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BELZONI ON NUBIA AND EGYPT.
tie like, partly for the stuffing of beds and French books are in demand; huc it was juif “ For three days," he says,
we had a inattresses. The country is so thinly peopled, possible, hy any means, to sell the Glasgow strong southerly wind, so that we advanced its inhabitants have so little liking to mutton, edition of Homer's Iliad, in Greek; the Sep-but a few miles, and did not arrive at Minieh and the wild dogs and other beasts and birds tuagint and New Testament in the same till the 5th of March. It was necessary for of prey are so numerous, that there can be language, Hederic's nor even Schrevelius's us to land there, to'see Hamet Bey, who has little inducement to increase the flocks. Lexicons; nor did a Hebrew Psalter, with a the command over all the boats on the river.
“In every farm there is at least one in- Latin Translation, find a customer. He styles himself admiral of the Nile, and closed place, called the Rodeio, generally 'on “ With the seiences, the arts, both me thinks himself as great as any British admiral the highest spot; here the cattle are occa chanic and those which are commonly de-on the sea. One day at a christian party in sionally collected, examined, marked, and nominated fine ones, prospered in a luigh de-Cairo," the discourse happened to fall upon treated as circumstances may require. So gree ; and we had not only blacksmiths, Sir Sydney SmithAhlsaid Hamet Bey, accustomed are they, particularly the horses, carpenters, and bricklayers, but poets and Sir Sydney Smith is a very clerer man, and to this practice, that when the servants of painters in abundance.
holds the same rank as myself.' From this the farm ride along, swinging their Lassos *** The state of fasliion and faste was dis great commander we had to maintain a proor their hats, and loudly pronouncing the played by the superior show and decoration tection for our Reis, to secure him from havword Rodeio, they all walk slowly to the of retail shops ; and by the puffing advertise. ing his' boat pressed while we employed it. spot. In a country so little enlivened by ments which were published in a style suited We found' hìn sitting on a wooden bench, variety, this assemblage forms one of its most to the French capital. In 1816, a Hair- attended by two or three of his sailors. He rural and pleasant scenes.”
Dresser announced himself, and solicited complied with our request, and gave a hint Of the present, that is to say, the improving patronage from the circumstance of having for a bottle of rum. We sent him two, and state of Brazil, we find some interesting par- had the honour to be employed by Donna he made a feast in high glee with them.” ticulars. The King was rather lavourable to Carlotta of Brazil, the Princess of Wales, He is not the only paval commander in the liberty of the press, but was prevented and the Duchess of Angouleme.”
the world who likes a good glass of grog! from following his inclination.
In conclusion, we have to repeat, that Mr. Early in March, Belzoni found that some “ The licensed press, however, has pro- Luccock's work is, though not well digested, French agents were a-head, on their way to duced some useful works besides these, a very curious repository of Brazilian in- Thebes, to collect antiquities for Mr. Drouwhich relate to military affairs. Among telligence.
etti ; upon which he landed and made all them, we reckon as the most useful, the
haste, travelling on camels and asses, to Thesouro dos Meninos, which treats of
reach that site of ancient ruins before them. " Morals, Virtue, and good Manners." It
In this he succeeded; but their intrigues, was dedicated, very properly, to Don Miguel,
their misrepresentations, and their falsethe King's second son, for no boy can require The second journey of this entèrprizing hoods, prevailed with Defterdar Bey, the such instructions more than he does ; his traveller is still more interesting than the ruler of Upper Egypt; and in the end, education has been most limited and unfortu- first, of which we have rendered an account: the English were prohibited from continuing nate. A book entitled Lectures on Philo- it occupies about 140 pages of his work. their researches : and one of the sheiks, supsophy, contains too much of the dogmas of Accompanied by Mr. Beechey, a son of the posed to be friendly to them," was cruelly Aristotle and the dark ages to evince that celebrated artist (who was broiling under an bastinadoed. We hear, perlaps, too much the author is either enlightened or judicious. African sun, while his brother froze within of this discreditable contest; but if the We have also the History of Extravagant the Arctic circle), Belzoni left Boolak on facts which we shall hereafter notice, are Illusions and Supernatural Influence; the the 20th February. 1817, and once more founded in truth, it must be owned, that Commercial Laws of Brazil; several useful proceded up the Nile. At Meimond, the not only M. M. Jaques and Caliud behared works on Commerce and Navigation, par- boats stopped to witness an Arabian festival; like paltry fellows, but that Count de Forbin ticularly a Nautical Almanack, calculated and the following notice of the native dances himself, the director of the French Museum, for the meridian of Rio, a work badly exe- possesses an additional claim to notice, from acted a most disgraceful, unjust, and concuted, but followed by Tables of the Sun's the vehement heat with which that subject temptible part. In spite of all obstacles and Declination, of Latitudes, and Logarithms ; has been disputed on a recent memorable squabbles, however, " (the details of which one or two works on Geography, and a trial.
