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Journal of Belles Lettres, Arts, Sciences, str. .
This Journal is supplied Weekly, or Monthly, by the principal Booksellers and Newsmen throughout the Kingdom : but to those who may desire
its immediate transmission, by post, we beg to recommend the LITERARY GAZETTE, printed on stamped paper, price Une stilling No. 156. SATURDAY, JANUARY 15, 1820.
he surely would have altered the excla-, single article of fooi which is not to be met REVIEW OF NEW BOOKS. mation of Jacques,
with in an aclulterate i state; and there are
some substances wiich are scarcely orer 10 “As I do live by food I met a fool;"
be procured genuine. POISONING OF FOOD.
for to be german to the matter, he Some of these spurious compounds are A Treatise on Adulterations of Food, and should say :
comparatively harmless when used as food; Culinary Poisons ; exhibiting the Frau
and as in these cases merely 6nbstances o “ As I do die by food, I met a fool."
inserior value are substituted for more costly dulent Sophistications of Bread, Beer,
In short, Mr. Accum acts the part of and genuine ingre:lients, the so'ristication, line, Spirituous Liquors, Tea, Coffee, Cheese, Pepper, Mustard, &c. &c. &c. Dionysius with us; only the horse hair though it may atteet our pluras, !oes not in
jure or health. Of this kind are the maby which he suspends the sword and methods of detecting them. By our heads allows the point gradually to ations of mustard, vinegar, cream, &r.
nufacture of fractitious pepper, the adulterFrederick Accum, &c. London, 1820.
enter the flesh, and we do not escape, Others, however, are vigili deleterious ;
like Damocles, with the simple fright: and to this class belong the alalterations of As we may safely prognosticate that yet it is but justice to acknowledge, that beer, wines, spiritous liquors, pickles, sathis volume will soon be as widely dif- in almost every case he furnishes us lad oil, and many others. fused as its curious and vitally important with tests whereby we can ascertain the
There are particular chemists who make it character merits, we seize the earliest nature of our danger; and no man could a regular trade to supply draes or nefarious opportunity of making it known to our do more towards enabling us to miti- preparations to the unpriscipled brewer of readers, since in a very few weeks the gate or escape from it.
porter or ale; others perform the same odice
to the wine and spirit merchant; and others original would supersede, in every hand, Advising our readers to abstain from again to the grower and the oilman. The our claim to novelty. We have heard perusing the annexed synopsis till after operators carry on their processes chiefly in at various times of this and that fraud, they have dined, that they may have secrecy, and under some elusire firin, rith in the substitution of spurious and often one more meal in comfort ere they die, the ostensible denoiements of a fair and lawdeleterious articles for the necessaries we proceed to the various heads under
ful establishment. of life ; but never could we conceive so which the author ranges his dread order and method of a regular trade; they
These illicit pursuits hare assumed all the frightful a picture of imposition and vil
may severally claim to be distinguished as an lany as thus bringing the poisonous in
Of all the frauds (says he in his prelimi- ari and mystery ; for the workmca enpluges gredients into one point of view pre- nary observations) practised by mercenary in them are ofien wholly ignoraui of the inasents. One has langhed at the whim- dealers, there is none more reprehensille, ture of the substances which pass through sical description of these cheats in and at the same time more prevalent, than their hands, and of the pluposes to when Humphrey Clinker, but it is really im- the sophistication of the various articles of they are ultimately applic.
food. possible to laugh at Mr. Accum's expo
To elude the vigilance of the inquisitire, sition. It is too serious for a joke to increasing in die gree as it has been for at difti- and to ensure the secrecy of these myster
This unprincipled and nefarious practice, to defeat the scrutiny of the revenue oflicer, see that in almost every thing which we cult of detection, is now applied to almost the processes are very ingeniously divisirat eat or drink, we are condemned to every commodity which can be classes and subdivided among individual operators, swallow swindling, if not poison-that among either the necessaries or the luxuries, and the manufacture is purposrly carried on all the items of metropolitan, and many of life, and is carried on to a most alırıning in separate establishments. The task of of country consumption, are deteriorated, extent in every part of the United Kingdom. proportioning the ingredients for 1130 is usa deprived of nutritious properties, or
It has been pursued by men, who, from signed to one individual, while the conorendered obnoxious to humanity by the their concerns, wouli be the least obnoxious to form a distinct part of the business, and is
the magnitude and apparent respectability of sition and preparation of then may be said vile arts and merciless sophistications of to public suspicion ; and their successful es- entrusted to another workman. Vosi ut ida their sellers. So general seems the ample has called forth, from among the retail | articles are transmitted to the consumer in a corruption, and so fatal the tendency of dealers, a multitude of competitors in the disguised state, or in such a form that their most of the corrupting materials, that same iniquitous course.
