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Lord Brougham, as occasioning the priori, would have been incredible, surprising demand for English manu- shows the exports to different states, factures in the British Colonies, or the as compared with their respective independent States which have arisen population, and the value of British from that origin, over other coun- manufactures which they consume per tries. The following Table, which, à head :


Exports in



per head.

60,000,000 £1,742,433 £0 0 5


0 09 Denmark, 2,000,000


0 0 11


0 0 31
32,000,000 1,591,381

0 0 11
Portugal, 3,000,000 1,085,934

0 0 8

437,000 0 0 8
United States

14,000,000 12,425,605 of America,

0 17 0 British North

American 1,500,000 2,739,291 1 il 6

British West

900,000 3,786,453
India Islands,

3 12 0 British Austra

1,180,000 11 15 0 It may truly be said that this table distant provinces of our own empire, speaks as to the real interests and ma- whose blood is our blood, whose nufacturing establishments of Great strength is our strength; that they Britain; and that, if our rulers were are increasing in numbers with a ranot struck with judicial blindness, they pidity unparalleled in the annals of the would at once perceive where it is world; and that, however fast they may that the steady and rising market for augment, they are by their situation British manufactures, and where all and circumstances chained for cenour efforts to promote a successful traf- turies to agricultural and pastoral fic may be regarded as fruitless and employments, and consequently our unavailing. For fifteen years past our export trade with them must increase whole commercial policy has been di- in the same proportion as their numrected to the object of gaining a more bers; while, on the other hand, the ready vent for our manufactures into states of continental Europe are in. the continental states of Europe. We creasing far less rapidly in numbershave concluded no less than twelve re- are actuated for the most part by comciprocity treaties with the principalmercial or political jealousy, and may powers; and, in order to propitiate any moment become our enemies, it may their good-will, we have sacrificed by safely be affirmed that the neglect of our treaties all our commercial advan- the colonial provinces to propitiate tages at least in our intercourse with foreign powers, is of all human absurthese states. And what has been the dities the most absurd. result? Why, that our commerce with It is needless to enquire to what them is a perfect trifle when compared cause this marvellous difference bewith that which we maintain with our tween Colonial and European trade is own colonies, whom we have mal. owing. It is immaterial whether it treated and neglected for their sakes; is to be ascribed to the circumstance and that, while the old states take off a of the Continental states being in the few pence per head of their popula- same state of civilisation with our. tion, our own colonies take off as selves, or being inhabited by people many pounds. In this instance we who have no taste for our manufachave truly verified the old adage, that tures, or no money to buy them; we have been penny wise and pound or governed by jealous and hostile fo. foolish, even in regard to our existing reign governments-or actuated by interests at the moment. But when, similar and rival commercial estab. in addition to this, it is recollected that lishments. It is sufficient to state the these colonies are part of ourselves- fact, that, from one or other, or all of these causes, their trade with us is we have risen to the summit of protrifling, and either stationary or de- sperity under the system of protection clining, while that with our colonies to domestic industry, and they naturis enormous, steady, and constantly ally imagine that it is only bý followincreasing. In truth, however, it is ing our example that they can hope not difficult to perceive to what cause to rival our success. It is in vain that the total failure of all attempts at we now offer to meet them on the commercial increase with the old states footing of perfect reciprocity. They of Europe is to be ascribed. Mr Say– It is very well for you to throw Alison observed at the Glasgow din down the barriers when your superioner, “ It is easy to see to what cause this rity in every branch of industry is inremarkable decline in our trade with contestible. When ours is the same, old nations, and this marvellous in- we will follow your example ; in the crease in our commercial intercourse mean time, you must allow us to imis with our own colonies, is to be as- tate the steps which enabled you to cribed. It is evidently owing to the reach the elevated position which you fact, that these old states are in the now enjoy.' Gentlemen, it is diffisame state of civilisation with our- cult to see the answer which can be selves, and therefore they are actuated made to such arguments.”. by a natural desire to deal in the same Powerful as are these consideraarticles, and to manufacture the same tions, derived from the commercial produce as ourselves. Are we cot. and manufacturing interests of Great ton-spinners ?—so are they.

100,000 lian colonies,

Britain, in favour of her colonial iron-masters ?--so are they. Are we settlements, the facts pointing the silk manufacturers ?- so are they. Are same way, deducible from the shipwe cutlery and hardware merchants ? ping interests, are, if possible, still -so are they. Are we clothiers and miore conclusive.

The essential dif. woollen-drapers ?-so are they. Thereference between the shipping, which is no branch of industry in which we carries on a trade between the coloexcel, in which they are not all mak- nies and the mother country, is, that ing the greatest and most strenuous, it is, as in the former case, all our and sometimes successful, efforts to own in the latter, one-half belongs rival and outstrip us. It is in vain to our enemies. This difference is so that we meet them with the signs of enormous, the effects it produces on amity, and hold out the olive branch our maritime strength are so extraorin token of our desire to establish re- dinary, that, numerous as are the deciprocity treaties on the footing of real tails which we have already given, we mutual advantage. We cannot, by cannot resist the temptation of conso doing, either shut the eyes of their trasting our shipping and tonnage manufacturers to the danger of British with some of the principal foreign competition, or close the vision of their powers with whom we have concluded governments to the dazzling spectacle reciprocity treaties with that which of British greatness. They see that we carry on with our own colonies. BRITISH AND FOREIGN TONNAGE WITH RECIPROCITY


Are we

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Ships. Tons. Ships. Tons.