are rather teclions,) Belzoni driven from Treatise on the Diseases of Negroes. “ The performers consisted of about thirty Thebes, was enabled to carry on his opera
“A private printing press was established men, all in a row, clapping their hands in tions at Gournou, of which he draws a reat the close of 1816; philosophical lectures concert, so as to form a kind of accompani- markable picture. were read and attended the cabinet which ment to their song, which consisted of three “ The people of Gournou' are superior to formerly belonged to the celebrated Werner or four words ; and with one foot before the any other Arabs in cunning and deceit, and was arranged and studied; mineral waters, other keeping a sort of perpetual motion, but the most independent of any in Egypt. They found in Minas Geracs and other places, had without changing their positions. Before boast of being the last that the French had heen analysed ; and Brazilians boasted of a the men were two women with daggers in been able to subdue, and when subdued, they native discovery, in the composition of gun- their hands, also in continual action, running compelled them to pay the men whatever powder, but I apprehend without reason, for toward the men, and then returning from was asked for their labour; a fact which is it consists simply in mixing a quantity of them with an extraordinary motion, brandish- corroborated by Baron Denon himself. They fresh saw-dust with the grains ; a patent had ing their daggers, and waving their garments. never would submit to any one, either the been granted for making bricks by ma- In this they persevered for such a length of Mamelukes or the Bashaw. They have unchinery, and another for the navigation of time, that I wondered how they could sup. dergone the most 'severe punishments, and the bay by a steam boat; a company had port the exertion. This is a sort of Be- been hunted like wild beasts, by every sucbeen formed even in Cuyaba, under royal doween dance, and is the most decent of all cessive government of Egypt. Their situapatronage, for improvements in the art of that I ever saw in ' Fgypt ;--but no sooner tions and hiding-places were almost imprego mining.
was it ended, than, in order I suppose to nable. Gournou is a tract of rocks, about " The Arabian Camel had been introduced, please us, they immediately began another, two miles in length, at the foot of the Lybian and two small goats from India, which I in the fashion of the country, which fully mountains, on the west of Thebes, and was imagine to be Cashmerian ; if they succeed, compensated for the extraordinary modesty the burial-place of the great city of a hundred both animals will prove useful to the of the first : but we returned to our boat gates. Every part of these rocks is cut out country.
more disgusted than pleased with it. by art, in the form of large and sipall cham“ In 1818, at a sale of books, English After this, the author gives an equally bers, each of which has its separate entrance; works went off well, as did some Latin oues ; curious description of the anaritime power and, though they are very close to each other, but few, I believe, fell into Braziliaa haado! (if we may ao tertn it,) on the river. it is seldom that there is way interior con
munication from one to another. I can truly my hands to sustain my weight, but they the attention of the antiqaary. It is certain, say, it is impossible to give any description found no better support; so that I sank al- that the burial-places of the Egyptians were sufficient to convey the smallest idea of those together among the broken mummies, with on the west side of the Nile, for not a single subterranean abodes, and their inhabitants. a crash of bones, rags, and wooden cases, place is to be found on the castern side to There are no sepulchres in any part of the which raised such a dust as kept me motion indicate there having ever been a burial. world like them, there are no excavations, lens- for a quarter of- an hour, waiting till it ground there yet among these sphinxes was or mines, that can be compared to these truly subsided again. I could not remove from a tombstone similar to those which are found astonishing places, and no exact description the place, however, șithout increasing it, in the tombs on the other side of the Nile, can be given of their interior, owing to the and every step I took I crushed a nuinmy and probably, therefore, made to be taken to difficulty of visiting these recesses. The in- in söine part or other. Once I was conducted the tomb of some family on the west. But conveniency of entering into them is such, from such a place to another resembling it, the iron sickle to which I would call the that it is not every one who can support the through a passage of about twenty feet in attention, was found under the feet of one of exertion.