real nature cannot possibly be detected by we can no longer wonder at the prev, To such perfection of ingenuity las this the unwary. Thus the extract of coculus ina lence of painful disorders, and the brief- systein of adul:erating, fool arriveri, that dicus, employed by fraudulent manufacness of existence (on an average) in spurious articles of various kinds are every turers of mult-tiynors to impart an into
where to be found, made up so skilfully as cating quality to porter or ales, is known in spite of the great increase of medical
to battle the discrimination of the most ex- the market by the name of black crtrau', knowledge, and the amazing improve-perienced judiges.
ostensibly destined for the age of tangers wil ment in the healing science, which dis Among the number of substances used in dyers. It is obtained by boiling the berrie, tinguish our era. No skill can pre domestic cronomy which are now very genel of the coculis indicus in water, uad corrorvent the effects of daily poisoning ; and rally found sophisticated, may be listinguish- inz, by a subsequent evaporation, tiris dono man can prolong his life beyond a cd-tea, colier, breal, beer, win., spiritu- cotion into a stiť blacki tenacious mass, short standard, where every meal ought tar 1, cream, and other articles of sub-ul intoxicating, quality of the poisnon.
ons liquors, sala:l oil, pepper, vinegur, mis possessing, in a high degre, the narcotic to have its counteracting medicine. Had sistence.
berry from which it is prepared.wther Shakspeare written now; in London, In deed, it will be difficult to mention a substance, congueů ox oxtract of yuassła
and liquorice juice, used by, frailulent, is not more etrectually enforced against prac-.| licly exposed for sale by some of the venders brewers to economise hoth malt and hops, tices so inimical to tiie publie welfare
. The of medicinal herbs. is technically called multum.
inan who robs a fellow suloject of a few shil Instead of worm-seed (artemisia santonica), The quantities of coculus indicus berries, lings on the ligli-way, is sentenced to death; the seeils of tansy are frequently vllered for as well as of black extract, imported into while he who distributes a slow poison to a sale, or a mixture of both. this country for adulterating malt liquors, are whole community, escapes impunished. A great many of the essential oils obtained
It forms a considerable branch of commerce in the hands of a few brokers :
Thus devoted to disease by baker, 1quently so much adulterated, that it is not
from the more expensive spices, are freyet, singular as it may seein, no inquiry ap- brewer, grocer, &c. the physician is easy to meet with such as are at all fit for pears to have been hitherto made by the offi- called to our assistance ; but here again use : nor are these adulterations easily discers of the revenue repecting its application. the pernicious system of frauil, as it coverable. Many other substances employed in the has given the blow, steps in to defeat
Most of the arrow-root, the fecula of the adulteration of beer, ale, and spirituous the remedy.
Maranta arudinaeea, sold by drnggists, is a liquors, are in a similar manner intentionally
mixture of potatoe starch and arrow-root. disguised; and of the persons by whom they Nine tenths of the most potent drugs and The same system of adulteration extends are purchased, a great number are totally chemical preparations used in pharmacy, are to articles used in various trades and manuunacquainted with their nature or compo- vended in a sophisticated state by dealers who factures. For instance, linen tape, and vasition.
would be the last to be suspected. It is well rious other household commodities of that An extract, said to be innocent, sold in known, that in the article of Peruvian bark, kind, instead of being manufactured of linen casks, containing from half a cwt. to five there is a rariety of species inferior to the thread only, are made up of linen and cotton. cut by the brewers' druggists, under the genuine; that too little discrimination is ex- Colours for painting, not only those used by name of bittern, is composed of calcined ercised by the collectors of this precious inc- artists, such as ultramarine *, carmine t, anil sulphate of iron (copperas), extract of coculus dicament; that it is carelessly assorted, aud lake ; Antwerp blues, chrome yellow l!, indicus berries, extract of quassia, and Spa- is frequently packed in green hides; that and Indian ink ; but also the coarser conish liquorice.
