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601 every scene. Denias was a spirited by the parent, not by the boy; and performance throughout; he proved that the oath taken by the boy does himself secundus nullius; “it could
not relate to those expences. He not be surpassed on the legitimate gives the oath to be taken by every Stage.”—(Herald Dec. 2.) Mitin's boy in these words; “ Ego, in Colgentleness, contrasted with bis que legium Sanctæ Mariæ prope Wintorulant brother in the various scenes, niam admissus, juro, quod non habeo shared abundance of applause. Mr. aliquid de quo mibí constat, unde Jeffreys, as Syrus, both sober and possum expendere annuatiin ultra drunk, most ably pourtrayed the cun- quinque inarcas Sterlingorum." He ning disposition of the servant. Es- then interprets these words, not accbious, by G. A. Legge, and Sandio, cording to Mr. Brougham's interpretby Sterky, were well performed ; and ation, - I have not 31. 68. 8d. a year indeed it is only justice to say, every
to spevd;" for that probably, says character in this play was inimita- this gentleman, many of the scholars tively well done, and they duly re- have from the liberality of their ceived their quantum of approbation, friends ; but I have not uny property, so deservedly showered on them. any income which I can so call my
Former Dramatis Personce, I am own, as to be able to spend from it sure, will read this with pleasure, as yearly ulove the sum of 5 märks. it will recall to their recollections the He says (p. 37, 38, note), taking into inany beautiful lines of Terence, as consideration the relative value of well as their compeers will be de. money at the Founder's time, and the lighted to learn their quondam cha- present, 31. 68. 8d. io the former, is racters have been well sustained in equal to 601. now; and that, agreeable
v this recent representation, which does
to the intention of the Founder, a the highest credit both to the mas. boy may now be possessed of 601. per ters and pupils. An appropriate ProJogue was well delivered by Mr. Web- That it is reasonable it should be ber, and an appropriate Epilogue by 90, perhaps no ove will have the the chief characters, Syrus, Eschinus,
snjallest doubt; but the Founder says, Demea, and Saovio*.
his Statutes are to be taken according ANTIQUUS WESTMONASTERIENSIS.
to their plain, literal, and grammati
cal sense and understanding. What is Mr. URBAN,
Dec. 20. the plain, literal, and grammatical
sense of the words to which the boy Broughain has been in the in. is compelled to swear? Will a boy vestigation of abuses in Public Schools of that age comprehend a learned and Charities, placed as it now is in disquisition on the relatire value of the hands of able men who will enter inoney, by which 31. 6s. 8d. is supcalmly into the business, much good posed to mean 601.: Will a boy who may be expected to arise from its never returos to school after the va. being agitated.
cation without five guineas (perhaps But there is a circumstance at Wig- much more) in his pocket, take this chester School, which seems very se
oath according to ibe plain literal riously to call for an alteration in the grammatical sense of the words, with Statutes.
a clear conscience ? Is it not one Mr. Brougham says (in a Letter to part of the master's duty to inculcate Sir Samuel Romilly, p. 52), the boys,
on his scholars the solemn oature of when they, attain the age of fifteen,
an oath ? solemnly swear that they have not It appears then to me, Mr. 'Urban, 31. 68. 8d. 2-year (5 marks) to spend ; who am a plain mad, that this matyet (says Mr. B.) they pay 10 guineas ter calls for the most serious atten. a year to the master, and the average
tion. If the Statutes are in some of their other expences exceeds 501. particulars construed very properly The gentleman who has addressed
with a view to the alteration of times a Letter to Mr. Brougham, in vindi
and circumstances, why should not cation of Wiuchester School, says,
tbis oath be either wholly omitted, that the payment to the Master, and
or at least extended in plain literal the other School expences, are paid grammatical words, according to * See the Prologue and Epilogue in the
what is said to be the trge meaning present Number, p. 617.
of it? Gent. Mag. Suppl. LXXXIX. Part II.
If this cannot be done without tbe Mr. URBAN,
Dec. 13. aid of an Act of Parliament, can we MIDST the prevailing disquiedoubt the readiness of the Legislature to relieve the boys from the sional Committee for Encourage. cruel situation of being obliged to ment of Industry and Redaction of take an oath which, according to the Poor's Rates, with pleasure commuplain literal grammatical sense of the nicates to its friends and the commuwords, cannot be taken with a safe nily, that ibat most important remedy, conscience, or being expelled the the increase of employment for the School?
