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them in preventing anarchy and the destruction of property. His Lordship then presented the Bills for regulating the Press, and Preventing Military Training, and moved that they be read the first time.

Earl Grey protested warmly against the proposed measures, particularly that which relates to the Press, which he thought the severest blow that had for a long course of time been inflicted upon the liberty of the Press.

The Earl of Liverpool said, the peaceable and industrious part of the population were endangered and intimidated by the acts of the seditious, and they called upon Parliament for security. He denied that any of the proposed measures, with the exception of the Bill empowering Magistrates to search for arms, invaded any of the rights and privileges of Englishmen.

In the Commons, the same day, Lord Castlereagh addressed the House on the dangers which threatened the internal peace of the country, and explained the series of new measures by which Ministers proposed to avert them. The first would relate to tumultuous meetings. The second related to training and exercising. The third measure was to give extraordinary powers of seizing arms. The fourth was to give speedy means of prosecuting Misdemeanors; and the fifth would relate to the Press, to restrain, as far as possible, the publication of treasonable and blasphemous writings. As to the first measure, it was clear that no government could long exist if the present system of popular meetings were to go on all over the country, keeping up an incessant state of alarm, occasioning continual suspensions of business, and perpetually harassing the Magistracy, military, and all the loyal part of the community. He denied that such meetings as those held at Manchester, and in other places, were legal; but if they were, it was high time that they should be prevented from being so any longer. 'The Bill which he had to propose on this subject would not affect any county or corporation meeting, or generally any called by the Magistrates, but it was intended that all others should be held only on a notice signed by seven inhabitant householders of the parish or township where it was called. It would be made a misdemeanor for an individual, not within the parish, to call a meeting of the inhabitants. In 30 parishes the population exceeded the number of 20,000, and it was intended, in such cases, to divide the population, so that no meeting should take place where the population exceeded 10,000 persons. By such regulation two

objects would be gained: the meeting would be really deliberative; and numerous meetings would be prevented. Those men, also, who make a trade of travelling about the country, and proclaiming grievances, would be stopped in their career. At present a number of simultaneous meetings were frequently assembled. In order to counteract such a practice, it was his intention to propose to the House that a notice of six days, previous to any meeting, should be given to a Magistrate, who, within two days from the notice, might alter the time and place of the meeting, provided the time did not exceed the period originally fixed by more than four days. It was also intended to strip these meetings of their warlike appearance, and that none should be allowed to go in military array, so as to intimidate the peaceful subjects of the King. This provision would be applicable to county as well as other meetings. It was also proposed to introduce a clause against the appearance of females at those meetings, a practice unheard of till the French Revolution, when they were poured in from the markets and the brothels. All who should come armed to any such meeting would be liable to a misdemeanor, by the Bill proposed to be brought in; and power would be given to the Magistrates to apprehend those who should so offend. In the case of strangers crowding to the meeting, the Magistrate might be allowed to order them to withdraw; and in the event of the order not being obeyed, he might proclaim the meeting illegal. Such disobedience, however, was not to be made a capital but a clergyable felony. A quarter of an hour was to be allowed for strangers to withdraw, and half an hour for the meeting to disperse. On the subject of training in the night, sucb a practice was obviously contrary to all the principles of the Constitution. But it was proposed to make a distinction betwixt the party drilling and the party drilled; the former it was proposed to make a transportable offence, and the latter to be subject to fine and imprisonment. Such an enactment was to be confined, in the first instance, to the disturbed districts, and to be extended to the others, if necessary. The Noble Lord then explained the alterations proposed to be made with regard to prosecutions for Misdemeanors, and the new regulations with regard to the Press, which will be found stated in our report of the pro-, ceedings of the Upper House. It was intended that the full Newspaper Stamp Duty should attach to Political Pamphlets under two sheets. It was proposed that the new enactinents relative to the press should be permanent; some of the other measures might be temporary. He hoped

hoped that these measures, with the aetive and zealous co-operation of the sound part of the community, would be fully adequate to meet and repel the existing danger. He concluded with moving for leave to bring in a Bill for more effectually preventing seditious meetings.

