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thouglı our Saviour, after his Return from the Wilderness, first met with Andrew and his Brother Peter, and had some Conversation with them, yet they immediately returned to their Trade; and the next Day, as he was passing through Galilee, he John i. 45. found Philip, whom he commanded to follow him; the constant Form he used in chusing his Disciples. And it was a whole Year after, that the other two were called to be Disciples, when John was cast into Prison.
Q. Did St. Philip readily comply with our Lord's Command?
A. Yes, he immediately engaged in his Service, though he had not seen any Miracle. But it is reasonable to believe, that he was acquainted with Moses and the Prophets, and that he was awakened with the general Expectation then among the Jews that the Messias would immediately appear; besides, we are to suppose the Divine Grace did particularly accompany the Command of Christ, and dispose those that he called, to believe him to be the Messias,
Q. What was the first Effect of his Faith in the Messias ?
A. A Forwardness of Mind to direct others in the same Way of Happiness with himself; for he finds Nathaniel, a Person of Note and Eminence, and Johu i. 45. acquaints him with the welcome News of his Diss covery, that he had found him of whoin Moses and the Prophets did write, the Anointed of God, the Saviour of the World, and conducts him to him.
Q. What is recorded of this Apostle in the History of the Gospel?
A. That to try his Faith, our Saviour propounded to him that Question: What they should do to procure so much Bread as would feed the vast Multi-John vi. 5, tude that followed him? That it was to him the Ch. xii. Gentile Proselytes addressed themselves, when desi-21. rous to see our Saviour, of whom they had heard so great a Fame. And that it was with him our Lord had that Discourse concerning himself before
John xiv. the last Paschal Supper: wherein our Saviour 8, 9.
gently rebukes him for the small Improvement he had made, after having attended so long upon his Instructions.
Q. What Part of the World is thought to have fallen to the Care of this Apostle?
A. The Upper Asia, where he took great Pains in planting the Gospel, and by his Preaching and Miracles made many Converts. In the latter End of his Life he came to Hierapolis in Phrygia, a City rich and populous, and very much addicted to Idolatry; and particularly to the Worship of a Serpent or Dragon of a prodigious Bigness. St. Philip, by his Prayers, procured the Death, or at least the vanishing of this famous Serpent, and then by his Discourses, made them sensible, how unbecoming it was to give divine Honours to such odious Creatures.
Q. Where did he suffer Martyrdom ?
Ă. At this City of Hierapolis; for the Magistrates being provoked by the Success Christianity found among the People, put St. Philip into Prison, and caused him to be severely whipped and scourged, and then led to Execution; where he was, as some say, hauged up by the Neck against a Pillar, though others affirm he was crucified.
Q. Is St. Philip reckoned among the married Apostles ?
A. The Ancients generally affirm it, and say, that he had three Daughters; two whereof persevered in their Virginity, and died at Hierapolis; the third, after having lived a very spiritual Life, died at Ephesus.
Q. What Writings did he leave behind him?
A. None: the Gospel that was forged under his Name, was produced by the Gnosticks, to countenance their bad Principles and worse Practices.
Q. What Account have we of St. James ?
A. There is no Mention in the sacred History of the Place of his Birth; but he is in Scripture styled
Euseb. lib. 3.
Jud. I. 20. c. 8.
the Brother of our Lord; and by Josephus, eminently Gal. i. 19. skilful in Matters of Genealogy and Descent, ex-Antiq pressly called the Brother of Jesus Christ.
Q. In what Sense was St. James Brother of our Lord ?
A. The Language of the Jews includeth in the Name of Brethren, not only the strict Relation of Fraternity, but also the larger of Consanguinity; so that any Degree of Relation justifies the Expression. But the ancient Fathers, especially of the Greek Church, make St. James and them that were styled Brethren of our Lord, Children of Joseph by a former Wife; and then, as he was reputed and called our Saviour's Father, so they might we be accounted and called his Brethren.
Q. Why was this St. James styled the Less ?
A. It was thought he had this Surname from the Stature of his Body, to distinguish him from St. James that was of greater Height and Bulk, and therefore called the Major ; though others will bave this. Distinction founded in their different Ages. But he got himself a more honourable Name by the Piety and Virtue of his Life, which was St. James the Just, by which he is still known all over the World.