length, and do wider than that a body could the sphinxes on its removal. I was present; " A traveller is generally satisfied when he be forced through. It was choked with one of the men took it up and gare it me. has seen the large hall, the gallery, the stair-mummies, and I could not pass without It was broken into three pieces, and so decase, and as far as he can conveniently go : putting iny face in contact with that of some cayed, that the rust had eaten even to the besides, he is taken up with the strange decayed Égyptian; but as the passage in centre. It was rather thicker than the sickles works he observes cut in various places, and clined downwards, my own weight helped of the present time, but exactly of the compainted on each side of the walls; so that me on, however, I could not avoid being mon shape and size of ours. It is now in the when he comes to a narrow and dillicult covered with bones, legs, arins, and heads possession of Mr. Salt.” passage, or to have to descend to the bottom rolling from above. Thus I proceeded from We are not aware of any portion of these of a well or cavity, he declines taking such one cave to another, all full of muinmies antiquities dug out of the earth where they trouble, naturally supposing that he cannot piled up in various ways, some standing, have remained more than 2000 years, so see in these abysses any thing so magnificent some lying, and some on their heads. The well calculated to excite strong enotions, as what he sees above, and consequently purpose of my researches was to rob the as the cominon tools and garments of humdeerning it uscless to proceed any farther: Egyptians of their papyri; of which I found ble men. Through the condescension of Of some of these tombs many persons could a few hidden in their breasts, under their Lord Belmore, we have passed some time not withstand the suffocating air, which often arms, in the space above the knees, or on among the extraordinary and invaluable calises fainting: A vast quantity of dust the legs, and covered by the numerous folds treasures which he has brought from the rises, so fine that it enters into the throat of cloth that envelop the mumıny. The banks of the Nile ; and our minds have been and nostrils, and chokes the nose and mouth people of Gournou, wlio make a trade of far more strongly affected by such remains, to such a degree, that it requires great power antiquities of this sort, are very jealous of than by all the splendid relics which littered of lungs to resist it and the strong efiluvia of strangers, and keep them as secret as pos- the toinbs of monarchs. The well worn the inummies. This is not all; the entry or sible, deceiving travellers by pretending, wooden mallet of a mason, precisely resempassage where the bodies are. is roughly cut that they have arrived at the end of the pits, bling those used in Britain at this day, but in the rocks, and the falling of the sand from when they are scarcely at the entrance." which had, perhaps, hewed stones for the the upper part or ceiling of the passage causes “ The people of Gournou live in the en- pyramid of Cheops I the adze of a carpenter, it to be nearly filled up. In some places trance of such caves' as have already been also similar to those of our times, as per• there is not more than a vacancy of a foot opened, and, by making partitions with fect as when the death of its owner put an left, which you must contrive to pass through earthen walls, they form habitations for end to its employment! the shoes of 'undisin a creeping posture like a snail, on pointed themselves, as well as for their cows, camels, tinguished beings, since whose mortal career and keen stones, that cut like glass. After buffaloes, sheep, goats, dogs, &c. I do not was closed, seventy or eighty generations of getting through these passages, some of them know whether it is because they are so few men lave passed away, but which are made two or three hundred yards long, you gene-in number, that the government takes so right and left according to our latest fashions ! rally find a more commodious place, perhaps little notice of what they do; but it is certain, the hair of beauty, not yet unravelled from high enough to sit. But what a place of rest! that they are the most unruly people in its nicest plaits, but hanging, hardly soiled, surrounded by bodies, by heaps of mummies Egypt. At various times many of them have in long ringlets, though it had lain twenty in all directions ; wbich, previous to my being been destroyed, so that they are reduced from centuries in the dust! These were the obaccustomed to the sight, impressed me with three thousand, the number they formerly jects in the noble Earl's collection, which horror. The blackness of the wall, the faint reckoned, to three hundred, which forin the most deeply excited our feelings, and inlight given by the candles or torches for want population of the present day.”
duced sensations of wonder mingled with deof air, the different objects that surrounded. They are inost cunning and rascally cheats, lightful melancholy. me, sceming to converse with each other, as the author illustrates, by relating the
(7• be continued.) and the Arabs with the candles or torches in manner in which he became possessed of their hands, naked and covered with dust, two brazen vessels apparently sacred, and
CUSTOMS, &c. OF AMERICAN INDIANS. theinselves resembling living mummies, ab- sonorous like Corinthian brass, of the most
(Medicine ; Superstitions.] solutely formed a scene that cannot be de perfect Egyptian antiquity.