inuch of it arrives in Spain in a half-decayed lours used by the common house-paiuter are During the long period devoted to the state, inixed with fragments of other rege- more or less adulterated. Thus, of the latpractice of my profession, I have had abun- tuliles and various extraneous substances; ter kind, white lead ** is mixed with carbodant reason to be convinced that a vast num- and in this state is distributed throughout nate or suphate of barytes ; vermilion tt ber of dealers, of the highest respectability, Europe.
with red lead. have vended to their customers articles ab But as if this were not a sufficient deteri Soap used in house-keeping is frequently solutely poisonous, which they themselves oration, the public are often served with a alulterated with a considerable portion of considered as harmless ; and which they would spurious compound of .nahogany saw-dust tine white clay, brought from St. Stephens, not have offered for sale, had they been ap- and oak wool, ground into powder mixed in Cornwall. In the manufacture of printing prised of the spurious and pernicious nature with a proportion of good quinquina, and paper, a large quantity of plaster of Paris of the compounds, and of the purposes sold as genuine bark powder.
is added to the paper stuff, to increase the to which they were destined.
Every cheinist knows that there are mills weight of the manufactured article. The The baker (he continues) asserts that he constantly at work in this metropolis, which selvage of cloth is often dyed with a permadoes not put aluın into liread; but he is well furnish bark powler at a much cheaper rate nent colour, and artfully stitched to the edge aware that, in purchasing a certain quantity than the substance can be procured for in its of cloth dyed with a fugitive dye. The of flour, he must take a sack of sharp white's natural state. The price of the best genuine frauds committed in the tanning of skins, (a termn given to four contaminated with a bark, upon an average, is not lcwer than and in the manufacture of cutlery and jewquantity of alum,) without wbich it would twelve shillings the pound; but iminense ellery, exceed belief. be impossible for him to produce light, white, quantities of powder bark are supplied to the and porous bread, from a half-spoiled ma-apothecaries at three or four shillings a
It is so horribly pleasant to reflect terial. pound.
how we are in this way be-swindled, The wholesale mealman frequently pur It is also notorious that there are manu-be-trayed, be-drugged, and be-devilled, chases this spurious commodity, which facturers of spurious rhubarb powder, ipe that we are almost angry with Mr. Acforms a separate branch of business in the cacuanha powder, James's powder, and cum for the great service he has done hands of certain individuals,) in order to en- other simple and compound inedicines of the community by opening our eyes, at able himself to sell his decayed and half- great potency, who carry on their diabolical the risk of shutting our mouths for ever. spoiled flour.
trade on an amazingly large scale. Indeed, Other individuals furnish the baker with the quantity of medical preparations thus so
Genuine ultramarine should become deprived alum mixed up with salt, under the obscure phisticated exceeds belief. Cheapness, and of its colour when thrown into concentrated denomination of stuff. There are wholesale not genuineness and excellence, is the grand nitric acid; manufacturing chemists whose sole business desideratum with the principled dealers in
+ Genuine carminc should be totally soluble is to crystallisc alumn, in such a form as wtll «rugs and medicines.
in liquid ammonia. adapt this salt to the purpose of being mixed
Genuine madder and carmine lakes should Those who are familiar with chemistry be totally soluble by boiling in a concentrated in a crystalline state with the crystals of com- may easily convince themselves of the exist solution of soda or potash. mon salt, to disguise the character of the ence of the fraud, by subjecting to a che Ś Genuine Antwerp blue should not become compound. The mixture called stuff, is nical examination cither "spirits of harts- deprived of its colour when thrown into liquid composed of one part of alum, in minute horn, magnesia, calcined magnesia, calomel, chlorine. crystals, and three of common salt. In or any other chemical preparation in general Il Genuine chrome yellow should not effermany other trades a similar inode of proceed- demand.
vesce with nitric acid. ing prerails.-Potatoes are soaked in water Indeed, some of the most common and I The best indian ink breaks splintery, with to augment their weight.
cheap drugs do not escape the alulterating a smooth glossy fracture, and feels soft, and not saries of life, being reduced tų systematic of buckthorn, for example, instead of being soluble in nitric acid, and the solution should
The practice of sophisticating tlie neces- hand of the unprincipled druggist. Syrup gritty, when rubbed against the teeth.
the buckthorn and blackberry bearing alder, it should not impart a red colour to spirit of. It is really astonishing that the penal law and of the dogherry tree, inay be seen puh. wine, when digested with it.
