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GUIZOT, FRANÇOIS PIERRE GUILLAUME, a French statesman, orator, and historian, born at Nimes, October 4, 1787; died at Val-Richer, in Normandy, October 12, 1874. He belonged to an honorable Huguenot family of Nîmes. His father, a distinguished lawyer, perished by the guillotine in 1794. Madame Guizot then went with her sons to Geneva, where they were educated in the gymnasium. After completing the academic course with distinction, Guizot went to Paris in 1805, studied Kant and German literature, and reviewed the classics. He soon began to write for Le Publiciste, and entered upon an active literary life. A work on French synonyms (1809), an essay on the fine arts in France (1811), and a translation, with notes, of Gibbon's Decline and Fall (1812), led to his appointment in the latter year to the chair of Modern History in the University of France. On the fall of Napoleon, in 1814, he became Secretary-General of the Ministry of the Interior, but resigned his office upon the return of Napoleon from Elba ; and, convinced that the restoration of the Bourbons to power would be the means of establishing a constitutional monarchy in France, he sought an interview with Louis XVIII. at Ghent, to impress upon the King that the stability of the Bourbons upon the throne depended upon their upholding the liberties of France, and religiously

observing the charter. On the second restoration he became Secretary-General of the Ministry of Justice; in 1816, Master of Requests; in 1817, a Councillor of State, and in 1819, Director of Communal and Departmental Administration. He was regarded as the mouthpiece of the “doctrinaires," a party who advocated the preservation of the constitution by sustaining equally the rights of the people and of the throne. The moderation of the doctrinaires rendered them unpopular. In 1821, Guizot was deprived of all his offices, and in 1825 was forbidden even to lecture. Between 1820 and 1822 he had published Du Gouverneinent de la France depuis la Restauration et du Ministère Actuel and L'Histoire des Origines du Gouvernement Representatif, containing his lectures at the University. He now applied himself to literature. He was one of the collaborators in the publication of the Mémoires Relatifs à l'Histoire de France depuis la Fondation de la Monarchie jusqu'au XIIIme Siècle, and of the Mémoires Relatifs à l'Histoire de la Revolution d'Angleterre.

He edited a translation of Shakespeare, the Encyclopédie Progressive, and the Revue Française, and published a History of the English Revolution (1826). In 1827 he resumed his lectures in history, and during the next three years published, under the collective title of Course of Modern History, a General History of Civilization in Europe, and a History of Civilization in France from the Fall of the Roman Empire to the French Revolution.

In 1830 he became a member of the Chamber of Deputies, and Minister of the Department of

the Interior. In 1832 he was appointed Minister of Public Instruction, and did much for the improvement of schools in France. He established boards of education and a system of inspection, revived the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences, founded the French Historical Society, and forwarded the publication by the State of many valuable mediæval chronicles and diplomatic papers. In 1840 he was ambassador to England, but in the autumn of the same year was recalled to assume the office of Minister of Foreign Affairs, and later of Prime Minister. Notwithstanding his services, he was always unpopular. In 1848 he resigned his office and went to England. He returned to France the next year, but after the coup d'état of 1851 again crossed the Channel.

He did not re-enter public life. His last years were spent near Lisieux in Normandy, where he lived with his daughters, and devoted himself to authorship. Among his later works are: Monk : Chute de la République et Rétablissement de la Monarchie en Angleterre en 1660 (1850); Corneille et son Temps (1852); Histoire de la République d'Angleterre et du Protectorat de Cromwell (1854); Histoire du Protectorat de Richard Cromwell et du Rétablissement des Stuarts (1856); Sir Robert Peel: Étude d'Histoire Contemporaine (1856); Mémoires pour servir à l'Histoire de mon Temps (1858-68); L'Eglise et la Société Chrétienne en 1861 (1861); Histoire Parlementaire de France, a collection of speeches (1863), and Méditations sur l’Essence de la Religion Chrétienne (1864); Mélanges Biographiques et Lit

téraires (1868), and Histoire de France depuis les Temps les plus recules jusqu'au 1789, racontée a mes Petits Enfants. This valuable history of France, left unfinished by Guizot, was completed from his notes, by his daughter, Madame De Witt.

ELIZABETH CHARLOTTE PAULINE GUIZOT (DE MEULAN), the first wife of Guizot, born in 1773, died in 1827; entered upon literature in order to assist in the support of her family, left poor on the death of her father. In 1800 she published a novel, Les Contradictions, and in 1801 became literary and artistic editor of Le Publiciste. Compelled by ill-health to suspend her work in 1807, she accepted the assistance of an anonymous writer, the young and unknown Guizot. Acquaintance was followed by marriage in 1812. Madame Guizot wrote several educational and moral works for the young, among them Les Enfants (1813); Le Journal d'une Mère (1813); L'Écolier, ou Raoul et Victor (1821), and Lettres de Famille sur l'Éducation (1826). L'Écolier gained a prize at the Academy.

Guizot, MARGUERITE ANDRÉE ELIZA (Dillon), the second wife of the historian, born in 1804, died in 1833; contributed several articles to the Revue Française which were collected and published in one volume in 1834. Caroline, ou l'Effet d'un Malheur, another of her works, was published in 1837.

GUIZOT, MAURICE GUILLAUME, the son of Guizot, born in 1833, received a prize for nandre, Étude Historique et Littéraire sur la Comédée et la Société Grecques (1855). In 1866 he was ap

pointed Professor of the French Language and Literature in the College of France. He has since published Alfred le Grand, ou L'Angleterre sous les Anglo-Saxons.

EFFECTS OF THE CRUSADES.

The principal effect of the crusades was a great step toward the emancipation of the mind, a great progress toward enlarged and liberal ideas. Though begun under the name and influence of religious belief, the crusades deprived religious ideas, I shall not say of their legitimate share of influence, but of their exclusive and despotic possession of the human mind. The result, though undoubtedly unforeseen, arose from various causes. The first was evidently the novelty, extent, and variety of the scene which displayed itself to the crusaders; what generally happened to travellers happened to them. It is mere commonplace to say that travelling gives freedom to the mind; that the habit of observing different nations, different manners, and different opinions enlarges the ideas and disengages the judgment from old prejudices. The same thing happened to those nations of travellers who have been called the crusaders ; their minds were opened and raised by having seen a multitude of different things, by having become acquainted with other manners than their own. They found themselves also placed in connection with two states of civilization, not only different from their own, but more advanced—the Greek state of society on the one hand, and the Mussulman on the other. There is no doubt that the society of the Greeks, though enervated, perverted, and decaying, gave the crusaders the impression of something more advanced, polished, and enlightened than their own.

The society of the Mussulmans presented them a scene of the same kind. It is curious to observe in the chronicles the impression made by the crusaders on the Mussulınans, who regarded them at first as the most brutal, ferocious, and stupid barbarians they had ever seen. The crusaders, on their part, were struck with

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