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the law of patronage, but a funda- of that Church which we admire and mental and destructive change in the reverence. We deprecate unnecessary British constitution.

change ; and we refuse to yield to We are members of the Church of empty declamation, where there is no Scotland, not merely from the in- attempt to convince us by reasoning. fluence of education and from habitEven if the demands of the present race but also from a sincere conviction of Churchmen were admittedly conthat it is in all respects the Church ducive to the welfare of the Establishbest adapted to the country and to ment, and to the advancement of its the people of Scotland; above all, influence and its usefulness, it is still because we know that it has been possible that the prosperity or the the instrument, under Providence, by agrandizement of the Church might which the cause of morality and reli- be purchased at too high a price. gion has been steadily and efficiently But we record our opinions on this promoted ; and because we believe subject, chiefly because we are perthat the eminent character which at- suaded, that the law which the Church taches to Scotland and to Scotchmen, is now engaged in maintaining and is mainly attributable to the purity of defending, is unconstitutional and rethe Church's doctrine, the zeal of her volutionary in its tendency; subver. ministers, and the wisdom of her sive of the principles of a church ecclesiastical polity. But we cannot establishment; ruinous to the characforget that the prosperity and the ter of the clergy, both individually glory of the Church has been advanced and as a body; most pernicious in its and matured under a system of govern- influence on the habits and feelings of ment which it is the object of modern the people, whose interests it professes Churchmen to alter or to destroy. to advance; and, by necessary conseThe law of patronage has ever formed quence, destructive of the national a component part of the constitution character.


6. Upon a couch of golden woof,

Still here I lie. But never yet In royal hall, King Otho lay ;

A woman's art to sooth me came. Red banners hung along the roof E'en now my pangs I half forgetSpoke loud of war and But say what aspect bears the dame ?" 2.

7. His long bright hair fell idly down " My Liege! I wot her form is tall, Above a cheek of pallid hue;

And dark and wide the cloak she Though near him lay the imperial wears ; crown,

Her speech with finely cadenced fall His eye no kingly lustre knew. A noble Roman's birth declares." 3.

8. For he was sick, and cold, and weak, « Nay, let her in, and wait without; Nor e’en the thought of Rome subdued To Rome's fierce men soul hate I Could clear the rust that stain'd his

bore; cheek,

But even them 'twere dream to doubt Or sooth his dark distemper'd mood.

Since now Crescentius lives no more."

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9. In stepp'd to him a hoary lord- In walk'd the leech in humble guise, “ My Liege! that mocking tale again With cloak, and hood that veil'd her A stranger brings, with boastful word brow: Assevering she can heal thy pain." Upon the King she cast her eyes,

Who said" fair dame what seekest 5.

thou ?” Now gold be hers, and thanks, and

10. praise !

"Oh, King! I know a medicine strong For men by scores have come to me, To heal the sting of mortal ill ; And said that they would ease my days, To thee of right its powers belong ; And set my labouring spirit free.

To thee I bring my best of skill.”


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20. 6 Not thus a leech unknown we trust; “ Drink first, my Liege, this potent But I would fain behold thee more; draught Thy speech assured in sound is just, To heal whate'er thou hast of pain." And I would read thy features o'er. With eager mouth her cup he quaff'd,

As if her kisses' depth to drain. 12. " In these the soul may oft be found ;

21. Yet even now methinks thy voice “ Ha! this in truth is royal wine! Delights me with a lovely sound, Thy breath, methinks, is in the bowl. And bids my flagging heart rejoice." What earthly clogs can now confine

The strength that fills my limbs, my 13.

soul? The King upon his elbow leant, And open'd fair his broad blue eyes;

22. Her eyes' deep glow on his she bent,

“ I seem”on wings aloft to rise, And cast away her dull disguise.

And float o'er fading land and sea;

And yet I would not climb the skies 14.

To rule the stars, if torn from thee. Swift change and dazzling! Bright

23. With gold, and gems, and silk array, That seem'd the fitting garb to be

6. Thou turn'st away. At least a wh Of beauty's goodliest summer day.

Come sit, enchantress, near my side.

'Tis much if but to see thee smile, 15.

And hear thy lips' low music glide. The pearls amid her darkest hair Adorn'd a brow of queenly span,

24. And cheeks and mouth so cunning

" And ah! thou loveliest, now indeed, fair,

While thus thy hand is lock'd in mine, They lured away the will of man. While on thy face my looks

may feed, 16.

Thou hast a potion more than wine." The rubies floating o'er her breast Drew warmth and love from where

25. they lay ;

“ My Liege, the health my drugs can There vague delight was woo'd to rest,

give, And felt it death from thence to stray. Will thus depart as soon as won.

An hour in throbless quiet live, 17.

And then for thee my task is done. Up sprang the King, and wondering gazed ;

26. He ne'er had look'd on aught so And we will speak of simpler things bright;

Than those deep moods that love inHis eyes, his lips with joy amazed,

spires; Were drinking beauty's air and light.