A. P. Poor, is daily developing.
The occupying portions of land, as Mr. URBAN,
Dec. 9. near as they are to be met with, for AVING a considerable quantity the employment of the Poor of large
and populous places, and where the pation, the whole of which is seen cultivation of that valuable article from the windows of my house; it is flax shall be prominently altended to, natural to suppose, I could wish it lo cannot be too urgently recommeoded; be in a respectable state of cultiva. while the encouragement afforded to tion, and to assume (for the grealer these views by the Legislature in the part of the year) as verdant an ap- Jast Session, inay be contemplaled as pearance as possible.
an earnest of its acquiescence in such Ground bones have been recom- measures as shall enable the indusmended to me as a proper manure, trious classes, through their own ex. but as I am totally unacquainted with ertions, to emerge from a dependance the process of grinding them, and the on parochial aid. necessary quantity per acre for mea- To affect these important objects, dow or pasture land, I again repeat, numerous judicious details have been I shall esteem it a favour, if any of agitated ; ihe following may perhaps your Readers will answer the follow- be noticed as an efficacious mode:ing questions: What apparatus is ne- That Commissioners may be appointcessary to grind the bones? where ed, say of the Board of Agriculture, the same can be procured, and the and Local Commissioners, composed probable expence? Must the opera- of Magistracy, &c. appointed by Huntion of grinding the bones be per- dreds or other divisions or districts, formed by the aid of water or a who shall be empowered tv erect neborse?
cessary abodes, and employ the ubocAre the bones required to be grossly cupied, under saitable Superintendpowdered, or otherwise? what quan- aois. That the funds necessary for tity required per acre for grass land ? effecting the saine may be taken from the nature of land most suitable a fund similar to the loans grapted to (whether wet or dry) for this species facilitate the carrying on
public of manure? Lastly, whether bone- works, the security of which to be dust is esteemed a permanent ma- the Parish Rates. pure ?
Thus, while acting on the truest 1 conceive, Mr. Urban, it has al. political economy, an enormous burways been a desideratum in agricul. then of Poors' Rates will, at an early ture, to have the grass lands, the period, be removed; the avenues of whole of the year, as green as possi- domestic comfort and domestic trade ble, especially when in sight of a re- re-opened, and the revenue be upheld spectable residence ; but I am sorry by ihe participation of every class ; to say mine are now almost as white the fabrick of our civil society will be as the paper I write upon. Should placed on the most firm and stable any of your friends give themselves basis; and the security, happiness, and the trouble to take the above request prosperity of our empire, under Diof mine into their consideration, and vine Providence, be re-assured. should not conceive bone dust as Yours, &c.
BENJAMIN WILLS. likely to answer my purpose, perhaps they would have the goodness to re- Mr.URBAN, Hackney, Dec. 12. commend some other species of ma- F we reflect on the long struggles pure as more likely to be of service. we have as a Nation maintained Yours, &c. LANCASHIRE. for so many years, with the experdi
PART II.). Increasing Knowledge of Geography & Navigation. 603 ture of blood and treasure occasioned duced at the levée of Don Gulver, tbereby, it will, no doubt, produce Goveroor of Louisiana, of sceing á painful sensations to our minds ; but picture illustrative of that conduct, we bave, notwithstanding, great rea- afterwards adopted by two powers son for exultation, to find that we to humble us, which has so comare so honourably and advantageously pletely recoiled on themselves ; --recovered from them, and are placed whilst waiting to be presented, my ia so enviable a situation amongst the eye caught a painting, exhibiting an nations of Europe ; it is a subject for island with the setting sun, a: fleet at inexhaustible satisfaction. Although anchor close “in shore,” with British we have been so occupied as to call colours; at a distance, “in the offing,". forth tbe energies of the nation, yet were two fleets, distinguished by their that has not been entirely the occu- colours, and which I could not miss pation of our time, thoughts, or ta- take; in the fore-ground were the lents, for great have been our ad- Genius of France and Spain, with vances in various interesting subjects, their shields of arms, viewing with but done more than by an increasing great complacency the objects
before knowledge of Geography and Navi- them.--" but so did not I.” To pregation. The immortal Cook, under serve a strict neutrality, therefore, is the auspices of our excellent and re- at present the just, the exact, the gevered Moparch, first led the way by nerous line of proceeding; nothing opening to us new sources, fresh in. more or less can be expected from a formation, and improved nautical free Government and a generous science; he discovered to our view a people. Southern Archipelago, and proved But to return to our nautical purthe certainty of circumnavigating lhe suits, justly availing the opportunity; globe with a healthy crew. How in- the Alceste, after landing Lord Am. teresting are his Voyages! As Island. herst on his mission to Pekin, proers we feel so influenced in these pur- ceeded on a most interesting survey suits, that it cannot be surprising to of the Yellow Sea, the coasts of the find that voyages, from their earliest Corea, and that pleasing little island accounts, are read with avidity by the of “ Lewchew ;' and if it is rational greatest part of our best-informed to send missionaries to wild and unpopulation. Anson's Voyage made cultivated countries, surely we may us more particularly acquainted with suppose it may be justifiable to this the Pacific Ocean; and the animating Island, where they seem to want.norecital of Hanway first informed us thing but the pure worship of God to of the navigation of the Wolga and render them completely happy. In
, the Caspian Sea. Rapid indeed have the present instance, they are been our progress since: and the circumstanced, as to seein fit for the scenes now opening in the Southern reception of Christianity; but if such hemisphere, seem to be' unfolding an attempt was made, it must not be new ideas, new sources of commerce, by conveying the missionaries in a and a larger field for activity, exer- large ship,—that would excite suspition, and advantages arising from cion ; but by a small vessel, with but them. How far the independence of a few hands to navigate her ; then the Spanish colonies may afford an by a residence of time, and a blame. increase of commercial pursuits, is less life, it is pot improbable but good not for me to say ; the regions are effects may be produced.