66 10,865 250 42,439
15 1,573 785


16 2,152

694 51,907 Prussia,

270 42,567 903 174,439 France,

2,036 198,339 1,740 108,352
United States,

226 86,383 524 226,483

East India Company's Territories, Ships. Tons.
Singapore and Ceylon,

227 97,034
New South Wales,

59 19,195 British Northern Colonies,

2,026 620,772 British West Indies,

900 237,922 NO. CCXC. VOL. XLVI.

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Great Britain,








Nor is the present magnitude of the Britain, at home and in the colonies, British trade with these colonies more from 1814 to 1836, is as follows:remarkable than its rapid increase.

Colonies. Some very remarkable facts on this

Tons. subject were stated by Mr Alison at

1814..... ..2,414,170 202,795 the public dinner in Glasgow :-“You 1836...........2,349,749 442,897 have already seen how completely our shipping which trades with' Northern Thus you see, gentlemen, that while Europe is withering away under the the shipping of Great Britain and Ireaction of the reciprocity treaties; and land has declined in the last five-andyou have seen that it is now little more twenty years, notwithstanding the prothan a fourth of what it was fifteen digious increase of our exports and im. years ago ; while that of the Baltic ports, that employed in conducting the powers trading with us has quadrupled trade with the colonies has more than during the same period. But, gentle. doubled. More decisive evidence canmen, turn to the colonies, and you not be imagined of the vital importance will learn a very different result; and of the colonial trade, not only to our behold with delight a growth of our

commercial wealth, but to our national shipping as extraordinary, as its de existence. And if any one, after the cline in our intercourse with Europe facts that have now been stated, re. is serious and alarming. Gentlemen, mains blind to our true national interit appears from Mr Porter's Parlia- ests, and the quarter from wbich we mentary Tables, that the growth of must look for our wealth, our security, our shipping employed between Ca- and independence, in future times, I nada, Australia, and the mother say neitiier will he be converted though country, has been as follows:-- one rose from the dead."

When it is demonstrated by statis

tical facts like these, concerning which Coasting Trade. With britain. there can be no dispute, that interests

80 vast both in our colonial possessions 1820... 1,291 248,343 343,377 and the parent state, are dependent 1836... 19,195 609,111 620,772 upon the connexion between Great

Britain and her Colonies ; when it is Thus the astonishing facts are appa

recollected that the bread and very rent, that, in conducting the intercourse existence of millions at home depend between Canada, the West Indies, and upon the increasing trade and market the mother country, there has grown with these Colonies; and that our up a commercial navy of nearly maritime strength and national inde1,200,000 tons, of which nearly 600,000 pendence are entirely dependent upon belong to Great Britain, and the re- the immediate adoption of such a sysmainder to her transatlantic offspring; tem as shall extend and increase our while the tonnage with the Australian colonial expire, it is with feelings of Colonies has increased in sixteen years, regret too profound to be mingled prior to 1836, from 1200 to 20,000, or with bitterness—with sentiments of nearly twenty-fold. When we recol- indignation too deep to exhale in angry lect that the total commercial navy of words—that we look back upon the Great Britain is only 2,800,000 tons, colonial policy of Great Britain for and that our vast foreign trade with the last ten years. It may safely be America only employs 88,000 tons of affirmed, that the insane policy of Great our shipping, the whole remainder Britain to her colonial possessions being in the hands of the Americans during that time has been unparalleled themselves; and that our intercourse in modern times. She has first forced with Canada and Australia, the popu- upon the West India Islands the monlation of which is not sixteen hundred strous project of negro emancipation, thousand, already gives employment a step which has already reduced to to 600,000 tons, or nearly seven times one-half the produce of those splendid that employed in our whole immense colonies, and given a blow to the commerce with the United States of prosperity both of the Negro and America, the vital importance of co- European population from which lonial trade to maritime independence neither can ever recover. We have becomes at once apparent; and the the details lying beside us, and were general result of the comparative pro- we not fearful of exhausting the pa. gress of the vessels belonging to Great tience of our readers by farther statis

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tical details, we could exhibit a pic- When the royal banner of the loyal ture from Parliamentary and authentic inhabitants in Upper Canada had surdocuments of progressive ruin in those mounted these various evils, and a senoble establishments, which would cond time restored peace to a distractamply bear out, and even exceed this ed land, the sympathy of our rulers statement.