As the observations in Mr. Heckewelder's scribed. In such a situation I found myself Belzoni also contrived to make excava- memoir are the fruits of a more intimate acseveral times, and often returned exhausted tions at Carnak; where, he says,
quaintance with the American tribes than and fainting, till at last I became inured to "I found two small sitting figures of red any with which we are acquainted, and as the it, and indifferent to what I suffered, except granite, nearly two feet high, and a stone work is not to be had by English readers, from the dust, which never failed to choke irregularly shaped, but dat and smooth on
we shall continue our selections from it for my throat and nose; and though, fortunately, the surfaces. It is divided by lines into yet a few Numbers. The practice of mediI am destitute of the sense of smelling, 1 many little squares of half an inch, in each cine, it may well be supposed, is in a rude could taste that the mummies were rather of which is a hieroglyphic, but all different state annong so rude a people. Some of unpleasant to swallow. After the exertion from each other. This piece, in my opinion, their remedies are however as effectual as of entering iuto such a place, through a pas-might be of much service to Dr. Young, in they are strange. Mr. H. says, sage of fifty, a hundred, three hundred, or bis undertaking of the discovery of the alpha
• In fevers the Indians usually administer perhaps six hundred yards, nearly overcome, bet of the Egyptians, particularly in the ad- emetics which are made up and compounded Isought a resting-place, found one, and con- vanced state at which he has at present ar. in various ways. I saw an emetic once given trived to sit; but when my weight bore on 'rived. Two other articles were found in this to a man who had poisoned himself with the the body of an Egyptian, it crushed it like excavation, of which one is a tombstone, and root of the May Apple. It consisted of a a band-box. . I naturally had recourse 10 the other an iron sickle, that I think worthy
piece of racoon skin burned with the hair on in a whimsical popular notion respecting defy the utmost exertions of their pretended and finely powdered, pounded dry beans and medicine. They hold it to be of the utmost supernatural powers.. He desired that two gunpowder. These three ingredients were importance that they should draw," water of those magicians might be brought succes mixed with water and poured down the pa- up or down the current of a stream, as it is sively before him on different days, who tient's throat. This brought on a severe to be respectively employed as a rehicle for should be at liberty to try their art on his vomiting, the poisonous root was entirely an emetic or a cathartic. This singular idea person, and do him all the harm that they discharged and the man cured. ve forta prevails generally among the Indians of all could by magical means, in the presence of the
The following description of the Sweat classes. They think that as the one remedy chiefs and principal men of the village. The Oven and its uses, is, we think,
very curious is to work upwards and the other down. Indians tried at first to dissuade him from so " In other complaints, particularly in wards, care should be taken in the prepara- dangerous an experiment ; but he persisted, those which proceed from rheumatic affection to follow the course of nature, so that and at last they acceded to his demand ; tions, bleeding and sweating are always the no confusion should take place in the stor conjurer was brought to him, who professed first remedies applied. The sweat oven, is mach or bowels of the patient Iron bo himself fully competent to the task for which the first thing that an Indian has recourse to, We are sorry to say that the quacke or he was called, but he could not be persuaded avhen he feels the least indisposed; it is the jugglers have more practice than those of to make the attempt. He declared that Asplace to which the wearied traveller, hunter, the regular faculty. This arises from the derson was so good and so honest a man, so or warrior looks for relief from the fatigues excessive superstition of the natives, of which much his friend and the friend of all the he has endured, the cold he has caught, or the following are examples,
Indians, that he could not think of doing him the restoration of his lost appetite. Steel was once acquainted with a white an injury. He never practised his art but on This oven is made of different sizes, so man, a shrewd and correct observer, who bal inen and on those who
had injured him, as to accommodate from two to six persons had lived long among the Indians, and being the great Mannitto forbid that he should use at a time, or according to the number of men himself related to an Indian family, had the it for such a wicked purpose as that for in the village, so that they may be all suc- best opportunities of obtaining accurate in which he was now called upon. cessively served. It is generally built on a formation on this subject. He told me that “ The Indians found this excuse perfectly bank or slope, one half of it within and the he had found the means of getting into the good, and retired more convinced that ever other above ground. It is well covered on confidence of one of their most noted sor- of the abilities of their conjuror, whom they the top with split plank and earth, and has a cerers, who had frankly confessed to him, now revered for his conscientious scruples. door in front, where the ground is level to that his secret consisted in exciting fear and "The one who was brought on the next go or rather creep in. Here, on the outside, suspicion, and creating in the multitude a day was of a different stamp. He was an stones, generally of about the size of a large strong belief in his magical powers, For,' arch sorcerer, whose fame was extended far turnip, are heated by one or more men ap-said he, such is the credality of many, and wide, and was much dreaded by the Inpointed each day for that purpose. While that if I only pick a little wool from my dians, not only on account of his great the oven is heating, decoctions from roots or blanket, and roll it between my fingers into powers, but of the wicked disposition of his plants are prepared either by the person a sınall round ball, not larger than a bean, 1 inind. Every effort was made to dissuade himself who intends to sweat, or by one of am by that alone believed to be deeply skilled Mr. Anderson from exposing himself to what the men of the village, who boils a large in the magie art, and it is iminediately sup was considered as certain destruction, but kettleful for the general use, so that when posed that I am preparing the deadly sub- he stood firm to his purpose, and only stiputhe public
