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importance. They may now see that form mania in this country, not merely the ancient safeguards of order are by the philosophic writers who had now no longer sufficient in the realm, turned their attention to this subject and that with the altered state of socie- in other states, but by the political ty, and the passions consequent upon journalists which, in the outset, oppoit which the Reform Bill has induced, sed the general madness which premore powerful securities for life and vailed in this country. We shall property have become indispensable. content ourselves with referring to It is no doubt an interesting theme for three passages from different authors, the moralist or historian to contemplate illustrating this position in the most the period when the interposition of a remarkable manner. stipendiary force was not required for

“ The Legislature in France, which the the suppression of riots in the realm of middle classes had themselves appointed," England—when the unpaid magistrate said Thiers in 1825, discharged the judicial functions—when

“ became from the very first the ob. the village constable was the only conservator of the peace, and the largest of ject of the dislike and jealousy of the

lower; and the history of the Legisour seditious assemblages melted away

lative Assembly is nothing more than before the sight of the justice's wand.

the preparations for the revolt which These beautiful features must be num.

overthrew the monarchy. This is the bered with the things that have been.

natural progress of revolutionary troubles. The vast extension of manufactu. Ambition, the love of power, first arises ring establishments throughout the

in the higher orders; they exert them. country--the infatuated neglect of our selves, and obtain a share of the supreme religious institutions by the Tories authority. But the same passion descends when in power--the obstinate resist- in society; it rapidly gains an inferior ance to all attempts at their enlarge- class, until at length the whole mass is in ment by the Whigs, since they have movement. Satisfied with what they have been in office—the unbounded expec- gained, all persons of intelligence strive tations which, for selfish purposes, the

to stop; but it is no longer in their power, leaders of the Liberal party excited in they are incessantly pressed on by the

Those who thus the country during the progress of crowd in their rear. the Reform mania—the bitter disap- endeavour to arrest the movement, even pointment of all these expectations if they are but little elevated above the since the new constitution came into

lowest class, if they oppose its wishes, are operation—the atrocious wickedness

called an aristocracy and incur its odium."* of the leaders of the Chartist rebel.

" It is the middling ranks," lion--and the wide-spread discontent said Mr Alison in 1330, arising from some of the harsh and

“ who organize the first resistance to unnecessary features of the New Poor

Government, because it is their inLaw Bill, have now brought the coun- fluence only which can withstand the try into such a state, that the old shock of established power. They, acsafeguards of order are utterly inade- cordingly, are at the head of the first quate, and the general establishment revolutionary movement. of a stipendiary force has become sions which have been awakened, the indispensable for domestic safety. hopes that have been excited, the disorder That such an establishment is the which has been produced in their struggle, first step towards a more stringent lay the foundation of a new and more and despotic frame of Government,

terrible convulsion against the rule which may be perfectly true. But what they have established. Every species of then? Without it, life and property authority appears odious to men who cannot be preserved.

have tasted of the license and excitation

of a revolution ; the new government It is of great consequence to the cause

But the pas

speedily becomes as unpopular as the one of truth and the enlightenment of the

which has been overthrown; the ambition world in future times, to observe that

of the lower orders aims at establishing this deplorable downward progress, themselves in the situation in which a which all men now see and lament,

successful effort has placed the middling. was distinctly foreseen and emphati- A more terrible struggle awaits them, cally foretold at the outset of the Re

than that which they have just concluded,

* Thiers' French Revolution, II., 7.


with arbitrary power ; a struggle with —vice, reckless ambition, daring selfishsuperior numbers, stronger passions, more ness, will rise from the lower orders of unbridled ambition ; with those whom society ; philosophic enthusiasm will inmoneyed fear has deprived of employment, stantly be annihilated by vulgar ambition. revolutionary innovation filled with hope, The property of the Church will be the inexorable necessity impelled to exer- first victim ; the regenerators of socirty tion. In this contest, the chances are will declare that they take the public woragainst the duration of the new institu. ship under the safeguard of the state, and tion, unless the supporters can imme- they will perform their promises, by giving diately command the aid of a numerous their ministers, as they did in France, and disciplined body of men, proof alike L.40 a-year each. to the intimidation of popular violence " The national debt will be the next oband the seduction of popular ambition.' ject of attack; the people will find it in“ The next Revolution,”

