestants for not believing in transubstantiation and purgatory, &c. yet himself was nothing more than a disguised Infidel: this is asserted as a fact, by one of the greatest writers France ever produced :-not the first time that Infidels have been the greatest persecutors."
Mr. URBAN, Birmingham, Sept. 3.
county of Norfolk, has this summer
your of every
Number, p. 113, is Norman French, and may be read thus:
+LE. QUER. DAME. MAVD. DE. MERRI
ETE. NONAYNE, DE. CANNVNTUNE.
(i. e.) The Choir of Dame Maud de Merriete, Nun of Cannuntune.
Connecting Dame with Nonayne, I conjecture that the lady was Superior of the Benedictine Nunnery of Cannington, near Bridgwater, in the county of Somerset, founded by Robert de Curcy in the time of King Stephen, where a Maud Merston (possibly a mis-reading of Merriete, if the latter word itself be not incorrectly copied) was elected Prioress, A.D. 1317, as appears from Browne Willis's List of Principals of Religious Houses, printed in Tanner's Notitia. She occurs as Matilda (Anglicè Maud) de Mers ton, in Collinson's Somerset, vol. I. p. 232.
Yours, &c. WILLIAM HAMPER. *P. 105, col. 2, last line, after antient add slabs.
HE short account of
ed by turning the Pea plants upon the ridges, two of which could be covered by the line thus prepared ; two men were then directed, each holding the end of the line, to drag the field regularly, which operation was performed six times over the whole field; and thus six acres were completed by two men in one day, which, at three shillings a man, was done at the slight cost of one shilling per acre.
Thousands of Lice were crushed to death, thousands maimed, and the rest so harrassed, that, upon examining carefully for the following week, scarcely a louse could be seen: at any rate, the number was very small, and the plants did not appear in the least injured by this rough operation; and I have now the expectation of a much larger produce than any of my neighbours. Peas were set earlier than usual, which I consider too as a great advantage; as the plants attain a great degree of maturity in forming the pod before the usual coming of this destructive insect. The expence is so little in
Teasy and certain Method of de- trying this experiment, that even
stroying the Lice that attack Peas, may be useful to your agricultural readers.
The Pea Crop, particularly in the
those who most dislike innovation will, I trust, make a trial, and I am convinced they will approve it.
Yours, &c. A NORFOLK FARMER.
DANIEL'S Journal to INDIA. (Continued from p. 127.) EMEN is a small village, but sea-port of the city Cellebee, from whence is exported all the coffee which supplies Europe, by way of Sues and Grand Cairo (as Mocha is the sea-port town of Bideilfokee, whence comes all the coffee which supplies India and Europe by way of the Cape); and during my stay here, being to my sorrow too well acquainted with the Governor, his secretary assured me, there was that year exported 40,000 bales for Judda; and on the vessel which I embarked was 1,400 bales, being one of the largest vessels of that fashion in that sea: her keel, beams, planks, and rudder, being sowed and tied together, and then pitched, not having one nail or piece of iron in her; her sails being made of date-leaves, matted or pleated together, and ornamented with ostriches' eggs and feathers, and the vessel's stern very prettily painted.
"So, on the 21st of September, I embarked in the aforesaid vessel for Judda, with a fair wind, which continued only in our favour twelve hours, when arose the usual NorthWest wind with that violence which soon disordered our date-leaves, and left us to Divine Providence; but ac#cidentally having another small sail, we put before the wind, and came to an anchor near the island of Comaran, where we were no sooner arrived, but were welcomed with dreadful thunder, and lightning continually flashing, and rain pouring from the clouds, not by drops, but by streams, which we were forced to endure four days and four nights; which caused many of our men to die of the bloody flux, not having any thing to cover our heads but the canopy of hea
"On the 26th it pleased God our contrary wind and rain ceased, the elements favouring us to our hearts content: we refitted us with a new
sail, and departed once more for Judda, where we arrived the 4th of October. But here again I found a new addition to my misfortunes, being obliged to remain fifty days for a Conveyance towards the Levant; during which time, the disagreeableness of the climate and country, the moroseness, barbarity, and treachery, of the natives, my own melancholy, GENT. MAG. September, 1812.
