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greatly depressed by the American War, being elegant or refined; but, on the other assumed a more flourishing aspect. His hand, he was accurate and able, although love of order, his attention to details, his somewhat voluminous. His compositions regularity and sober habits, extended from were of a miscellaneous nature, but he the Treasury to the Long-room; and all chiefly excelled when the subjects were the public Boards, were kept on the alert commerce, revenue, and finance. On all by his vigilance and industry.
these subjects he was a decided optimist. “ But his labours were not confined to “No gloomy predictions are to be found his official duties alone. Mr. Rose ex- in any of his numerous pamphlets. While Lended them to other objects, and these some public men were planting their tuo, of a most delicate and difficult oa. pillows with thorns, and commenting on ture. It was he who animated a large the decay of trade, the failure of our re. portion of the inhabitants of Westminster, sources, the miserable state of our finances, to oppose the re-election of Mr. Fox for
&c. he appears to have enjoyed all the that city ; it was he who contrived to keep golden visions, arising out of the hopes up the contest, and continue the scrutiny, of uninterrupted prosperity. The subject until all parties were wearied with the of this memoir was accustomed, in the trouble and expense. On this occasion, he worst of times, to felicitate the uation on had the celebrated John Horne Tooke for the fourishing situation of its commerce a coadjutor, of whom he conceived a high and finances; he would occasionally opinion, and was ever after accustomed compare the situation of Great Britain to speak of his taleuts and integrity with with that of all or any one of the neighrespect."
bouring kingdoms; and maintain, not with. The memoir concludes with a por. standing the pressure of the income and
other taxes, that the people of England traiture of his character, which ap
actually · reposed on a bed of roses !' Nor pears to be delineated with great cau
was he ever at a loss for a reply to those dour and impartiality.
who constantly augured dismay, ruin, “ la private life, Mr. Rose is said to and destruction, from long and expensive have displayed many amiable qualities, As he was acquainted with all the and we never hear of his having absorbed departments of State, he was the first to either bis time or his fortune in that spe. point out increase of income in any one cies of profusion, so unjustly dignified branch of our public revenue; and when with the name of hospitality ; or in that this did not happen, be then predicted love of wine which endeavours to veil its more fortunate events, and prophesied of disgusting excesses, under the appella. happiness to come. tion of conviviality:
« On one great subject of national po“ As a man of business, he was inde. licy, we have some reason to suppose that fatigable, being, both early and late at the Member for Christchurch differed es. his desk, aud consequeotly, an invaluable sentially from all his colleagues : this was acquisition to any Administration. While the operation of the late Corn Bill. He other members of the Cabinet retired to
well knew, it was to the produce of her enjoy their pleasures, he withdrew to his trade and manufactures that England was office, where he arranged and prepared indebted for that wealth, wbich had enaevery thing for the succeeding day. No bled her more than once to maintain a man of his time was more intimately ac- coutest with all Europe. He was aware quainted with the trade and manufactures that cheap bread produced cheap labour, of this country, the assistance they wanted and that without this, it would be impos. from the State, or the resources which sible, notwithstanding our machinery, to might be derived from them in return. enter into any profitable competition with As a member of parliament, he proved the spioners, and weavers, and capitalists highly serviceable to the publick on a va- of France, Brabant, and Germany, on the riety of occasions. In him, the new and close of hostilities. Hle, however, soon excellent system of Savings Banks found an discovered, that not only the Cabinet, but active friend and patron'; he placed the those who generally opposed it, were in property of Friendly Societies under the
favour of the new system, the popular protectiou of the laws; he produced an aim of which is, by obtaining bigh prices Enumeratiou of the inhabitants of the is. for our home produce, to render this au land, and thus demonstrated the iinmense agricultural country, and consequently, increase of our Population. He also im.
one ihat can exist independent of the sup. proved our revenue laws, and by lessen- plies of other nations. ing the duties on excise for a time, pre- “ His Speeches, like his Writings, alvented smuggling, by removing all the though somewhat diffuse, were approtemptations to it. It was not until the
priate and peculiar to himself. Indeed, principles taid down by him were departed they were ugadorned with any fine tropes from, that a contraband trade once more or similes; he nerer affected the ludi. prospered.