Ilis account of water is so fearful, that in part the canse of the putrefaction which | kinds of damaged foreign wheat, and other we see there is no wisdom in the well; it is well known to undergo at sea, and of cereal grains mixed with thein in grinding and if we then fly to wine, we find, from the carburetted and sulphuretted hydrogen the wheat into flower. In this capital, no his annlysis, that there is no truth in gases which are evolved from it. Then a fever than sis distinct kin Is of wheuten flour
wooden cask is opened, after being kept a are brought into market. They are called that liquid : bread turns out to be a month or two, a quantity of carburettel fine fiour, seconds, midellings, tine middlings, cruich to help us onward to the grave, and sulphuretted hydrogen escapes, and the coarse middlings, and twenty-penny flour. instead of the staff of life ; in porter water is so black and offensive as scarcely to Common garden beană, and pease, are also there is no support, in cordials no con- le borne. Upon rucking it off, however, | frequently ground up among the London solation ; in almost every thing poison, into large earthen vessels, and exposing it to bread flour. and in scarcely any medicine, cure. But the air, it gradually deposits a quantity of From experiments, (continues the author,
black slimy mud, becomes clear as crystal, after describing the process of baking at we proceed to particulars.
and reinarkably sweet and palatable. -lengt!) in which I have been employer), with WATER.-It is to the presence of common It might, at first sight, be expected that the assistance of skilful bakers, I ain authoair and carbonic acid gas that common water the water of the Thaines, after having re-rised to state, that without the a'ldition of owes its taste, and many of the good effects ceived all the contents of the sewers, drains, alum, it does not appear possible to make which it produces on animals and vegetables. and water courses of a large town, should white, light, and porous bread, such as is Spring water, which contains more air, has acquire thereby such impregnation with fo- used in this metropolis, unless the four be a more lively taste than river water. reign matters, as to become very impure; of the very best quality.
Hence the insipid or vapid taste of newly but it appears, from the most accurate ex Another substance employed by frauditboiled water, from which these gases are experiments that have been made, that those lent bakers, is subcarbonate of ammonia. peller. ; fish cannot live water deprived of kinds of impurities have no perceptible in- liith this salt, they realise the important those elastic Anids.
Auence on the salubrious quality of a mass consideration of producing light and porous 100 cubic inches of the New River water, of water so immense, and constantly kept bread, froin spoiled, or what is technically with which part of this metropolis is sup; in motion by the action of the tides. called sour flour. This salt, which becomes plied, contains 2,25 of carbonic acid, and Some traces of animal matter may, how- wholly converted into a gaseous stite during 1,25 of common air. The water of the river ever, be detected in the water of the Thames; the operation of baking, causes the dough Thames contains rather a larger quantity of for if nitrate of lead be dropperl into it, “ you to swell up into air bubbles, ivhich carry becommon air, and a smaller portion of car- will find that it becomes milky, and that a fore them the stiff dough, and thus it renders bonic acid.
white powiler falls to the bottoin, which dis- the dough porous; the salt itself is, at the Rain water collected with every precau- solves without effervescence in nitric acid. same time, totally volatilise:l during the opetion as it descends from the clouds, and at It is, therefore, (says Dr. Thomson) a com- ration of baking. Thus not a restige of cara distance from large towns, or any other bination of oxide of lead with some animal bonate of ammonia remains in the bread. ohject capable of impregnating the atmos- matter."
This salt is also largely employed by the bisphere with foreign matters, approaches more nearly to a state of puri:y than perhaps cellent observations on the various
There are a great many other ex
cuit and ginger-bread bakers.
Potatoes are likewise largely, and perhaps any other natural water. 'Ever collected
constantly, useil by fraudulent bakers, as a under these circumstances, however, it in- sorts of water, and the modes of con
cheap ingredient, to enhance their protit. variably contains at portion of common air veying and preserving them for use : The potatoes being boiled, are triturated, and carbonic acil gas. The specific gravity it appears generally that leaden pipes passed through sieve, and incorporated of rain water scarcely differs from that of and cisterns, and copper vessels are with the dough by knea:ling. This adulterdistilled water ; and from the minute por- highly dangerous; but we must refer ation does not materially injure the bread. tions of the foreign ingredients which it gene. I to the book for the details.