The early immense ; and not only the coasts of conquerors of South America were the Pacific, but the Phillippine Islands, sometimes preceded by a Friar, with offer inconceivable prospects for com- a Cross, who expected the miserable mercial adventure. No doubt can natives to worship it instantly, and to be entertained but a strict neutrality become converts to Christianity alis the result of our councils; and po most at once.
May I not add that doubt can be entertained of the pro- we are not entirely free from being priety of them ; but there was a time implicated in weakness sometimes alin the recollection of very many of most as bad ? From what I have seen your Readers, when the mother coun- of the Aborigines of America, I cap. try of these colonies did not preserve
not but think - we must first be a neutrality towards us, and I have it manize, next civilize, and then Chris full in recollection, on being intro- tianize.
On the Extent of the Historic Rela- the categories without survilely ad
tion in discovering and marshalling hering to any system, or affectiog too the Subjects of Human Knowledge. great simplicity. --The Categories are:
The Creator, or FIRST cause: fioite® (Continued from p. 507.) matter, historised or brought out of N I
tions are comprised the whole soul endued with consciousoess of be. category; Creator, or first cause- ing and of what is within : faith, of whole and parts,-origin or SECOND
things divine : belief of exteroal exARY causes and effects-eud or mo- periences : consciousness of havings tive means resemblance-conti. or power :--with the free will to ex. guity in time and place ---modes, in- ercise it intellectually, morally, phytrinsic, and adventitious, &c. &c. 'The sically, as by our bodies : speech, the thread that combines these io one register of thought, feeling, or sufconpected term, is the historic rela. fering, and of action : uomenclature tion. It is an abridged transcript of of things internal and exteroal: the existences, an abstract of life, that is, system of kinds and classes : whole of the world. It selects the striking and parts: the conditions, modes, and points and characteristic features of accidents: quantity discrete and contruth. And a fact is as much truth tinued : duration and space : properas auy theorem in geometry. Legiti- lies, and HAVING again: SECONDARY mate poetry expresses this in a livelier causes and effects (observe that se. and more impressive manner, with condary causes are not homogeneous ybexpected coincidences of propor.
with the riRST CAUSE ; for this is tions-unison and harmony of mea
creative, and sni generis-and it is sured thought-and rythmical articu. omitted by Hume in bis category): lation. The analogy of the fact to lastly, resemblaoce and difference, the laws of the creation is cominon contiguity and distance, both in time to both poetry and narrative. And and place-analogy, taste. These are when facts are thus reduced and
the categories; and every one of these ed through the first historical pro
is historical. cess, they are capable of still further This conception of history is justiseparation and reduction-leaving out fied by the terms used in all languages some other particular, iodividual cir- to denote history: forwp-ioroga-and cumstance of person, time, and place, fotopelvhave in the autient and mostill.connected by some common ele. dern languages been used in the fol. mentary principle: and even sepa.. lowing senses_which have been held rating what cannot be separated in pure: 1. Study: curiosity: an the real existence, classifying, and quirer : investigator : inquisition : innaming each degree, division, and terrogatioo: argument: proof: a subdivision. Thus the history of witness: fidelity: covusant of a fact, inind may be considered apart from with all its circuinstances, and rela. the living body (which caonot happen tions, origio, progress, dissolution, &c. naturally in this slate of being): In 2. To put together, to build a syslike manner. the history of thought tem, to frame, to try, to put into the may be separated from the bistory of balance, to estimate, analysis, syathe moral sense of this again from thesis, to distinguish, to generalise, to the history of taste-all these from taste, to savor, to feel, to smell; sagathe bistory of speech. Number, and city, skill, science, philosophy, authoextent, and gravity, may be historised rity, a commentary, geography, chroapart from the bodies in which they dology, a naturalist, arbiter, judge. are inherent: and bodies from each 3. To commit to memory: lo no. other, as in the three kingdoms of tice, pole, signify, record, narrate, Natural History. Thus we have the reports to give an account of; to History of ETAICKS, LOGICKS, Puowrite lives, transactions, experiments, NICKS, Paysıcks, the pure and mix. observations, negociations, progress ed, MATHEMATICKS, POLITICKS, and of men and things, manners, and lanCRITICKS (la Critique): which last guages, discoveries, &c. presides over the liberal arts: and 4. To place before the eyes, to ex. ibus do we adjust the seven strings, hibit, to personify, to represent, to or chords, of human koowledge. recitem-to apologise, to write apolo. But let us, once for all, enumerate gues or circuitous and varnished es.