cryer going his rounds calls out stance with which I mean to strike some lated that the magician should sit at the Pimook! go to sweat every one brings person or other, although I hardly know distance
of about twelve feet froin him, that his small kettle, which is filled for him with myself at the time what my fingers are do- he should not be armed with any weapon, the potion, which at the same time serves ing; and if, at that moment, I happen to cast nor earry any poison or any thing else of a him as a medicine, promotes a profuse per- my eyes on a particular man, or even throw a known destructive nature, and that he should spiration, and quenehes his thirst. As soon side glance at him, it is enough to make him not even rise from his seat, nor advance as a sufficient number have come to the oven, consider himself as the intended victim, he towards him during the operation. All this a number of the hot stones are rolled into is from that instant effectually struck, and if was agreed to, the conjuror boasting that he the middle of it, and the sweaters go in, he is not possessed of great fortitude, so as could effect his purpose even at the distance seating themselves or rather squatting round to be able to repel the thought, and divert of one hundred miles. The promised reward those stones, and there they remain until the his mind from it, or to persuade hinself that was brought and placed in full view, and sweat ceases to flow; then they come out, it is nothing but the work of a disturbed both parties now prepared for the experithrowing a blanket or two about them that imagination, he will sink under the terror ment. they may not catch cold; in the mean while, thus created, and at last perish a victim, not “ The spectators being all assembled, the fresh heated stones are thrown in for those indeed, to witchcraft, but to his own credulity sorcerer took his seat, arrayed in the most oven, water is now and then poured on the and Buz men of such strong minds are not sonstood hem and composed before him at the hot stones to produce a steam, which they often to be found ; so deeply rooted is the stipulated distance. All were silent and say, increases heat, and gives suppleness to belief of the Indians in those fancied super-attentive while the wizzard began his terrible their limbs and joints. In rheunatic com- natural powers. It is vain to endeavour to operation. He began with working with plaints, the steam is produced by a decoction convince them by argument that they are his fingers on his blanket, plucking now and of boiled roots, and the patient during the entirely founded in delusion and have no real then a little wool and breathing on it, then operation is well wrapped up in blankets, to existence. The attempt has been frequently rolling it together in small rolls of the size keep the cold air from him, and promote made by sensible white men, but always of a bean, and went through all the antie perspiration at the same time. naarto without success. The following anecdote tricks to which the power of bewitching is
10 Those sweat ovens are generally at some will shew how little hope there is of ever generally ascribed. But all this had no distance from an Indian village, where wood bringing them to a more rational way of effect. Anderson remained cool and comand water are always at hand. The best order thinking,
posed, now and then calling to his antagonist is preserved at those places. The women have “Sometime about the year 1776, a Quaker (not to be sparing of his exertions, The their separate oven in a different direction trader of the name of John Anderson, who conjurer now began to make the most horrid from that of the men, and subjected to the among the Indians was called the honest gesticulations, and used all the means in his same rules. The men generally sweat them- | Quaker trader, after vainly endeavouring to power to frighten the honest quaker, whe, selves once and sometimes tavice a week; convince those people by argument that aware of his purpose, still remain umored. the women have no fixed day for this exer- there was no such thing as witchcraft, took At last, while the eyes of all the spectators cise, nor do they use it as often as the men." the bold, and I might say the rash, resolu- were fixed on this brave nan, to observe the
Even the most skilful leeches participate tion to put their sorcerers to the tests and effects of the søreerer's craft upon him, this
terrible conjurer, finding that all his efforts his ancestors, did not establish it as a funda-Jtwo sovereigns, who are both men of honorawere vain, found himself obliged to give up mental law, that the Grand Principality ble principles ; but this requires a union of the point, and alleged for his excuse that should belong to one only hrauch of the virtues so rare, that Russia enjoyed it but the Americanis eat too much salt provisions ; house of Rurick; that it should be indivisi- once, and for a moment,
15h 70gr that salt had a repulsive effect, which made ble ; and that on the contrary, each appan Jt would however be an erroneous notion, the powerful invisible substance that he em- age should, in case of decease, be always di- to believe that the power and the energy, the ployed recoil upon him ; that the Indians, 1 vided into as many parts as there were male sources and example of which had been bewho eat but little salt, had often felt the heirs.