Q. What is recorded concerning our Saviour's particular Appearance to him after his Resurrection mentioned by St. Paul ?
A. St. Jerom relates out of the Hebrew Gospel of Hieron. the Nazarenes, that St. James had solemnly sworn, les
de Scrip That from the Time he had drunk of the Cup at the Institution of the Sacrament, he would eat Bread no more till he saw the Lord risen from the Dead. That our Lord, when he appeared to him, said, Bring hither Bread and a Table; and he took the Bread, and blessed and brake it, and gave it to James the Just, and said unto him, My Brother, eat thy Bread, for the Son of Man is risen from among them that sleep.
Q. What became of St. James after our Saviour's Ascension?
Gal. i, 19. ii. 9.
A. He was chosen Bishop of Jerusalem, some say by our Saviour, before his Departure from his Diss ciples; others hold he was elected by the Apostles, possibly by some particular Intimation concerning it, which our Lord might leave behind him; whither Way he was preferred, it is certain he was Bishop of Jerusalem, the Mother of all other Churches; and preferred upon the Account of his Relation to our Saviour, as for the same Reason was Simon chose his immediate Successor.
Q. What Particulars are related in Scripture concerning him?
A. That St. Paul after his Conversion made his Address to this Apostle, by whom he was honoured with the Right Hand of Fellowship. That to him
St. Peter sent the News of his miraculous DeliverActs xii. ance out of Prison ; Go shew these Things unto James
and to the Brethren; that is, to the whole Church, especially St. James, the Bishop and Pastor of it. Q. Wherein did he appear principally active?
4. At the Synod of Jerusalem, in the great Controversy concerning the Obligation of the Jewish
Rites and Ceremonies; for though the Case was Acte xv: 7. opened by St. Peter, and debated by St. Paul, yet
the îinal and decretory Sentence was pronounced by St. James.
Q. What is related concerning his extraordinary Piety and Devotion?
Å. That he was of a meek and humble Temper; the Dignity of his Station, and his Relation to our Saviour, did not exalt him in his own Thoughts ;
for, in the Inscription of his Epistle, he only styles James i. 1. himself, Servant of the Lord Jesus. His Temperance Epiph.
was admirable ; he wholly abstained from Fiesh, he drank neither Wine nor strong Drink, nor ever used the Bath; he was so very abstemious, that his Body was covered with Paleness through Fasting: Prayer was his constant Business and Delight, and by his daily Devotions, his Knees were become as hard and brawny as Camels. And by his Prayers in
Euseb. lib. 2.
1. 20. c. x.
a great Drought he obtained Rain. He governed the Church with Wisdom and Applicaiion, and shewed great Charity to his Enemies by praying for them at the Hour of his Death. He was not only reverenced by the Christians, but honoured even by the Jews for his excellent Virtues.
Q How did the Enemies of St. James conspire his Ruin?
A. St. Paul having escaped the Malice of the Jews by appealing to Cæsar, they resolved to revenge it upon St. James ; but not being able to accomplish it under Festus's Government, they Joseph. more effectually attempted it under the Procurator-Antiq. Jud. ship of Albinus, his Successor. When Ananas the younger, the High Priest, and of the Sect of the Sadducees, merciless and implacable in his Temper, resolved to dispatch him before the new Governor could arrive; to this End the Council is hastily summoped, and the Apostle, with some others, were accused for transgressing the Law, and for Blasphemy against God.
Q. How did the Scribes and Pharisees set about to ensnare him?
A. By flattering Speeches they endeavoured to engage him, at the Confluence of the Paschal Solemnity, to undeceive the People concerning Jesus, Euseb. lib. whom they looked upon as the Messiah; and that 2. c. 3. he might be the better heard, to go with them to the Top of the Temple, thinking
by this Method to bring him to renounce Christ. They addressed him, as he was placed upon the Pinnacle of the Temple, in these Words, Téll us, O just Man, what we are to believe concerning Jesus Christ, who was crucified? He answered with a loud Voice, Why do ye enquire
of Jesus the Son of Man? He sits in Heaven on the ! Right Hand of the Majesty on High, and will come
again in the Clouds of Heaven. Upon which the People glorified the blessed Jesus, and proclaimed Hosannah to the Son of David.
Q. How did St. James suffer Martyrdom ?