605 planations—and thus eren to invent And this intelligence employed upon a fable.
real existences under the above guid5. Knowledge of things human and ance is in one aspect, judgment or divine.
reason : in another, imagination : in The compositions συνιστωρ and συνισ
a third, the moral sense ; in matters
of divine communication, faith ; of Topia, mean conscious and conscious.
Nor is there any history so in. human, belief: in a sixth aspect, it is teresting, so intimate, and accessible, the social sense; and in a seventh, or so instructive, certaio, and authen- taste. The union of these (one or tic as that of one's own mind.
other of the above categories predo. The expressions of a “sound recol mioating only, according to the sublection,"
"" sane memory,”--the deri- ject), is the bistoric Relation. One vative io Latin of mens from me.
essential condition is common to all mento : the åandea of the Greek lan- these modes of intelligence (though guage, signifying truth, and com- they are commonly termed distinct pouoded from a the privative parti- able to truth. And all that genius
reflex senses), that they be conformcle, and anon oblivion-show further with its inventions can do, in science, that memory and mind are converti in the mechanical, and the fine arts ble terms. But it must be an historic
-or in calculation is only to obmemory, not a mere technical one,
serve to remember, and to record. coofined to one or two of the cate. The creativa-lhe fall of man-his gories only: History unites them all. redemption—and the future resurrec
Historic memory comprehends, !: tion, together with the existing face The existence of every thing that is of the world, are truths, or ráctshappenable. 2. Our policing it: and the production of divine energy, and 8. Our expressing or fixing it, whe, which when we philosophise, we only ther by language, or by any other consider in detail, and reduce to synniemorial sigo.
thetical order, lo comprehend it his Every thing - Life, Revelation, torically. kaowledge, the first articulate speech, It is ihis high relation that enables are derivative and commuoicaled,
us to give simplicity and unity la They are linked together in a grand number - upiformity to variety-lo historical chaio-a golden one that understand things, in their utmost descends from Heaven, not the iron comprehension and extent; it excites or leaden one of the Materialists. and informs our curiosity, sagacity,
The lives of illustrious individuals, and ingeouity: this alone studies proand the story of nations, signal infoundly, and records the course of ventions and discoveries, a single things in lasting memorials, whether notable action of an individual, a cha- articulate, symbolical, or monumenracter, an art, a science, a language tal. The singleness of ils vicw enaevery one of these are only a col- bles it, with a sovereign discretion, loction, or constellation, of historical tu inarshal every thing in its place notices-gathering, knowledge inlo and in its due point of depression or new terms or distinct rasces: and elevation. It penetrates equally the may be viewed as Sigos, in the his- vast and the ininule. It forms the torical Zodiack of Time.
high road or caoal of communication Hypothetical history, in default ofbelween all the parts of knowledge. documents and records, is nothing Facts that extend over a long succesbut bistory supplied by analogy- sion of clines and ages it calls upthat is, by the proportions it bears to by the Fiat of a word—and that inall other, or similar, bistory.
stantaneously at once :- Il fixes the The analogies of the Divine will, indiscriminate and fleeting existence power, wisdom, goodness, as they ap- of a crowding and lumultuous rush of pear to us within and without; but existences, that roll through the chanabove all, the truths disclosed by the nel of time. By its electric virtue, divine utterance, as iu Scripture, are the human intelligence is transmuted at once the pole-star, the map, and into judgment, science, skill, conthe compass in all our inquiries. The science: to a semblance (a mere imcategories are the analysis of real ex- perfect semblance indeed of the reistences, relation being had to the molest analogy) of the divine omaistate of man, and human intelligence. science, omnipresence, and creative