Mr. Tierney denied that the papers before the House authorised such measures as those submitted to them, and had no doubt that the present laws, if duly executed, were strong enough to meet the present dangers; be condemned Ministers for not adopting a conciliating line of conduct to the people instead of resorting to force upon every occasion. Mr. T. however, seemed to be doubtful whether public meetings of the kind recently held should not be put under some regulation.

Lords Folkestone and Rancliffe, and Messrs. Brougham and Lamb, warmly opposed the measures, as subversive of the Liberty of the Press, and the rights of public meetings.

Hon. G. Bennet presented a petition from Manchester, praying for an enquiry into the proceedings of the 16th August.

A Petition was also presented from Henry Hunt, denying the truth of the allegations, contained in the papers laid upon the tables of both Houses, relative to the internal state of the country, and offering to disprove them by evidence at the bar of the House.


The Marquis of Lansdown, in a long and eloquent speech, moved for a Select Committee to enquire into the State of the Country; and more especially to the executing of the laws relating to public meetings.

The Marquis Wellesley contemplated the quietness and peaceable separation of the late Meetings with alarm, though they were praised by some Noble Lords of stronger nerves than he possessed. They peaceably met to overthrow the Constitution, and most loyally parted to meet again for the same purpose. It was to degrade the people of England to say, that these Meetings were by them. They were snares for the People of England. He had been accustomed to consider British liberty, as described in the phrase "Liberty of the Subject," which he considered to imply subjection to the Laws and Religion of the State. He, therefore, thought they should proceed to the discussiou of the Bill now before the House instead of any other inquiry.

Lord Erskine considered, that if such doctrine as that held by the Noble Marquis were received, it would depend on that House how long he continued to be what he was born-a freeman. He con

tended that the country was by no means in so alarming a state as at the time of the State Trials in 1794. When the Bills proposed to remedy the existing evils came to be discussed, he trusted he could show their Lordships the existing laws were sufficient to remove the things complained of, and to punish the guilty. The event of Carlile's trials shewed, that the present laws were amply sufficient for the punishment of offences. But since that man's trial, he (Lord E.) had seen in many shops, "Infamous conduct of the Judge; Mock Trial of Carlile,”—He wished to know if such atrocious libels had been punished; for when an individual entered into a contest with the law, he ought to be shown that the law was too strong for him. To shew a neglect of the people, and not to inquire into violence committed on them, was doing the greatest service to those persons whose wish was to corrupt the people. He thanked God that he had yet strength enough to stand up in defence of the people; and he would do so while he was able.

Lord Grenville said, every man in the country must consider that the progress of our evils had brought us into a most dangerous crisis, which he had watched so long, and for which he was so often treated as an alarmist. At no period of his life did he ever anticipate the amount of peril, which required a firm and manly effort to meet it. He was indeed anxious that Parliament should do every thing possible to alleviate those distresses, which they all must deeply lament; but he did not agree that Parliament must be blamed if it was found impossible to do so. He considered the conduct of the Manchester Magistrates not only as free from all blame, but as highly meritorious. Courts of law were open to receive well-founded complaints against the Magistrates for so doing; and, thank God, they were also open to receive the triumphant answer of those Magistrates. If there be any individuals who have contributed to increase the distress of the people, those were they who seduced the people from habits of industry. He earnestly conjured them to maintain that Constitution which they ought never to sacrifice to any fanciful or pre-conceived ideas. [This speech was followed by great applause.]