The bikers assert, that the bad quality of rally contains, it is very soft, ami admirably
BREAD. Ve have already given a
the four renders the addition of potatoes ad. a lapted for many culinary purposes, and various processes in different manufactures taste of this subject, but the adulteration vantageous as well to the baker as to the
purchaser, and that without this admixture and the arts.
of so' important a necessary, demands in the manufacture of bread, it would be Some rivers, however, that do not take further notice.
impossible to carry on the trade of a baker. their rise from a rocky soil, and are indeed at This is one of the sophistications of the But the grievance' is, that the same price is first consiilerably charged with foreign mat- articles of fool most commonly practised in taken for a potatoe loaf, as for a loaf of geter, during a long course, even over a richly this metropolis, where the goodness of bread ruine bread, though it in ust cost the baker cultivated plain, become remarkably pure as is estimated entirely by its whiteness. It is less. to suline contents ; but often fouled with therefore usual to add à certain quantity of I hare witness, that fire bushels of iour, inud containing much animal and vegetable alum to the dough; this improves the look three ounces of alum, six pounds of salt, anatter, which are rather suspended than held of the bread very much, and renders it whiter one bushel of potatoes boiled into a stiff in true solution. Such is the water of the and firmer. Gool, white, and porous bread, paste, and three quarts of yeast, with the river Thames, which, taken up at London at may certainly be inanufactured from gool requisite quantity of water, produce a white, low water mark, is very soft and goord; and, wheaten flour alone; but to produce the de- light, and highly palatable bread. after rest, it contains but a very small por- grec of whiteness renderer indispensable by Such are the artifices practised in the tion of any thing that could prove pernicious, the caprice of the consumers in London, it preparation of bread t. or imperle any manufacture. It is also ex- is necessary (unless the very best flour is em Wine. It is sufficiently obvious, that cellently fitted for sea-store; but it then un- ployed), that the dough should be bleached; few of those commodities, which are the obdergoes a remarkable spontaneous change, and no substance has hitherto been found to jects of cominerce, are adulterated to a when preserved in wooden casks. No water answer this purpose better than alum. greater extent than wine. All persons mocarried to sea becomes putril sooner than Without this salt it is impossible to make derately conversant with the subject, are that of the Thames.
bread, from the kind of four usually em- aware, that a portion of alum is added to Whoever will consider the situation of the ployed by the Londo:1 bakers, so white, as young and ineagre reil wines, for the pur; ; Thames, and the immense population along that which is commonly sold in the metro- pose of brightening their colour; that Brazil its banks for so inany miles, must at once polis.
wood, or the husks of eklerberries and bilperceive the prodigious accumulation of The best flour is mostly used by the bisaniinal matters of all kinds, which by means cnit bakers and pastry-cooks, and tlic infe + There are instances of convictions on reof the cominon sewers constantly make their rior sorts in the inaking of breasl. The cord, of bakers having used g,psum, chalk, and way into it. These matters are, no doubt, bakers' flour is very otten made of the worst pipe clay, in the multiture vi bread.
herries $, are employed to impart a deep / wine is hy some preparations of lead, which The statute prohibits the brewer from rich purple tint to red Port of a pale, faint possess the property of stopping the progress using any ingredients in his brewings, excolour; that gypsum is used to render of acescence of wine, and also of rendering cept malt and hops ; but it too often hapclously white wines transparent; that an ad- white wines, when muddy, transparent. I pens that those who suppose they are drinkditional astringeney is imparted to immature have good reason to state that lead is certain ing a nutritious beverage, inade of these inred wines by means of oak-wood saw-ly employed for this purpose. The effect is gredients only, are entirely deceived. The dust, and tắe husks of filberts ; and that a very rapid; and there appears to be no other beverage may, in fact, he neither inore nor mixture of spoiled foreign and home-made method known, of rapidly recovering ropy less than a compound of th:e most deleteriwines is converted into the wretched com- wines. Wine merchants persuade them- ous substances ; and it is also clear that all pound frequently sold in the town by the selves that the minute quantity of lead cm- ranks of society are alike exposed to the nename of genuine old Port.
ployed for that purpose is perfectly harm- farious fraud.” Various expedients are resorted to for less, and that no atoin of lead remains in the In the reign of Queen Anne, an act was the purpose of communicating particular fla- wine. Chemical analysis proves the con passeid prohibiting the use of cocculus inclivours to insipid wines. Thus a nully flavour trary; and the practice of clarifying spoiled cus, or any other unwholesome ingredients is produced by bitier almonds ; factitious white wines by means of lead, must be pro- in brewing ; but it was not till our time that Port wine is flavoured with a tincture drawn nounced as highly deleterivus.
