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UNIVERSAL KNOWLEDGE.

BEING

A REPRINT ENTIRE OF THE LAST (1879) EDINBURGH AND LONDON EDITION
OF CHAMBERS'S ENCYCLOPÆDIA ;

A Dictionary of Universal Knowledge for the People.

WITH VERY LARGE ADDITIONS UPON TOPICS OF SPECIAL
INTEREST TO AMERICAN READERS.

IN TWENTY VOLUMES.

VOL 2.

NEW YORK:

AMERICAN BOOK EXCHANGE
No. 55 BEEKMAN STREET,

1879.

BiLat 9108.79

Batan; Lab

1898 June 2,3

HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY

TRANSFERRED FROM

BOTANICAL MUSEUM LIBRARY

FEB. 26, 1934

LIBRARY OF

UNIVERSAL KNOWLEDGE.

A'RUNDEL, Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury, in the reigns of Richard II. Henry IV., and Henry V., born in 1353, was the second son of Robert Fitz-Alan, Earl of Arundel and Warren. He was first Archdeacon of Taunton, and at the early age of twenty-one, he was, by the pope's appointment, consecrated Bishop of Ely. In 1388, he was, by the same authority, transferred to the archiepiscopal see of York. He was also for some years Lord High Chancellor of England. Having been banished the kingdom for taking a leading part in the first attempt which was made to deliver the nation from the oppression of Richard II., he was honorably received at Rome, and by Pope Boniface IX. nominated Archbishop of St Andrews, with a promise of future preferment in England. In 1396 he was enthroned, with great pomp, as Archbishop of Canterbury. He was a bitter persecutor of the Lollards and followers of Wickliffe, and a chief instrument in procuring the horrible act for the burning of heretics (De Heretico Comburendo), passed in the reign of Henry IV. He even carried his bigotry so far as to solicit from the pope a bull for digging up Wickliffe's bones, which, however, was wisely refused him. He also procured a synodal constitution, which forbade the translation of the Scriptures into the vulgar tongue. Amongst others whom he caused to be convicted of heresy, and sentenced to the flames, was Lord Cobham, one of the principal patrous of the new sect, at the commencement of the reign of Henry V. Soon after, A. was seized with an inflammation in the throat, which proved fatal. He died 20th February 1413. ARU'NDO. See REED. ARVI'COLA. See VOLE.

A'RYAN RACE, A'ryan Languages. The name Aryan (less properly, Arian) Race or Aryan Family of Nations is now generally used to designate th t ethnological division of mankind otherwise called Indo-European or Indo-Germanic. It consists of two branches, geographically separated, an eastern and a western. The western branch comprehends the inhabitants of Europe, with the exception of the Turks, the Magyars of Hungary, and the Finns of Lapland (see EUROPE); the eastern comprehends the inhabitants of Armenia, of Persia, of Afghanistan, and of Northern Hindustan (see HINDUSTAN). The evidence on which a family relation has been established among these nations is that of language. Between Sanscrit (the mother of the modern Hindu dialects of Hindustan), Zend (the language of the ancient Persians), Greek (which is yet the language of Greec), Latin (the language of the Romans, and the mother of the modern Romanic languages, i. e., Italian, French. Spanish, Portuguese, Wallachian), Celtic (once the language great part of Europe, (v. 2.)

(1).

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