But say, if ease my medicine brings,

Or fills thy brain with flashing fires." 18. 66 O! more than health and more than

27. ease,

66 O ! all within is calm and bliss ; Thou givest me lady strength divine.

Such never came from wine before. The draught thou bringest let me

Yet once I knew an hour like this, seize,

When bold Crescentius' life was o'er. And make thy maddest philtres mine.”

19. With downward smile, and shifting

28. 56 I made him leave his guarded tower By specious words of sage deceit; Soon Rome was taught her emperor's

Her soft white hand from his she drews
She fill'd a cup with wine of France,
And in with it her spicery threw.

Soon lay his corpse


before my

down ;


38. And dost thou still, O King ! rejoice “ Thou canst not speak, but 'mid thy To think how then the Roman died,

pang Who, trusting thine imperial voice, I still can pierce thy freezing ear ; For life, for all on thee relied ?

Though loud the Emperor's triumph

rang, 30.

My husband's ghost is monarch here. 6. 'Twas said, but sooth it cannot be, That Otho's lips unfaltering swore

39. The Roman state should still be free, “ O God! who bring'st to guilty souls, It's consul ne'er be perill'd more." By their own hands, the vengeance

due; 31.

Thy thunder now above me rolls, By Peter! truly thus they say," And hails the deed, not bids me rue. The lithe Italian subtly thought; “ Our German wit could never play

40. With arms by Latin cunning wrought. ". The poison works, the brow is

stamp'd, 32.

The cold eye stares, the jaw drops “ Thou needs must praise the shrewd device

Pale corpse, my spirit too is dampd, That wiled him down from Hadrian's And faints before thy lifeless frown.

mole. The Pope absolved me at the price

41. Of fifty masses for his soul.

" And yet a righteous deed is done,

And I shake off that weariest load; 33.

The thought of vengeance due to one " Not soon shall Rome of freedom Who ne'er with truth or mercy speak,

glow'd. And scorn our distant German crown; But tell me why I feel so weak,

42. And why thy beauty wears a frown." « Corroding grief and maddning

shame 34.

Are still the fiends that goad my life; “ Full soon thy weakness, King! will But 'twill not blot Crescentius' fame, end

If men record his hapless wife.
And frowns are idle clouds to life;
But say, thou flattering amorous friend,

43. Did slain Crescentius leave a wife ?”

“ Lie still thou heap that wert a King,

And yield thy signet gem to me ; 35.

My cloak, like night, and Otho's 66 The slave deserved no fondling smile, ring, His wife, be sure, was nought to me;

Will soon have set the murderegs I let my squires their toil beguile

free. With favours due from such as she.

44. 36.

“ But free to what? to pass her days " Why glarest thou thus with horrid In some dark cell of cloister'd woe;

To hate the sunshine's gladdening Nay, woman, would'st thou strike a rays, king ?

And long for death's releasing blow. I cannot speak-my shout but sighsHelp-help-0! snakes my bosom

45. wring."

“ My Lords ! the King for some two

hours 37.

Will rest, and all without may wait; “ So perishı, tyrant ! know that I

This royal token shows my powers Am wife to himn so basely slain ;

To pass at will through guards and To me 'twas only left to die To die, but not to die in vain.

eyes ?






GREAT misconceptions have always stages of increase. She was far from prevailed about the Roman dinner. being the rich little globe in Cæsar's Dinner [cena] was the only meal days that she is at present. The which the Romans as a nation took. earth in our days is incalculably richer, It was no accident, but arose out of as a whole, than in the time of Chartheir whole social economy. This lemagne: at that time she was richer, we shall show by running through by many a million of acres, than in the the history of a Roman day. Riden- era of Augustus. In that Augustan tem dicere verum quid vetat ? And era we descry a clear belt of cultivathe course of this review will expose tion, averaging about 600 miles in one or two important truths in ancient depth, running in a ring fence about Political Economy which have been the Mediterranean. This belt, and no wholly overlooked.

in decent cultivation. With the lark it was that the Roman Beyond that belt, there was only a rose. Not that the earliest lark rises so wild Indian cultivation. At present early in Latium as the earliest lark in what a difference! We have that very England; that is, during summer : belt, but much richer, all things conbut then, on the other hand, neither sidered æquatis æquandis, than in the does it ever rise so late. The Roman