Earl Grey said, it was with pain that he found himself opposed to one whom he had been accustomed to consider as his Guide and Counsellor. But, notwithstanding this, added to an infirm state of health, he would yield to no Noble Lord in love for the Constitution, and he therefore rose to support the motion of his Noble Friend, for anxious and instant inquiry. We had sufficient law to suppress sedition and blasphemy; but he had yet to learn,

learn, that Meetings to obtain Reform in Parliament, whether to the extent of Annual Parliaments and Universal Suffrage, were illegal. He contended that the Magistrates were wrong in not preventing the meeting, if it was illegal, to assemble in military array, with banners, caps of liberty, &c. of which, according to their own evidence, they had previous information. They suffered those poor deluded persons to arrive at the meeting place; aud, before a single act of violence was committed, the cavalry advanced at a trot and a gal'op, by which, and their sabres, 7 or 8 were killed, and about 400 wounded. This, of itself, demanded inquiry. He mentioned a number of other circuinstances, such as the sharpening the swords of the cavalry, &c. as sufficient grounds of such enquiry; and that from what he had heard and read, the Magistrates were the disturbers of the public peace; and Ministers were now identifying themselves with the Magistrates.

The Earl of Liverpool had to apologize to the House for addressing them after every thing he could say had been so ably anticipated by a Noble Marquis, and the Noble Baron who spoke early in the debate. Distress had been alleged as the ground for enquiry; however that distress was to be deplored, it was connected with circumstances over which the Executive Government or Parliament had nothing to do. It grew out of our commercial relations, and prevailed in a much greater degree in America and other countries. The people ought to be told that their evils were not to be ascribed to any form of Government; and were almost entirely out of the controul of any Government.




"How few of all the ills that men en[or cure." Are those which Kings and Laws can cause sideration of Parliament; but they formAll those evils would have the fullest conquiry. He entered into an examination ed no good grounds for immediate inof the proceedings at Manchester; and contended, that from them no inquiry prehended was popular clamour, the best was necessary. If the disorder they apfriends of the country were those who would put it down; and protect the peace. able part of the community from outrage and danger.


Earl Grey explained. Earl Darnley supported the motion, and the Marquis of Lansdown very shortly replied; when the House divided-For the motion 47Against it 178.-Majority 131.

In the Commons, the same day, Lord Althorpe made his promised motion on the State of the Nation, and concluded by moving that a Select Committee be appointed to consider the papers laid before Parliament, by order of his Royal Highness the Prince Regent, and to report thereon to the House. The speakers in support were Lord Milton, Mr. Tierney, Mr. W. Lamb, Sir M. W. Ridley, Mr. Denman, the Hon. Douglas Kinnaird (his maiden speech), and Mr. Bennett (the member for Wiltshire): those against it were Lord Castlereagh, Lord Lascelles, Messrs. Bathurst, Long Wellesley, S. Wortley, Courtenay, Lawson, Mansfield, and Martin of Galway. On a division, the motion was negatived by 395 to 150, Majority 175.


The French King opened the Session of Parliament, Nov. 29, witth the customary imposing ceremonies. Reing seated on the Throne, surrounded by the Princes of his House, the Ministers, Marshals, Peers, and Deputies, with a brilliant assembly of ladies in the galleries, his Majesty delivered the speech, which is of a domestic, and in general of a satisfactory character. Plenty, he states, reigns throughout France. Agriculture and the arts, both elegant and useful, flourish. The laws are executed without difficulty. The finances are equal to the public wants. His Majesty nevertheless, from a certain uneasiness which seems to prevail throughout the Nation, suggests such a change in the constitution of the Chamber of Deputies, as shall exGENT. MAG. December, 1819.

empt it from yearly tumult and agitation, and infuse more consistency into the conduct of the State. (It is intended to make the elections septennial, and to double the present number of Deputies.) The King adds, that when he has done all this, his great work of the Charter will have been completed.-The King received a warm and affectionate reception from all ranks of his subjects during his passage from the Thuilleries, and on his entrance to and departure from the Hall. Some cries, it is reported, of Vive la Charte were mingled with those of Vive le Roi. Several new-made Peers and Deputies took the oaths after his Majesty had ceased to speak; but the Abbé Gregoire was not among them, nor did he appear in his Sovereign's presence.-The King feels himself sufficiently strong to


exercise mercy towards the exiles; and we find a long list in the French papers of the persons who had been banished, and are now permitted to return. Among these are-Grouchy, Lallemant, Drouetd'Erlon, Lefebvre, Desnouettes, Clausel, Laborde, Bertrand, Drouot, Cambrone, Lavalette, Rovigo, Soult, Vandamme, &c. The Chamber of Peers assembled, Dec. 9, and agreed upon an Address to the King, which was presented to his Majesty by a deputation of Peers the next day.