being alone among so abominable a crew, whom I was forced to keep company with (and humour too), being in danger every minute of an outrage upon their taking the least pique against me, may well be imagined by any that have the least insight into my then deplorable condition; being an eye-witness how the Grand-Sheriffo treated the Grand Seignior's Bashaw, he coming in person before the city, accompanied with 2,000 horse, and demanded of the Bashaw (who was my only friend) 100,000 chiqueens; adding, "That his Master the Grand Seignior was the son of a Christian whore, and that he would not own him to be a protector of the Mahometan Religion, since he had made a peace with those unbelievers the Christians; but that he would marry his daughter to the King of Morocco. Upon which the Bashaw was forced to send him the money, to save his head, and I, very melancholy, returned to my lodging. But Heaven had still an eye of pity towards me; for in a few days after I was favoured with the arrival of a vessel from Abys, on the coast of Ethiopea, on board of whom was a Frenchman, who had been sent with a Jesuit, as an interpreter, to the King of Abyssinia, which Jesuit died, leaving him to return to the court of France, to give an account of his expedition aud proceedings. This welcome Frenchman, during my stay there, was very divertive to me, with the discourse of his travels, and relation of several noted places, amongst which, this description following of the ancient and famous river Nilus was, in my opinion, as grateful to be heard, as it is wonderful in its nature. the original and rise of this great African river, there are different judgments; some will have its beginning to be in the Upper-Ethiopia, in the kingdom of the Abysses, from very high mountains, which are called the Mountains of the Moon; but our modern opinions agree more reasonable, that the Nile is formed from the increase of two lakes, called Zembree and Zaflan, which are filled by rain falling into them from preci-. pices: and for several days journey, as my traveller said he observed himself, the source of water is heard roaring through caverns under ground a great way off, before it is seen to
enter these lakes. And in one particular relating to this wonderful river, I myself can declare, that as other writers affirm its evacuation into the Mediterranean to be by five or seven streams, that it only flows but from two, which form the figure of the Greek delta; the Eastern branch falling into the Mediterranean at Damiata, and the Western near Roset; both which I passed, going and returning, with great satisfaction and pleasure; the banks all along being delicately beautified with villages, having between Grand Cairo and Roset above five hundred. There is no genius of the Egyptians happy enough to extol properly the extraordinary effects and blessings proceeding from this Nilus, which makes the fertility of the whole kingdom of Egypt; be ginning every year to flow in the month of June, and swelling sometimes to four and twenty cubits, which overflows their whole country about the middle of August, and decreases about the middle of September; and in October they cultivate and sow their ground, and in April following reap their harvest, without half the trouble of our Northern fatigues. Nor do the Egyptians owe only their food, but m great measure their lives too, to the flowing of this river; it being observed, that when five hundred die of the plague at Grand Cairo the day before, not one dies after the day it begins to increase, but more especially after the feast of St. John, which, although the plague has raged violently several weeks before, has been observed to cease on that day.
"The waters are sweet and grate ful to the taste, cool, wholesome, and very nourishing, both to plants and animals; it abounds with great plenty of fish, but not very wholesome, the bottom being muddy, not having any gravel or stones, and very much infested with crocodiles, that are very pernicious, some of them having been taken thirty feet in length. During the inundation, or overflowing of the Nile, the country people keep their cattle on the tops of the hills until the decrease of the waters, their towns and villages appearing, in the time of the flood, like so many little Islands, holding a commerce by a continual intercourse of boats and shallops, in which they
transport their marketable commodities. It is generally noted amongst the natives, that if the river does not overflow, it is not only a fore-runner of plague and famine, but prognos ticates some ensuing mischief to the prince and state, as is confirmed by the testimony of good and credible authors. And in the year 1688 I was an eye-witness of its effects, being then in the Holy Land, where many families came for refuge from the plague, which the not flowing of the river the year before foretold.
"With such, and other diverting narrations, my new French friend obliged me with, passing our time away as well as we could; and, upon the 8th of December, I embarked in a galley for Sues, leaving my friend, who was obliged to stay some time longer; and, after an indifferent good passage, arrived at Jembo. The commander of our vessel was formerly a Greek, and having killed two Turks, he was forced to turn Mahometan. There was nothing considerable happened during this passage; nor was it deterred by any ill accidents: here we were forced to go on shore, and remain some time, our captain haing private business at Medena; but chiefly to buy from the robbers some stolen goods of the Pilgrims before mentioned.
