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might be reformed the corrupt customs of the clergy, and the estate of the Church of God (so far wandered and gone astray) to be reduced, as near as might be, to the resemblance of the times drawing nearest the Apostles; a glory, which, to give perfection to so great and holy an operation, he esteemed far above the obtaining of the popedom ; for that the one could not succeed by means of an excellent doctrine and virtue, and a singular reverence of all men : where the popedom most often was obtained, either by sinister means, or else by the benefit of fortune : upon which process confirmed by him in the hearing and presence of many religious persons even of his own order, but (if that be true which his own faction bruited afterward) with words dark, and such as might receive divers interpretations : there were taken from him and his two other companions with ceremonies instituted by the Church of Rome, the holy orders, and that by sentence of the General of the Jacobins and of Bishop Romolin, Commissioners delegate by the Pope : and so being passed over to the power of the secular court, they were (by their judgments) hanged and burned, being at the spectacle of the degradation and execution, no less multitudes of people, than at the day of the experience of entering the fire, when was an infinite concourse to behold the issue of the miracle promised by Savonarola. This death constantly endured (but without expressing word whereby might be discerned either their innocence or fault) quenched not the diversity of judgments and passions of men : for that many supposed he was but an abuser : and others (of the contrary) believed, that the confession that was published was falsely forged, or perhaps, in his aged and weak complexion, the torments had more force than the truth : wherein they excused that manner of frailty with the example of Saint Peter, who neither imprisoned, nor constrained with torments, or by any other extraordinary force, but at the simple words of the handmaidens and servants, denied that he was the disciple of his Master, in whom he had seen so many holy miracles.-History of Italy; translation of GEFFRAY FENTON.

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GUIZOT, FRANÇOIS PIERRE GUILLAUME, a French statesman, orator, and historian, born at Nimes, October 4, 1787; died at Val-Richer, in Normandy, October 12, 1874. He belonged to an honorable Huguenot family of Nîmes. His father, a distinguished lawyer, perished by the guillotine in 1794. Madame Guizot then went with her sons to Geneva, where they were educated in the gymnasium. After completing the academic course with distinction, Guizot went to Paris in 1805, studied Kant and German literature, and reviewed the classics. He soon began to write for Le Publiciste, and entered upon an active literary life. A work on French synonyms (1809), an essay on the fine arts in France (1811), and a translation, with notes, of Gibbon's Decline and Fall (1812), led to his appointment in the latter year to the chair of Modern History in the University of France. On the fall of Napoleon, in 1814, he became Secretary-General of the Ministry of the Interior, but resigned his office upon the return of Napoleon from Elba; and, convinced that the restoration of the Bourbons to power would be the means of establishing a constitutional monarchy in France, he sought an interview with Louis XVIII. at Ghent, to impress upon the King that the stability of the Bourbons upon the throne depended upon their upholding the liberties of France, and religiously

observing the charter. On the second restoration he became Secretary-General of the Ministry of Justice; in 1816, Master of Requests; in 1817, a Councillor of State, and in 1819, Director of Communal and Departmental Administration. He was regarded as the mouthpiece of the “doctrinaires," a party who advocated the preservation of the constitution by sustaining equally the rights of the people and of the throne. The moderation of the doctrinaires rendered them unpopular. In 1821, Guizot was deprived of all his offices, and in 1825 was forbidden even to lecture. Between 1820 and 1822 he had published Du Gouvernement de la France depuis la Restauration et du Ministère Actuel and L'Histoire des Origines du Gouvernement Representatif, containing his lectures at the University. He now applied himself to literature. He was one of the collaborators in the publication of the Mémoires Relatifs à l'Histoire de France depuis la Fondation de la Monarchie jusqu'au XIIIme Siècle, and of the Mémoires Relatifs à l'Histoire de la Revolution d'Angleterre. He edited a translation of Shakespeare, the Encyclopédie Progressive, and the Revue Française, and published a History of the English Revolution (1826). In 1827 he resumed his lectures in history, and during the next three years published, under the collective title of Course of Modern History, a General History of Civilization in Europe, and a History of Civilization in France from the Fall of the Roman Empire to the French Revolution.

In 1830 he became a member of the Chamber of Deputies, and Minister of the Department of

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