The King delivered the following an


"I am very sensible of the sentiments of the Chamber of Peers. I witness especially with the greatest satisfaction its determination to concur in my views. It is by this unity of thought and action, that we shall succeed in preserving, the country from all danger, and securing to my people that internal peace of which I felicitate myself upon having hitherto had the means of conferring upon them the enjoyment."

The Paris papers announce a circumstance of considerable interest in the proceedings of the Deputies on the 24 inst. M. Angles, the oldest member present, being called upon to act as provisional President, began to draw by ballot the names of those members who were to compose the nine bureaux of the Chamber. As fortune would have it, the second name produced from the urn was that of Count Gregoire. A rare scene of confusion followed: some called for the question of adjournment; others exclaimed that he had not taken the oaths. Count Marcellus repeatedly vociferated, "No regicides in the Chamber." The uproar was at length quieted by M. Villele; who observed that a person who had not taken the oaths, and thus qualified himself for the duties of a member, was not admissible to any of the bureaux. On this footing the question was then put, and the exclusion of Gregoire from the list of names was carried by a powerful majority.

Journals announce, that the Committee of the Chamber of Deputies, to whom was referred the consideration of the election of the notorious regicide, the Abbé Gregoire, have decided that he is not duly elected; the department which chose him not having complied with the 42d article of the Charter, which requires that a certain portion of the Members returned by every department, shall have their political domicile therein.-The Chamber confirmed this report, and the Abbé is therefore excluded. The affair produced much confusion in the Chamber.

The French ship Louise, and the Portu"guese brig Espadarte, lately arrived at Havre and Marseilles, have imported tea,

pepper, and cloves, the produce of the Brazils. SPAIN.

The Queen of Spain arrived at Madrid on the 21st of October, and the religious solemnization of her nuptials was to take place next day. On her entrance into the capital she was accompanied by the King and the Infants of Spain. The people took the horses from the carriage of the Queen at the gate of Atocha; a troop of young persons, clothed in an elegant costume, drew it to the Palace; while another troop preceded it, dancing as they advanced, to the sound of joyful music. The Queen appeared extremely gratified with these demonstrations of attachment, and evinced, in her salutatious, all that affability and goodness which public fame had previously ascribed to her. The arrival of the august party was announced by salutes of artillery and the ringing of bells.


Accounts from Germany inform us, that the Ducal Palace of Brunswick was destroyed by fire on the 2d instant; when, unhappily, some lives were lost, together with a great proportion of thearchives of the Duchy. The grand hall, superbly decorated by Buonaparte, fell a total sacrifice to the flames.

The Hanoverian Government is stated to have come to the resolution of annulling the sales of public property which were made in East Friesland by Louis Buonaparte when on the throne of Holland; but the purchasers are to be repaid their money.


The following is an extract of a letter from a respectable firm, dated Constantinople, Oct. 25 :

"On the 16th, the two elder Duzoglies were beheaded at the Seraglio gates, and two others, a brother and a cousin, hung at the door of one of their country houses on the Bosphorus. Enclosed you have a translation of the charges brought against them by the Government. On the 17th, the head of Apturaman Bey (late Direc tor of the Mint), who had been sent into exile with a pension of 30,000 piastres, was brought to town and placed by the two first-mentioned, where they reniained three days.

"On the 23d, another of the Duzoglies, who had been absent on account of bad health, was brought in, and, of course, placed in confinement. Nothing has yet been done with respect to the other parties implicated; but there can be no doubt, that as soon as everything is confessed and recovered, to which it is said they have been forced by torture, the same fate is reserved for them,


"The property found in Duzoglies' possession, and what was discovered elsewhere, exceeds credibility."