queathed by the founders, were entirely lost. effects of this substance, but that the eat The second cause of destruction was, the at various periods, the fittest means were quantity of it which the white men 'used examiple set by the same Iaroslaff of changing adopted to restore what time and accumucffectually protected them against it.' the appanages. Nesiring in 1020 to give an lated faults had deteriorated. The reign of
“ The imposition in this instance was per- advantage to his brother Mstilaff, he gave Iaroslaff I., so remarkable on many ac. fectly clear and visible, and nothing was so him, instead of the principalities of Mouroma counts, is particularly so from the successful easy as to see through this sorcerer's miserable and Tschernigoff, which he possessed, that of efforts made by that prince to restore due pretence, and be convinced that his boasted Zmoutaracan, which lying on the frontiers vigour to the sovereign authority. This art was entirely a deception ; but it was not and near the seas on the south, was better noble ambition would probably have been so with the Indians, who armly believed that calculated to favor his ambitious views, crowned avith success, bad he not been so the salt which the Americans used was the From that time, every prince discontented eager to act a part in the north; an eageronly cause of his failure in this instance, with his lot, perceiving that there was a ness, which perhaps originated only in the and that if it had not been for the salted meat means of ameliorating it, thought he liad a desire to show the fortunes of the children of which Mr. Anderson fed upon, he would right to ask it ; or only waited for an oppor- Rnrick; but which made him neglect the have fallen a rictim as well as others to the tunity to demand it.
affairs of the south, and afterwards gave the incantations of this impostor.”
These changes of princes and of principa- Swedes opportunities to counteract the in
lities became the more frequent, as the Grand terests of Russia.
(To be continued.) 1937 yos (From Count T. Gulowkin's inédited Letter.)
branch, and belonging by right to the eldest The impulse of grandeur and importance of the whole race, and in fact, to the bravest which the long and prosperous reign of St. or the inost powerful, these changes becaine
ARTS AND SCIENCES. Wladimier bad given to his government, inevitable on every new reign. Among the
XBW BLECTRO-MAGNETIC EXPERIMENTO. withstood for a time the fatal effects of his appanaged princes, there were soon found testament. Notwithstanding the loss of some, who attempted to rival the head of
BY PROFESSOR I. C. ORSTED. $97. godine eleven great appanages with which they were the state ; and as in the pursuits of ambition,
(Second Communication.) obliged to part, the sovereigns of Kieff the worst that can bappen is, not to succeed, Since the publication of my first experiheld for 120 years, with a firm and skilful each sought to strengthen himself by the aid ments on the magnetic action of the galvahand, the chains which attached them to the of the neighbouring people. Hence, the in- nic apparatus, I have prosecuted my rethrone; and perhaps, this power and this vasions of the Khozares, the Polovtsy, the searches on this subject as far as my numesplendour would have been perpetuated, Poles, the Teutonic knights ; hence, the rous avocations have allowed me. if among so many states, separated from each dreadful yoke of the Mongols and the Li The electro-magnetic effects do not appear other, the grand principality had not been thuanians.