the adulteration of this beverage became so from the seeds of raisins; and the ingre Lead, in whatever state it be taken into general and pernicious. dients employed to form the bouquet of the stomach, occasions terrible diseases ; • 'The fraud of imparting to porter and high-flavoured wincs, are sweet-brier, oris- and wine, adulterated with the minutest ale an intoxicating quality by narcotic subroot, clary, cherry laurel water, and elder- quantity of it, becomes a slow poison. The stances, appears to have flourisheil during the fiowers.
merchant or dealer who practises this dan- period of the late French war : for, if we The flavouring ingredients usel by ma- gerous sophistication, adds the crime of examine the importation lists of drugs, it nufacturers, may all be purchased by those murder to that of fraud, and deliberately will be noticed that the quantities of cocdealers in wine who are initiated in the scatters the sceds of discase and death culus indicus imported in a given time prior mysteries of the trade; and even a manu- among those consumers who contribute to to that period, will bear no comparisun with script receipt book for preparing them, his emolument.
the quantity imported in the same space of and the whole mystery of managing all sorts of wines, may be obtained on payment
Perhaps the following extract on this
time during the war, although an additional of a considerable fea. subject will convey information to the has been the amount brought into this coun
duiy was laid upon this commodity. Such The sophistication of wine with sub- majority of our readers, though uncon- try in five years, that ii fur exceeds the stances not absolutely noxious to health, is nected with the poisoning practice. quantity iinported during tielve years ancarried to an enormous extent in this metro When the must is separated from the husk terior to the above epoch. The price of this polis. Many thousand pipes of spoiled of the red grape before it is fermented, the drug has risen within these ten years froin cyder are annually hrought hither from the wine has liitle or no colour: these are called two shillings to seven shillings the pound. country, for the purpose of being converted white wines. If, on the contrary, the husks “ It was at the period to which we have into factitious Port wine. The art of manu are allowed to reinain in the must while the alluded, that the preparation of an extract facturing spurious wine is a regular trade of fermentation is going on, the alcohol dis- of cocculus indicus first appeared, as a new great extent in this metropolis.
solves the colouring matter of the husks, and salealle cominoslitv, in the price-currents of The particular and separate departinent the wine is colored : such are called red breters-druggists. It was at the same time, in this factitious wine trade, called crusting, wines. Ilence white wines are often pre- also, that a Vr. Jackson, of notorious mecousists in lining the interior surface of pared from red grapes, the liquor being mory, fell upon the islea of brewing, beer cnnyty wine bottles, in put, with a red crust drawn oti' before it has acquired the red co- from various drugs, without any malt and of super-tartrate of potash, by suffering a lour ; for the skin of the grape only gives hops. This clicu.ist did not turn brewer satura ed hot solution of this salt, coloured the colour.
hinself; but he struck out the more prored with a decoction of Brazil-wood, to crys All wines (besides brandy, or alcohol,) fitable trade of teaching his mystery to the talize within then; and after this simula- contain also a free acid ; hence they turn brewers for a handsoine fee. From that tion of maturity is perfected, they are filled blue tinetare of cabbage
, red. The acid time forwards, written directions, and rewith the compound called Port wine. found in the greatest abundunce in grape ceipt-books for using the chemical prepara
Other artisans are regularly employed in wines, is tartaric acid. Every wine contains tions to be substituted for malt and hops, staining the lower extremities of boitle-corks likewise a portion of supertartrate of potash, were respectively sold; and many adepts with a fine red colour, to appear, on being and extractive matter, derived froin the soon afterwards appeared every where, to drawn, as if they had been long in contact juice of the grape. These substances de instruct brewers in the nefarious practice, with the vinc.
posit slowly in the vessel in which they are first pointed out by Mr. Jackson. From The preparation of an astringent extract, I kept
. To this is oiving the improvement of that time, also, the fraternity of brewers' 10 produce, from spoiled home-marie und wine from age. Those wines which effer- chemists took its rise. They made it their foreign wines, a genuine old Port,” by vesce or froth, when poured into a glass, chief business to send travellers all over the mere udinixture; or to impart to a weak contain also carbonic acid, to which their country with lists and samples exhibiting vine a rough austere taste, a fine colour, briskness is owing. The peculiar favour the price and quality of the articles manuand a peculiar flavour ; forms one branch of and odour of different kinds of wines pro- factured by them for the use of brewers the business of particnlar wine coopers: bably depend upon the presence of a volatile only. Their trade spread far and wide, but while the melloning and restoring of spoiled oil, so sinall in quantity that it cannot be it was anongst the country brewers chiefly white wines, is the sole occupation of men separated.
that they found the most customers; and who are called refiners of urine. Casks are crusted as well as bottles ; beer, we learn that we run still greater tors, on whose veracity I can rely, that the
Beer. If from wine we descend to as I am assured by some of these opera
it is amongst thein, up to the present day, butrisks.
greatest quantities of unlawful ingredients The most dangerous adulteration of “ Malt liquors, and especially porter, the are sold.”