"Medena is one of the chiefest cities of Arabia Petrea, and is very considerable among the Mahometans, the body of their famous prophet Mahomet being there deposited; which, some say, was removed hither from Mecca, after Albukerk, General of the Portuguese, attempted to take it thence, and surprise the town of Judda to favour his retreat.
"But other of his proselytes, who were more zealous, will have it that Mahomet himself desired to be buried there, to be revenged on the incredulous people of Mecca (which was the place of his birth), for banishing him, and despising his doctrine, when he first set up to be a prophet. This city is only four days' journey from Mecca, and stands upon a small river called Lokie; the houses are very low, except those inhabited by the Dervisees, and other religious Mahometans, who are much venerated by the Turks for their pretended sanctity and skill in the Alcoran. The chief mosque is called Mosque Akiba,
which signifies most holy; it is supported by four hundred pillars, and adorned with three thousand silver lamps; and there is within this mosque, at the East end, a small chapel, glit tering with plates of silver, in which stands Mahomet's coffin, covered with cloth of gold, under a very rich canopy, which the Bashaw of Egypt renews yearly by the Grand Seignior's orders. It is commonly reported, that his coffin was iron, and it hung suspended in the air by two load-stones; being fabulous, and of no credit, the ridiculous assertion only of such who would impose on the ignorant with their travelling authority; for it is supported by two black marble pillars, of fifteen feet high, which is surrounded with a ballester of silver, on which hang a great number of silver lamps, whose smoke and height, being very high, render the place obscure, and the black marble pillars invisible. The Turks are obliged, by an article of their religion, to visit this mosque once in their life-time; but yet there are but few that strictly observe it beside the common people, the Mufties absolving the richer sort from that obligation. The other four articles are, first, to observe cleanness in the outward parts of their bodies and garments; secondly, to make prayers five times a-day; thirdly, to observe their Ramazan, or fasts; and fourthly, to perform faithfully the Zeckat, or giving alms.
All Christians are forbid, upon pain of death, to come within fifteen leagues of this place: all this my captain at his return gave me au account of; and not only of this, but of the more renowned city of Mecca, which is the greatest and most frequented of all Mahometan mosques, it standing in the midst of the city, and being conspicuous at a great distance by its roof, which is raised in the fashion of a dome, with two towers of extraordinary height and architecture: it has above a hundred gates, each having a window over it; the plan of the mosque has a descent of twelve steps, which the zealous here account to be holy; they alledging, that Abraham built his first house there; but more especially, that it is the place of Mahomet's birth. This mosque is adorned with rich tapestry, and gildings, and fine
inscriptions; and a certain particular place at the East corner of the mosque there is, which has no roof, and which is supposed and fancied by them to inclose the space where Abraham's house stood: the entrance into it is by a door of silver of the height of a man; on one side of which there is a fountain, whose water is salt, and believed by the superstitious Mahometans to have the virtue of washing away their sins. They solemnize a festival here once a year, being on the three and twentieth of May, where meet four caravans, one from Egypt, on the coast of Barbary; another from Constantinople; from Persia; and the fourth from the country of Yemen ; which meeting there together, are computed to be near 400,000 souls, who come there as pilgrims (and under pretence of religion); but merchandising is their chiefest business; each caravan bringing the commodities and product of their respective countries, which they barter one with another, this fair, during twenty days; at which time, the Dervisees are wholly employed in distributing and selling that holy wa ter to the ignorant people.
"With this, and several other stories of the most talked-of antiquities, my Captain entertained me with, when we were got again on board, which was on the 5th of January; then sailed again for a village called Sharne, which although not above two hundred leagues distant from Jembo, yet, the wind being contrary, and the ele ments not disposed to favour us, we did not arrive there till the 12th of March. It was here, although in another kind than those already passed, where I was sensible of one of the greatest strokes of Fortune. Our provision being spent, and our flour, which was the only substantial thing we had to depend on, with the dampness, length of time, and ill manage ment, it began to move of itself, agitated by the numerous living creatures it had given birth too: so that we were ten days at least from Mount Sinai, which was the next place I could receive relief, where I resolved to go, choosing rather to run the hazard of being murdered by the Arabs, than be starved or drowned in our miserable galley, which at that time leaked very much, and obliged us, with incessant labour, to pump