to depend upon the intensity of the electrithe most exposed of all to usurpations and The most powerful of the appanaged city, but only on its quantity. The discharge subdivisions. I have extracted from the Princes then declared themselves the here- of a powerful electrical battery, transmitted chronicles and archives, a picture, which de- ditary possessors of the appanages they by a metallic wire, imparts no motion to the monstrates the madness of the system pur- usurped ; and the weakest, always protected magnetic needle. An uninterrupted series sued. But the military government founded by the grand princes, bad'a permanent pre- of electric sparks acts upon the needle by by Rarick, continued only till the death of text to dispute the possession with them. the usual electrical attractions and repulMstilaff the Great, and various causes con- The certainty or the hope of obtaining justice sions : but as far as can be ascertained, the tributed to its destruction,
sooner or later, completed the misfortunes sparks do not produce any electro-magnetic The first was indisputably those partitions, of the people. Every one ruined his appan-effect. A galvanic pile, composed of a which were renewed at the death of every age, in order to obtain the means of pur- hundred plates, (disquer) of two square prince, and which it seemed impossible to chasing or conquering another; and lastly, inches of each metal, and of paper moistened abolish, as they had acquired by custom the as the vain title of Grand Prince, was the with salt water, by way of a Auid conductor, force of lax. Continual misfortunes, and secret object of all these ambitious princes, is likewise without any sensible effect on the dangers constantly increasing, could not fix every thing was overturned to arrive more needle. On the other hand, this effect is any bounds to thein. Vsevolod III. (1213), speedily to an unstable throne. The time obtained by a single galvanic arc, (arc galand Constantinc I. (1218,) who may be sup- when it became necessary to transfer tho vanique) of zinc and copper, which has for posed to have been equally alarmed by the Grand Principality, was not long delayer. its fluid conductor á liquor of a great con, past and the future, showed how far this de- Kieff, too much injured by foreign invasions, dueting, power'; for example, à compound plorable infatuation was carried. In reading too much weakened by the loss of the appan- of sulphuric acid, as much of nitric acid, their testamentary dispositions, it seems that ages which had been successively detached and 66 parts of water. The water may even the only hope, the only consolation they had from it, could no longer serve as its seat. be doubled without much diminishing the efleft, was to see all finish with themselves. Youry 1. Dolgorouky, established himself feet. 'If the surfaces of the two metals aro The grand Princes had not ahserved, that in at Wladimir," which belonged to him. small, the effect is the same; but it inthe continual subdivisions, there were two re-Shortly after, Moscow became the beat of creases in proportion as the surfaces are sults directly contrary to each other ; namely, the Grand Principality. Soon there were augmented. A plate (larne) of zine, of 6 that in proportion as they were favourable to two Orand Prinees at the same time, or even square inches, plunged in a hos, which them in the appanages which they weakened, more, according to the power of each of contains the liquid conductor, of which I they were destructive of the authority which those who desired to be so; or to the have spoken, produces a considerable effect, it was so important to preserve in the Grand interest of the Mongols who were masters of But a similar system, of which the plate of Principality. We cannot help asking, why, the greatest part of Russia. At the time of zinc is 100 square inches, acts 'upon the Jaroslaff and Mstilat', who were so sensible these two great Princes, Rurick II. of Kieff
, magnetie needle with such force, that the of their greatness and so skilful in inaking and St. Youry II. of Wladimir, a noble effect is very sensible at the distance of use of it, especially the first, who had suc- example wen seen of the harmony which three feet, even when the needle is not very ccaded in re-rniting the whole inheritance of love of their country. may praduce between moveable. I have not found a greater effect
lieve that the small diminntion of the con- the poles of the earth. The apparatus for To change, and ah! to power summast endued
from a galvanic apparatus, conposed of 40 ] He describes some of them, which do not | Amidst the regions where the poets stray: similar parts; and its influence even appeared seem intelligible without the aid of figures. Yet have I bent before thee in my cell, to me less powerful. If this observation, He adels, “I have not yet found means to And called on thee in solitude, which I have not confirmed by other
experi- construct 'a galvanic apparatus sufficiently And through the varying seasons (chief by night) ments, le just, ! should be inclined to be free to direct itself spontaneously towards Have felt and lov'd thy shadowy presence well;
And what a ducting power produced by the augmenta such an experiment ought w be excessively Whatever wond'rous object met thy sight; tion of the elements of the apparatus, lessens inoveable.
And I, with thee, have seen the lightnings play, its electro-inagnetic effect.