The author rclates the origin and progress Dried biiberries are imported from Ger. favourite beverage of the inhabitants of Lonmaay, under ine fallacious name of burry-dye. don, and of other large towns, is amongst of Porter brewing, and gives a curious ac
* Sawdust for this purpose is chiefly supplied those articles, in the manufacture of which count of the “ Entire Butt Beer,” as it by the ship-builders, and forms a regular article the greatest frauds are frequently commit is called From observing this “ Entire” on of commerce of the brewers' drugzists. ted.
all publicans signs, one would fancy that it was the ne plus isltra of admirable porter !
“It consists of some beer brewed ex-lel, at first, as minor crimes practised by to it a tincture of grains of paradise and pressly for the purpose of keeping : it like- fraudulent brewers, when compared with the Guinea pepper. These substances impart to irise contains a portion of returns from pub- methods employed by them for rendering weak brandy or rum, an extremely hot and licans ; a portion of beer from the bottoms of beer noxious to health by substances abso- pungent taste. vats; the beer that is drawn off from the lately injurious.
Brandy and rum is also frequenily sopipes, which convey the beer from one vat to “ 'To increase the intoxicating quality of phisticate with British molasses, or sugaranother, and froin one part of the premises beer, the deleterious vegetable substance, spirit, coloured with burnt sugar. to another. This weer is collected and put called cocculus indicus, and the extract of The flavour which characterises French into vats. Mr. Barclay also states that it this poisonous berry, technically called brandy, and which is owing to a small contains a certain portion of brown stout, black extract, or, by some, hard multum, are portion of a peculiar essential oil contained which is twenty shillings a barrel dearer employed. Opium, tobacco, mux vomica, in it, is imitated by distilling British molasses than common beer; and some bottling beer, and extract of poppies, have also been used. spirit over wine lees * ; but the spirit, prior which is ten shillings a barrel dearer *; and “ This fraud constitutes by far the most to being distilled over wine lees, is previousthat all these beers, united, are put into censurable offence committed by unprinci- ly deprived, in part, of its peculiar disagreevats, and that it depends upon various cir- pled brewers : and it is a lamentable re-able tlavour, by rectification over fresh-burnt cumstances, how long they may remain in fiection to behold so great a number of charcoal and quicklime. Other brandy merthose vatz before they become perfectly brewers prosecuted and convicted of this chants employ a spirit obtained from raisin bright. When bright, this beer is sent out crime; nor is it less deplorable to find the wine, which is sutiered to pass into un incito the publicans, for their entire boer, and names of druggists, eminent in trade, im- pierit ascescency. The spirit thus procured there is sometimes a small quantity of mild plicated in the fraud, hy selling the unlaw- partakce strongly of the flavour which is chabect mixed with it.
ful ingredients to brewers for fraudulent racteristic of foreign brandy. “ The present entire beer, therefore, is a purposes."
“ Oak saw-dust, and a spirituous tincture very heterogeneous mixture, composed of That a minute portion of an unwhole- of raisin stunes, are likewise used to impart all the waste and spoiled beer of the pub- some ingredient, daily taken in beer, cannot to new brandy and run a ripe taste, resemlicans—the bottoms of butts--the leavings fail to be productive of mischief, admits of bling brandy or rum long kept in oaken of the pot3---the drippings of the machines no doubt; and there is reason to believe that casks, and a somewhat vily consistence, for drawing the beer-the remnants of beer a small quantity of a narcotic substance (and so as to form a durable froth at its suriace, that lay in the leaden pipes of the brewery, cocculus indicus is a powerful narcotic), when strongly agitated in a vial. The cowith a portion of brown stout, bottling beer, Jaily taken into the stomach, together with louring substances are burnt sugar, or moand mild beer."