crous or the satirical; he never exhibited “As a writer, Mr. Rose did not aim at any of the gay sallies of a lively imagi
531 nation ; he never dazzled his auditors by respecting paper currency, viz. its any sudden and unexpected burst of elo. ready and immediate convertibility quence ;
he never riveted the attention into specie.' All other theories we of the publick by the rapturous fervour of bold in the same light as we should patriotism.
do inventions to supersede the neces“ But if cold, he was 'correct; if mono
sity of food. We consider business tonous, deep; and if sometimes prolix, carried on by paper only, to be much he was generally clear, unembarrassed,
the same thing as busipess carried on and comprehensible. Thus while many of his orations smelt of the lamp, and were
without capital or property, for to the sole produce of official intercourse
tell a person that he is playing a and calculation ; they at least displayed game for a thousand pounds, with a great accuracy and correctness, and as rich man who is not allowed to pay they were usually supported by whole his debis of honour if he loses, is columns of figures, it was no easy matter moonshine. Nor can there be a to overcome his calculations or set his doubt but that, under a system of arithmetic at defiance.
paper only, mischief is certain. We " Much has been said as to his fortune,
do not profess to give more than a but his hands appear to have been clean,
few pithy remarks, aod we hold more for he was never accused of peculation.
to be unnecessary.
If four-pence is lost at Brussels by undue exertion of his influence. His an- every pound-pole, and no less than pual revenue was great, and his means
seven shillings at other places (see of acquiring wealth were various and im. Lieut. Shillibeer's Narrative) we know mense; he obtained much both for him. not how such an evil is to be reself and family; but had his désires been medied, unless in a place where a commensurate with his opportunities, be demand for English commodities, and might have died one of the richest subjects consequent intercourse, renders the of Great Britain, as his expenditure was
note negotiable at par. Let us suptrifling, and he detested excess of every
pose that an importing merchant kind."
knows that twenty shillings here are
worth no more than thirteen shillings 97. Observations on Payments and Re
elsewhere. If he cappot export goods, ceipts in Bank of England Notes, reduced to their Value in Gold ; and on
he must be proportionally at more the Consequences which would have resulted expence to make up his cargo from to the Nation, if this System of Currency abroad, and unfairly raise the price had been instituted at the passing of the
at home for his own remuneration. Bank Restriction Act : together with Re. Thus exportation, importation, conmarks on Subjects connected with those. sumption, and revenue, are all cooked By Thomas Martin.
up in one system of iudefinable but Longman and Co.
serious detriment. Allowing every TO differ in opinion from well. thing to the state of exchange, miọt bred people is a painful trial, which price of bullion, and other technical inany of our Readers must have felt. and knotty et ceteras, we do not see But the questions of experience come why property is to be subjected to under the same denomination as those the weatber and seasons; and the va. of philosophical experiments; and lue of estates and monied properly, there is a wide difference between like a crop of hay, to be only conpersonal disrespect and opposite opi. jecturable by a barometer. Yet such nion. In Scotch phraseology, the pro- is the case. We do not think that ponent, Mr. Martin, invites discussion; it is in the power of man to render and, knowing the situation of a Re- inconvertible paper system an view, conscientiously considered, to be equitable currency, because we do not that which ought to avoid infliction see how it can possibly avoid the of pain--we say, that we do not agree
two evils of excessive unnatural • with Mr. Martin; but admit that he prices and severe partial losses. In bas treated his subject in a very do. abstract fact, it is a mere trial how cumental, business-like form ; and far people will have confidence upon we differ from bim purely on ques- the strength of reputation, and, if a tions of principle; mathematically discount ensues, it is a inere dividend defioed.
from a bankruptcy. The fact is, that, instead of thirty- Mr. Martin proposes, with relation' nine, we admit of one article only to Bauk notes, what Sir Isaac New
ton did in reference to the gold coin, - and, if one country 'uses comparaa fluctuating value, founded upon tively paper only, and another gold the price of bullion. It certainly, alone, as legal currency, it will be however, would be hard for the pub- plain that gold cannot find its fair lick to take in January a guinea for level in the market, like other com21s. and be only able to pass it in
modities; and that the value of ca. February for 20s. It is vexatious to pital in the former country will be differ from such authority as that of much more fluctuating than in the Sir Isaac; but it is a question of ex- other.