(Touclied by thy hand, terrifieally bright), To compare the effect of a single galvanic LITERATURE &LEARNED SOCIETIES. And seen the young sun tint the skies with grey, arc, with that of an apparatus composed of
And marked the painted bearens at evening, gay, several arcs, or elements, we must make one
Or when they, with their thousand eyes of light, reflection. --Suppose that the annexed figure On the loth, the anniversary of this look beautiful upon the world below. represents a galranic arc of a piece of zinc Z, Foundation, the officers of the last year were Half of this pleasure to thy help lowe. of one of copper C, of a metal wire ab, and of re-elected, and silver medals distributed as It is to thee, sweet spirit! man should bow, a liquid conductor. The zinc always com- prizes to Mr. Watts, for the best copy of an all self-abandoned in his love, wo the water, as the copper gives it part of its Sharp, for the second best, a copy from the When,
on the Olympus hill, thy father Jove inunicates a part of its positive electricity to Ostade, in the school of painting, to Mr. And worship the bright wreath upon thy brow, negative electricity, which would produce an infant Bacchus of Poussin; to Mr. A. Mor- Sat in his might, and Aung his bolts afar ; accuinulation of negative clectricity in the ton, for the best drawing from the living (Now fixed amongst the skies a humble star) upper part of the zinc, and of positive elec: model; to Mr. Pitts, for the best model from Whilst thou the while, didst haunt the sacred tricity in the upper part of the copper, if the same ; to Mr. Wood, for the best spring, the communication by, ab did not restore the drawing from an antique figure, one of the And from propbane touch guard the sparkling equilibrium, by affording an easy passage to dying sons of Niobe ; to Mr. R. Williams, fount, the negative electricity from 2 to C, and of for the best model from the same ; and tó And mark Apollo's laurel blossoming, 27. the positive, free electricity, from C to' Z. Mr. George Allen, for the best architectural Or roam those woods (crowning the Pindus We see then that the wire ab receives the ne- drawing, the plan and elevation of Surgeons That bound the sun-bright plains of Thessaly. gative electricity of the zinc, and the posi- College, Lincolns Inn Square. tive of the copper ; whereas, a wire which makes a cominunication between the two nothing of the academy's going out of the To thee man oweth what is bright and fair
Sir" T. Lawrence presided. We hear it is to thee, sweet spirit! men should bow, poles of a compound pile, or other com- circumscribed bounds to which it has too That he can joy in sights this world abore, pound galvanic apparatus, receives the posi- long limited its operations for the advances (The heavens--the stars that light the upper tive electricity of the zinc pole, and the nega- ment of art. tive of the copper pole.
And thús escape life's mere reality.
And how thy blind and mighty votary,
And how they did securo through life thy care :
For I have fed upon the flowers 2017,
That spring so fresh on Shakespeare's page, z
Bend towards thee in my soul's obedience,
Till now, have passed with bim delighted hours:
Have learned to commune with the visible skies;
And ah! through many a soft and summer night,
light) Through the sad shores of Italy,
Have roamed alone, and dwelt in silence on Old Greece, or Avon's pleasant pastures near
Old Milton's matchless tale of Paradise. Whence Shakespeare's fancy ran and runneth clear
September 1819. By paying attention to this difference, we Toward the far seas of immortality. may, with a single galvanic arc, arranged as Not fabled was the story of thy birth,
SKETCHES OF SOCIETY. I have described it, repeat all the experi. As told by poets in the elder time ments which I had at first made with a com- (Though scorned, alas ! in these degenerate days, city to the letters of our pandemnonian friend
We are almost sorry for having given publie pound galvanic apparatus. The use of a And thy green laurel deered of little worth). single galvanic arc is, of itself, a great advan-Oh! then bear me unto thy sunny clime,
Satan, as their insertion has had the effect of tage, as it allows of a repetition of the expe- Where few, so few, bave been allowed to gaze;
filling our letter-box with communications up
der the signatures of Diabolus, Lucifer, Belzeriments, with small preparation and expence ; So may I bask in those eternal rays, but it gives another advantage, which is That seldom yet have visited this earth,
bub, Asmodeus, and other names of infernal more considerable ; namely, that a galvanic and with some power celebrate thy praise.
import, in such quantity, that we are disposed
to believe the number of wicked spirits at arc may be arranged strong enough for the I love thee, sweetest spirit! and I oft electro-magnetic experiments, and yet suf- Have wandered with thee, a companion rade, present loose in this country has been much ficiently light to be suspended to their wire ; And seldom seen, and never borne aloft under-rated, as well as their power of disso that this small apparatus may easily move round the prolonged axis of the wire. Thus a glimpse at his experiments on the magnetizing communications without printing our whole
Sir H. Dary has allowed the public to have could not promise to insert the half of these
turbing the peace of the community. As we we may examine the action of a magnet influence of galvanism. The results stated in on the galvanic arc. As a body cannot put the newspapera are, that the galvanic Quid
pro- would not be perfectly convenient for us, and
annual quantum of matter in one day, which in motion another body without being moved perly directed, communicates magnetic properin its turn, when it possesses the necessary ties to steel bars. The bars must not be placed perhaps, even less so for our readers, we mobility, it was easy to foresee that the gal-rallel to the magnetic equator—the west end as we wish to have no personal communicaThe author then
proceeds to state, that then becomes the north pole, and tho cast end tion with the writers, and have nocuriosity to he made various contrivances to arrange
the south pole of the new magnet. This effect know the place of their abode. Many other
the simple galvanic apparatus, to examine the may be produced at 10 or 17 inches distance journals, however, exist in this metropolis, to motion communicated to it by the magnet. from the galvenie curreat.
the Editor of which, if they prors is.com.