tolerable to pay the interest of burdens

which they had no hand in imposing; the said Blackwood's Magazine, in Febru- public creditors will be swept off, and the

ary 1831,

industry of the people relieved by destroy66 which Great Britain undergoes, if so ing the accumulation of a thousand years. deplorable an event ever shall occur, will The estates of the nobility will then benot be long headed by the higher orders; come an eyesore to the purifiers of society; it will not follow the guidance of the Lords land will be viewed as the people's farm ; and Commons-it will not be directed to the public miseries will be imputed to the establishment of any civil immunities. the extortions of these unjust stewards, Power, not freedom, will be its object; and a division of the great properties will it will be directed against both Lords and be the consequence. In the consternation Commons-it will aim at the destruction occasioned by these violent changes, comof all influence save that which emanates mercial industry will come to a standfrom the lower orders of society. It agricultural produce will be diminishedwill be a gineral insurrection of the the employment of capital will be withlower orders against the higher ; an effort drawn— famine, distress, and want of emof the populace to take the powers of ployment, will ensue—the people will resovereignty into their own hands, and volt against their seducers—more violent divide among themselves all that is now remedies will be proposed-stronger prinenjoyed by their superiors. It will be fol- ciples of democracy maintained. In lowed by the consequences which attend. the struggle of these desperate factions, ed similar efforts in the neighbouring blood will be profusely shed. Terror, kingdom. It will, in the first instance, that destroyer of all virtuous feeling, will be loudly praised, and it will excite the rule triumphant. Another Danton, a semost extravagant expectations ; it will be cond Robespierre, will arise ; another headed by many good men, warm in their Reign of Terror will expiate the sins of a hopes of human felicity, ardent in their new revolution, and military despotism expectation of the regeneration of society. close the scene.”+ Speedily their ascendant will be at an end

* Alison's History of Europe. Vol. I., pp. 416, 417.
† February, 1831, Vol. XXIX. p. 185.




There is no indication of the health with which stipulation, he, the King, and usefulness of any institution more delivered with his own hand the key certain, than the virulence with which of these apartments to the Academi. it is attacked. In proportion to the cians. Thus, if he had a right to give good is the evil that is set against it. them apartments in the Old Somerset When it would live in and by its own House, by the stipulation he had the strength, it must be strangled. Let same right to give them apartments it sleep, doze, and be bedridden, and in the New Buildings; and the Academy it may be allowed to live unheeded. accepted them as a personal boon and It has been the unceasing energy, the gift from the King, whose property daily increasing usefulness, of the they were, as the first rooms were ; Church of England in Ireland, that and the title of the Academy is in determined the Papists to deal to it nowise altered in the change-and the “ heavy blow." It is the present this is admitted. If any thing, then, great and manifest advancement of Art in this stage of the question can be in the Academy, and by means of the disputed, it must be the original power Academy, that causes the bitterness, in the King to grant, which circumenvy, and active malevolence against stance at once transfers the dispute it. This ill-natured warfare is of the from the Academy to the Crown. old sore, that still festers in the human They who received the keys from the heart. It is but as it was—“ When Royal hands, cannot deliver them back they had commanded them to go into any other. Nor can they, without aside out of the council, they con- Royal permission, disclose to any ferred among themselves, saying, other authority any of their concerns ; What shall we do to these men ? for for, according to the nature of their that indeed a notable miracle hath foundation, their concerns have bebeen done by them is manifest to all come a part of the private Royal Estathem that dwell in Jerusalem; and we blishment. cannot deny it. But that it spread no Accordingly the Academy, with further among the people, let us the Royal permission, in 1834, made straitly threaten them.” Annihilate ample disclosures both as to their genif we can; if we cannot do that, we eral management and of their funds; will threaten and harass them year in 1835, they underwent a strict exaby year. Such are the honourable, the mination before the Committee on liberal proceedings adopted, and to Arts and Manufactures, from which be strenuously pursued, towards the every information that the most curi. Royal Academicians, who, perhaps ous public might require, was volunmore than any other set of men, for tarily and undisguisedly given. No the proper prosecution of their studies, candid mind can read the Report of and consequently the general advance. that Committee, and remain dissatisment of Art, require, and have a right fied with the pecuniary management to demand, from the public, an absence of the Royal Academy. They had of all molestation.

accumulated large funds, which they The case of the Academy is simple employed, not for their own benefit, enough. It was founded seventy years by any distribution among themselves ago under the patronage of George which they might have made, but for III., who gave them apartments in his the advancement of Art. They have own palace, and for a time grants out of accordingly formed schools of painthis privy purse.