The following is a translation of the writing placed by the side of the corpse of Kirkor Duzoglie, beheaded before the great gate of the Seraglio, called "Baba Hamayun," on Saturday, the 26th of the Moon Zilkande, answering to the 16th of October, 1819:

"By the negligence and misconduct of the superintendants of the Imperial Mint, for the last three or four years, those who are hereafter named, turning their office to their private profit, and to give scope to their innate perfidy, have appropriated to themselves more than 20,000 purses of money, for which they have thus constituted themselves debtors, and have consumed that sum in building houses upon the canal and in the city, and on various other objects of luxury and ostentation; thus dilapidating the Ottoman Treasury.

"Beside what they have permitted in their own residences, they have caused Chapels to be erected in the houses of persons who belonged to them, and bringing to them Catholic Priests, they have had the audacity to exercise publicly the false religion even within the capital of the Ottoman Empire. It is then one of the Duzoglies named Kirkor, that traitor punished with death well merited, whose miserable corpse this is."

N. B. The writing placed by the side of the corpse of Serkis, second son of the family of Duzoglie, is exactly conformable to the above.


An American Journal says, "The Emperor of China, it appears, has been very much alarmed and annoyed by the appearance of a hurricane. In his Royal Gazelle, he has thought proper to censure the Astrologers belonging to his Court, for not having foretold this event in their Almanacks. His Astrologers, in reply to some queries propounded by his Majesty, declared, that this hurricane was occasioued by the dismissal of his favourite Minister. The explanation was rejected by his Majesty, as an interference with his Royal prerogative; and they received his Majesty's commands to try their hands at another interpretation of this phenomenon. The Mathematical Board presented their solutions, and stated, that if the whirlwind was accompanied with dust, it shewed that there were dissentions between the Sovereign and his Ministers. This explanation was intended, we presume, to make a whirlwind of his Majesty, and dust of his Ministers. This is the Nation whose example has been so often cited, by visionary theorists, as furnishing a proper mode for American adoption."

The Calcutta Journal says, "Several months ago, in the vicinity of Chandernagore, a female victim was immolated on the funeral pile, under circumstances peculiarly affecting. She was a young woman, who had been recently betrothed to a young man of the same town. Every thing was prepared for the celebration of the nuptials, which had been fixed for the next day; the relations of both parties had arrived from a distance to honour the marriage with their presence; and the circle of their friends already enjoyed in anticipation the festivities which the approaching day would, usher in. On the preceding evening, however, the bridegroom was taken ill of the cholera morbus, and in a few hours was a lifeless corpse. Information being conveyed of the melancholy event to the bride, she instantly declared her determination to ascend the funeral pile of her betrothed Lord: a long debate was thereon held between the relations of the bride and the Priests, respecting the legality of the act; the result of which was, that in such case the Shasters, considering the bride as bound to her husband by the vow she had taken, permitted a voluntary immolation on the funeral pile. The next day, therefore, instead of the music and joy which had been anticipated, the bride was led to the banks of the Ganges, amid the silent grief of her friends and relatives, and burnt with the dead body of her intended husband."

A new Island has been lately formed in the upper part of the Bay of Bengal, by a rapid accretion of the alluvion or soil, made along the shores of the large rivers of the Indian continent. The island is nothing at present but a sand-bank; but it is continually receiving such additions as will gradually render it a spacious tract. It was not visible four or five years ago, and it was only discovered, together with the canal, by vessels trading to Saugur, about the latter end of 1816. The situation is 21° 35' of latitude, and 88° 20′ of longitude East of Greenwich this position is precisely_that which has been indicated in the maps as the bank of Saugur, at the Eastern extremity of the upper part of the island of that name. Its formation between the mouths of the Houghly and the canal of the bay, may well enough account for its origin. There being two considerable mouths of rivers, with rapid currents rushing into the sea, both East and West, there must have long been a submarine agglomeration, which has now risen above the surface of the ocean, and must increase under the protection of the contimental lands that lie between those two arms of the Ganges.-In some parts the island is covered with the dung of birds,


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