Roman era. The reader must not citizen was stirring with the dawn- look to single cases, as that of Egypt which, allowing for the shorter longest- or other parts of Africa, but take the day and longer shortest-day of Rome, whole collectively. On that scheme you may call about four in summer- of valuation, we have the old Roman about seven in winter. Why did he belt, the Mediterranean riband not do this? Because he went to bed at much tarnished, and we have all the a very early hour. But why did he rest of Europe to boot-or, speaking do that? By backing in this way, in scholars' language, as a lucro ponawe shall surely back into the very We say nothing of remoter well of truth : always, if it is possible, gains. Suchbeing the case, our let us have the pourquoi of the pour mother, the earth, being (as a whole) quoi. The Roman went to bed early so incomparably poorer, could not in for two special reasons. Ist, Because the Pagan era support the expense of in Rome, which had been built for a maintaining great empires in cold martial destiny, every habit of life had latitudes. Her purse would not reach reference to the usages of war.-- that cost. Wherever she undertook in Every citizen, if he were not a mere those early ages to rear man in great proletarian animal kept at the public abundance, it must be where nature cost, held himself a sort of soldier- would consent to work in partnership elect: the more noble he was, the with herself; where warmth was to more was his liability to military ser- be had for nothing ; where clothes vice: in short, all Rome, and at all were not so entirely indispensable but times, was consciously “in procinct.' that a ragged fellow might still keep Now it was a principle of ancient himself warm; where slight shelter warfare, that every hour of daylight might serve; and where the soil, if had a triple worth, if valued against not absolutely richer in reversionary hours of darkness. That was one wealth, was more easily cultured. reason-a reason suggested by the Nature must come forward liberally, understanding. But there was

and take a number of shares in every second reason, far more remarkable; new joint-stock concern before it could and this was a reason dictated by move. Man, therefore, went to bed a blind necessity. Is is an important early in those ages, simply because fact, that this planet on which we live, his worthy mother earth could not this little industrious earth of ours, afford him candles. She, good old has developed her wealth by slow lady, (or good young lady, for geolo




*In procinct.” Milton's translation (somewhere in The Paradise Regained) of the technical phrase “ in procinctu.”

gists know not * whether she is in dark, went off to bed as the darkness that stage of her progress which cor- began. Every body did so. Old responds to grey hairs, or to infancy, Numa Pompilius himself, was obliged orto “acertain age,"]—she, good lady, to trundle off in the dusk. Tarquin. would certainly have shuddered to hear ius might be a very superb fellow; any of her nations asking for candles. but we doubt whether he ever saw a os Candles!" She would have said, farthing rushlight. And, though it « Who ever heard of such a thing ? may be thought that plots and conand with so much excellent daylight spiracies would flourish in such a city running to waste, as I have provided of darkness, it is to be considered, gratis! What will the wretches want that the conspirators themselves had next?"

no more candies than honest men : The daylight, furnished gratis, was both parties were in the dark. certainly « neat,” and “undeniable” in Being up then, and stirring not long its quality, and quite sufficient for all after the lark, what mischief did the purposes that were honest. Seneca, Roman go about first ? Now-a-days, even in his own luxurious period, he would have taken a pipe or a cigar. called those men lucifuge,” and by But, alas for the ignorance of the other ugly names, who lived chiefly poor heathen creatures ! they had neiby candle-light. None but rich and ther one nor the other. In this point, luxurious men, nay, even amongst we must tax our mother earth with these, none but idlers did live much being really too stingy. In the case by candle-light. An immense majo- of the candles, we approve of her parrity of men in Rome never lighted a simony. Much mischief is brewed by candle, unless sometimes in the early candle-light. But, it was coming it dawn. And this custom of Rome too strong to allow no tobacco. Many was the custom also of all nations a wild fellow in Rome, your Gracchi, that lived round the great pond of the Syllas, Catilines, would not have Mediterranean. In Athens, Egypt, played “h- and Tommy ” in the Palestine, Asia Minor, every where, way they did, if they could have sooththe ancients went to bed, like good ed their angry stomachs with a cigar boys, from seven to nine o'clock.* -a pipe bas intercepted many an evil

The Turks and other people, who scheme. But the thing is past helping have succeeded to the stations and the now. At Rome, you must do as they habits of the ancients, do so at this does”at Rome. So, after shaving, (supday.

posing the age of the Barbati to be pasThe Roman, therefore, who saw no sed)—what is the first business that our joke in sitting round a table in the Roman will undertake? Forty to one he

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*Geologists know not.”— Observe, reader, we are not at all questioning the Scriptural Chronology of the earth as a habitation for man, for on the pre-human earth Scripture is silent : not upon the six thousand years does our doubt revolve, but upon a very different thing, viz. to what age in man these six thousand years correspond by analogy in a planet. In man the sixtieth part is a very venerable age. But as to a planet, as to our little earth, instead of arguing dotage, six thousand years may have scarcely carried her beyond babyhood. Some people think she is cutting her first teeth ; some think her in her teens. But seriously it is a very interesting problem. Do the sixty centuries of our earth imply youth, maturity, or dotage ?

+ Every where the ancients went to bed, like good boys, from seven to nine o'clock.-As we are perfectly serious, we must beg the reader, who fancies any joke in all this, to consider what an immense difference it must have made to the earth, considered as a steward of her own resources – whether great nations, in a period when their resources were so feebly developed, did, or did not, for many centuries, require candles; and, we may add, fire. The five heads of human expenditure are,-1, food; 2, Shelter ; 3, Clothing ; 4, Fuel ; 5, Light. All were pitched on a lower scale in the Pagan era: and the two last were almost banished from ancient housekeeping. What a great relief this must have been to our good mother the earth! who, at first, was obliged to request of her children that they would settle round the Mediterranean. She could not even afford them water, unless they would come and fetch it themselves out of a common tank, or cistern,

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