The members have ing, and distributed in charity been in undisturbed and undisputed £30,000. And that their charity at possession of these apartments from least did not begin and end at home, the time of their foundation, until may be seen from the evidence of their location in the New Academy their secretary before the Committee in Trafalgar Square. When, for the of the House of Commons-" It is public advantage, Old Somerset House not true that the members of the was pulled down, the King stipulated Royal Academy devote a larger porthat his Academy should have rooms tion of the funds to the necessities of in the New Buildings ; in accordance their own body than to those of art.





ists not members. The gross sum the Academy commit any new crime ? expended in pensions to distressed Does Art retrograde amongst the memmembers being £11,106 ; and the bers ? Are the Exhibitions of decided donations to artists not members and inferiority ? Quite the reverse of all their families, £19,249."

this. But the Exhibitions are more in Well, such was the state of the case, public favour, the funds are increasing when, previous tò their removal to -" Hinc illæ lachrymæ.” The would. the New Buildings, petitions were pre. be Public Accountant must be called in sented to Parliament against any such to scrutinize, and harass by a petty removal. A knot of men, virulently scrutiny, the accounts of the Academy, opposed to the Academy, are not for information, but for insult and mined before the Committee of the degradation ; and that such has been House-most favourably examined, the view will be but too apparent. and full scope given for their severest Mr Hume is instigated to obtain an animadversions, aspersions, and ca- order from the House

for the

production lumnies.. And it is difficult to con. of their accounts from the Royal Acaceive a more contemptible figure than demy. Was his purpose, or the puris made by some of the most bitter of pose of his instigators, to obtain acthose opponents. The most unfounded counts ? No, the purpose was to anniassertions to the discredit of the Aca. hilate the Academy to have them demy are made, and clearly disproved. “ turned out” of their New Buildings However unwilling the reader of the “ interlopers.". Thus, while one Report of the Committee may be to thing is pretended, another object is come to uncharitable conclusions, it subsequently, and not until the order is next to an impossibility to acquit was obtained, owned. On the 24th those persons of malice and falsehood. June last, Mr Hume says, upon his disAs a specimen of the latter, we refer cussion on the enforcing the order obto question and answer 1057, 2d tained, “ He would reserve all further part; and the confutation by Secre- observations till the discussion on his tary, 2117.

motion for enforcing the order for the B. R. Haydon, Esq., examined: production of the returns. But he “ The Academy has no act or charter might observe, in the mean time, that like other public bodies ?”

his object had been completely misun“ No, they only exist by the Royal derstood. What he asked was, that pleasure. They cunningly refused her Majesty's Ministers would adopt George the Fourth's offer of a char- measures to turn them out of the buildter, fearing it would make them re- ing. All that he asked was, that these sponsible: they are a private society, interlopers should be turned out, to give which they always put forward when proper accommodation to the public." you wish to examine them; and they So much for the object-now for the always proclaim themselves a public almost surreptitious manner in which society when they want to benefit by that order had been obtained—the conany public vote.

fession of which, by the members of Now, we shall see how cunning the House, we humbly think has a tenthey were.

dency to throw no little discredit upon Henry Howard, Esq., Secretary, their deliberations. We will adduce examined :-" The Royal Academy the evidence of Sir Robert Peel and did not refuse a charter from George Lord John Russell, the best evidence the Fourth, for fear that it should on both sides of the House. Sir Robert make them responsible. A charter Peel says: “ The honourable member was neither offered nor desired.” for Kilkenny had succeeded in getting