with their old allies—the republican She next, practically speaking, party in America-was so strong, that shortened by two years the period of they have never proposed a vote of negro apprenticeship, and thereby thanks in either House of Parliament completely disorganized all the plans or from the Crown, to the brave sol. which the planters had laid, for en- diers and patriots who saved the emabling them to wind up their affairs pire from dismemberment! Lastly, during the period of apprenticeship. to show our sympathy with the antiAnd when it became manifest that the national party in our transatlantic posnegroes would not work, and that a sessions, in our total disregard to fresh supply of labourers became in their vital interests, we placed at the dispensable to maintain industry in head of the colonial department Lord the West India Islands, we passed Normanby, whose policy in Ireland Acts of Parliament prohibiting the was graced by the wholesale liberation introduction of free Asiatic labourers, of felons and anti-national convicts, and promulgated regulations in the and placed at the head of the Governisland, which, by giving the planters ment in Quebec, Poulett Thomson, no security in the retention of the la- the President of the Board of Trade,

bour of free European workmen, have who is chiefly known by his long es3 in effect cut off all means of supply- tablished connexion with the Bal

ing the place of the indolent negroes tic timber trade, and his often avowed in the cultivation of the land.

predilection for an equalisation of What have we done during the e duties on Baltic and Canadian same period in Canada ? It would timber. appear from our conduct to that noble Serious as these evils are, we much

colony, that we were desirous of dis- fear that greater and more heavy sgusting it so completely with the rule blows at our colonial interests are yet

of the mother country, as to throw it in the contemplation of our infatuated headlong into the arms of the United Government. Acting on the dictation States. We first winked at and pro. of the urban constituencies, whose moted republicanism and sedition to great object is to buy cheap, and still such a degree, as to fan them into ac- clinging to the blind system of foreign tual rebellion; and, though aware for propitiation, there is little room for years that an insurrection was rapidly doubting that they will ere long, perapproaching, we left the colonies with haps in the next Session of Parliaonly 3500 British soldiers to protect ment, bring forward ministerial plans

them from destruction. When the for equalizing the duties on Baltic and & first revolt was put down by this gal. Canadian timber, and Foreign and lant handful of men, and the strenuous

British sugar.

Strong indications of support of the loyal North American these intentions have already appeared British population, we carried the sys- in the speeches of many of the supporttem of conciliation, concession, and ers of Government, and the appointdallying with treason to such a length, ment of Mr Poulett Thomson to the

as to cause the rebellion to break out viceroyalty of Canada may be con$ a second time under circumstances of sidered as the official promulgation of

still greater horror, and when it re- their intention. Let no one imagine squired to be extinguished in oceans of that these propositions are so obviously

blood. While the wintry heavens destructive in their effects, and bear

were illuminated by the light of burn- so obviously the tendency to dismem& ing villages, and the wintry forests ber the empire, that therefore they

were strewed with the carcasses of will not be attempted by a Ministry slaughtered peasants, we submitted whose only principle seems to be to quietly to the insulting inroads of prolong their official existence, without hundreds of buccaneers and pirates any regard to the jeopardy which the from the American territory, in a way means of accomplishing that object that never yet was done by the go- may place the existence or independ. vernment of any independent state. ence of the country. It is never to be



forgotten, that to procure the support of perversity in the public mind which is O'Connell's tail, they have surrendered the real source of the evil—it is the the government of Ireland and the di- short sighted views of the numerous rection of the nation to the Popish fac. constituencies that have so long ren. tion, whose bond of cement is the dered a remedy impossible. The corepeal of the Union, that is, the dis- lonies are wholly unrepresented in the memberment of the empire. True, House of Commons; the ten-pounders by establishing a free trade in timber, have the disposal of the majority of we should annihilate the industry of the seats in that Assembly; to buy our North American Colonies, and cheap is their immediate interest, and throw them at once into the arms of it matters little to the short-seeing the United States, and cut off at once masses what effect that cheap buying 600,000 tons of British shipping, and may ultimately have upon their own altogether extinguish both our mari. or the national interests. Here is the time superiority and national inde. true secret of colonial misgovernment; pendence. True, by equalizing the we are governed by masses who think duties on Foreign and British sugar, only of buying cheap, and the interest we should utterly destroy our West of the colonies is to sell dear. Eight India Colonies, and perpetuate that years ago we foresaw, and distinctly hideous tearing of 200,000 negroes predicted this effect, as necessarily from the shores of Africa, which we flowing from the Reform Bill. have professed ourselves so anxious to All the colonial calamities that have prevent. But what does all that sig. since occurred are but the accomplishi. nify ?-the urban constituencies must ment of our predictions in this parbe propitiated; a few stray seats at ticular.* the next election may turn the balance The colonies were not actually in favour of the Destructive or Con represented under the old constitution, servative party; and the cry of cheap but they were virtually so, because sugar and cheap bread may catch colonial wealth found an easy entrance these stray votes and cast the balance. into Parliament through the means of It is childish to descant always upon

the close boroughs. The Whigs have the weakness and imbecility of mis destroyed that avenue for colonial nisters, or suppose that a tortuous representation in the House of Compolicy, so flagrantly dangerous and mons; time will show whether they impolitic as that which we have just have not destroyed with it the colonial been considering, is to be ascribed to empire and national independence of the mere recklessness or want of ca. Great Britain. pacity of our present rulers. It is

* Blackwood's Magazine, September 1831, vol. xxx. p. 436.

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