an intoxicating liquor, is highly inore efii- lasses ; the latter gives to imitative brandy a Büt disagreeable as this, the best, is, cacious than it would be without the liquor. luscious taste, and fulness in the mouth. there is below the lowest depth a lower still. The effect may be gradual ; and a strong These properties are said to render it parti
“A more casy, expeditions, and econo-constitution, especially if it be assisted with cularly fit for the retail London customers. mical method has been discovered to convert constant and hard labour, may counteract “ The following is the method of comany sort of beer into entire beer, merely by the destructive consequences perhaps for pounding or making up, as it is technically the admixture of a portion of sulphuric acid many years ; but it never fails to shew its called, brandy + for retail : An imitation of the age of eighteen months baneful effects at last. Independent of this,
Gallons. is thus produced in an instant. This pro- it is a well-established fact, that porter “ To ten puncheons of brandy 1031 cess is technically called to bring beer for- drinkers are very liable to apoplexy and Add flavoured raisin spirit
118 ward, or to make it hard.
palsy, without taking this narcotic poison.” Tincture of grains of paradise “ The practice is a bad one. The
2 ine, old, or entire beer, of the honest add, that many other vile ingredients, worin. Spirit of Almond cakes brewer, is quite a different compound; it wood, quassia, capsicum, grains of paradise, has a rich, generous, full-bodied taste, &c. are used for similar purposes, and defy
1207 without being acid, and a vinous odour : chemical skill to detect them; and, finally, “ Add also 10 handfuls of oak saw-dust; but it inay, perhaps, not be generally known, that even the froth or cauliflower head, is and give it complexion with burit sugar." that this kind of beer always affords a less produced by a deleterious mixture called Arrack is imitated by adding a small quanproportion of alcohol than is produced from beer-lıcading,” composed of common green tity of pyroligncous acid, and some flower mild beer. The practice of bringing beer vitriol, (sulphate of iron), alum, and salt. or acid of benzoe to rum; and gin is docforward, it is to be understood, is resorted Tea. This substance has been so fully tored in a variety of fraudulent ways, which to only by fraudulent brewerat.
before the public of late, that we shall not often render it expedient to fine it with a “It, on the contrary, the brewer has enter into Mr. Accum's details, founded on solution of sub-acetate of lead-a practice, too large a stock of old beer on his hands, the exainination of Twenty-seven samples of highly dangerous, because part of the recourse is had to an opposite practice of imitation leaves !!!
sulphate of lead produced, remains dissolved converting stale, half-spoiled, or sour beer, “ All the samples of spurious green tea (he in the liquor, which it thus renderà poisoninto mild heer, by the simple admixture of tells us) (nineteen in number) which I have ous. Unfortunately, this method of clarilyan alkali, or an alkaline earth. Oyster-shell examiner, were coloured with carbonate of ing spirituous liquors, I have good reason to powder and subcarbonate of potash, or copper (a poisonous substance), and not by believe, is more frequently practised ihan soda, are usually employed for that purpose. means of verdigrise, or copperas ". the preceding method, because its action is These substances neutralise the excess of CoFres, is counterfeited to an equal ex more rapid; and it imparts to the liquor a acid, and render sour beer somewhat pala- tent, principally by means of pigeon's beans fine complexion, or great refractive poser; table. By this process the beer becomes and peas.
hence some vestiges of lead may often be very liable to spoil.”
Respecting Spirituous Liquons there detected in malt spirit. One would think that this were are some interesting facts. Besides the “ The weakened spirit is then sweetened enough ; but no !
tricks playcd on the subject of Proof with sugar, and, to cover the raw taste of “ These sophistications may be consider
“The mode of judging by the taste of the malt spirit, a false strength is given to spirituous liquors is deceitful. A false
* Wine lees are impor.ed in this rouotry for Mr. Barclay has not specified the relative strength is given to a weak liquor, by infusing that purpose : they pay the same dut; as foproportions of brown stout and of bottling beer in it acrid vegetable substances, or by avliling reign wines. which are introduced at such an augmentation of
+ This operation forms part of the business схренсе.
Mr. Tvining, an eminent ten merchant, as- of the so-called brewers' driggisis. It formas the + Mr. Child. in his Treatise on Brewing, p. 23, serts, that the leaves of spurious ten are boiled article in their l'rice-Currents, called :,'out for directs, to make new beer older, use oil of vitriol. in a copper, with copperas and sheep's dung.