The Academy became established in this return ordered; but, if that House their New Buildings. They might had been betrayed into a hasty and reasonably have now expected unin- inconsiderate order, it would be to terrupted peace. They had given am- their credit to rescind it. The honourple information respecting all their able gentleman obtained the order at proceedings; and might fairly have half past one o'clock, when the attenconsidered themselves most honourably tion of members was not much called to acquitted of all charges brought against it; and, even if members had read it, them. Not so. Hatred is not subdued their suspicions would have been lulled by the injury it commits. The very in- by the words that were appended to jury renders it the more-hatred. Do the notice. The return sought for





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purposed to be a continuation of a an unreasonable outcry: and the words former return, made up to July 1836 ; “ Unpublished accounts" will, at all but the return which the honourable required times, aHure Mr Hume to be gentleman now stated that he requiredtheir advocate and make a speech for was a perfectly new return—a return them. True, he cares little for arts founded on the evidence given by the and artists, and his liberal ideas have President and Secretary of the Royal no connexion with the liberal arts ;' Academy. Why then did the honour- for his Greek Art" was the very able member try to lull suspicion, by reverse of Phidias. He has, however, stating in his notice, that he only re

this colourable qualification : quired a continuation of an old report?

" He finds with keen discriminating sight, He must say, that the addition of these

Black's not so black—por white so very words was apparently disingenuous.'

white. Lord John Russell castigates more mildly, fully admitting the fact, that The Academy have escaped for the the House was betrayed into the order: present the scrutiny of their accounts ; “ He did not consider that they were in but are there not in the very setting the least bound by a motion made by forth, in the very marrow of their sucthe honourable member for Kilkenny cess, indications, more than indications, at a late hour of the night, at the end of of their undoing? The general admisan adjourned debate on the Corn. Laws; sion and feeling of the House of Comand when the members, hearing that mons is, that they have no right to it was a continuation of former returns, their present favour, and present posipaid but little attention.” The Royal tion in Trafalgar Square. The plain Academy had respectfully petitioned admission is, and we think unneces. against the enforcing of this order. sarily acknowledged, or left undisputCounter-petitions were presented from ed in their own petition, that they may Messrs George Rennie, E. T. Parris, be turned out at a moment's notice, to John Martin, George Clint, F. Y. suit the public convenience, without Thurlstone, Holmes, and Geo. any right being infringed. Though Foggo; and as Mr Haydon generally we are decidedly of another opinion, wishes to stand alone, so does he on such is the assumption, on the part of this occasion, and conspicuously peti- the public, as taken by the House of tions by himself, and at a wearisome Commons; and though seemingly delength; and whilst ostensibly bis peti- nied by the advocate of the Academy, tion is, that the House may not rescind Sir Robert Inglis, such is in fact the their order, it is in fact a violent in- admission of the Royal Academy. We vective against the Academy, for all think this position in which they stand, and every thing, and showing he not willingly or unwillingly, derogatory being a member) very modestly, that to their own dignity as Academicians, the greatest talent is sure to be out dishonest towards the Crown, whose of it.

right is set aside by all parties, and The opponents to the Academy, how- illiberal and dishonourable to the counever, and Mr Hume their great advo- try. Under these circumstances, what cate, and Accountant-General of all dis- ought these three respective parties to contented and disaffected persons, are do? We think the original" right of defeated—and the Academy are left, granting apartments in Somerset for the present, to the management of House, certainly exercised by the their own funds, and the keeping of Crown, should, in the first place, form their own accounts. But can the Aca- a distinct proposition for the considerdemy expect a long respite from the ation of Parliament. 2dly, Whether Reforming Persecution ? They may the public did not confer that right on depend upon it, such persecution will the Crown, (and in the private capabe annual, annual as regards Parlia. city of the Crown,) by accepting the ment, and perpetual out of it. Two terms of stipulation, and giving over things will insure them that—their su- into the King's hands the keys of the perior attainment in art, and their new apartments, to be by him delisuccess, their increase of their funds. vered into the hands of the Academy? Their opponents will not out-paint Then, if it should be decided that them, as they ought first to do, and there is no inalienable right vested in then to complain; they will find it the Academy, it is for the consideration much more within their power to raise of Parliament whether it would not be

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