One word more. When the Bank perience, and, let any man who knows the various ingenious methods of issued only 101. notes, and the counevading taxes decide, whether ge- try banks 51. the specie was so unnius of the first kind is infallible upon avoidably dispersed, that it could not such subjects. Business could not be collected for exportation to any be conducted by any troublesome in- amount. Stating the total issue (as tricate process : and it appears pro- is nearly the sum) of the currency at bable that such a plan would intro- 45 millions, one third, if the oves and duce as much speculation and garli- twos were suppressed, would probabling into the currency, as there is bly remain in the country in specie. now in the funds. Indeed, we could If a man could offer only a 5 os 101. mention methods by which the pro- note to buy up the specie, few or fits might be made much greater and none of the poor would have guineas more certain.
or sovereigns enough to exchange; We are perfectly satisfied with the and the country bankers must for position of Mr. Martin,
their own sake retain their casb, beThat if Bank ootes are reduced to the cause they had no Bank of England criterion of their value in gold, we shall pelly notes. We therefore think that find, that for every million of notes, which the suppression of the sinall notesis the we horrowed at 5 per cent. that is, at five sinipiest practical method of retainnotes per hundred notes, when gold was ing such a quantity of specie in the five notes an ounce, we are now paying country, as may counteract the evil for interest an amount of notes, the va- of excessive paper currency. lue of which is more by 97546. 7s.6d.
By the plan of Mr. Ricardo (for sterling, than the same amount of nctes
whom we have high respect) the Bank was then," p. 12.
is made the sole resource for obtainMr. Martin is a well-burning candle ing bullion; of course the run, under concealed in a dark lantern ; and, for circumstances, may be severe; but want of his being more clear, we are where specie is current in the shape obliged to offer illustrations of our of coin (as under the old plạn), the own. Let us see the consequences of prospect of recourse to the Bank is artificially influencing the price of much less. If therefore it be true, gold by means of paper.
Iu 1813 that the exportation of the specie is, the price of gold was 51. 10s. an ounce; in the main, to be attributed to the in 1818 only 41. 28. 6d. Of course in facility of obtaining such specie by 1819 18 ounces of gold would pur- means of the small notes, we really cbase 1001. Bank notes; in 1818 it entertain serious doubts, whether it would require 24 ounces : i. e. there would cot be more advantageous for is a loss or gain of 331, in a hun. the Bank to make their issues in dred, in the course of five years. If coin, as was the old custom. We are in 1819 I send 24 ounces of bullion certain that the chances of a run to obtain 1001. notes, and two years must thus be diminished ; and, if hence in 1821 it rises to 51. 10s. per there must be a security, it is better ounce, I can get only 18 ounces for to be one of a thousand than the my 1001. ; thus losing six iines 5l. solitary single guarantee. 10s. in every 1001. in two years. The Reader will see that gambling in the 98. Mrs. Hannah More's Remarks on funds is mere sixpenny whist to this Moral Sketches of prevailing Opinions and sweeping risk. In short, a paper
Manners, &c. currency unnaturally depreciates ihe
[Concluded from p. 435.] value of gold if it be not wanted IN the further Reflections for foreign commerce, and raises it Prayer of this excellent lady, and just as uunalurally if it be wanted; on ibe Errors which may preveot its
reclaim the one froin their error, and then pity those blind eyes which do to confirm the olher in the true faith not see, and especially those wilful that maketh not ashamed ! -“ The eyes which will not see.” p. 285. careless liver,” she adds, “who trusts As our Author proceeds in her sub- in an unfounded hope, deceives himject we meet with very correct sen- self, because he thinks his trust, timents on the helplessness of man, though he never enquires into it, one of the natural basis of prayer, looks more like grace.' but she places that point in a light And in her very able examination which marks her insight into the hu- of the vain excuses for the neglect man heart and her knowledge of the of prayer, she says justly, it is not world.
pusillanimity, but prudence, so to fear - Now attendance and dependance are
death as to fear to meet it in an unthe very essence both of the safety and prepared state of mind; and that fear happiness of a Christian. Dependance on will always be safe and salutary which God is his only true liberty, as attend- leads to the preparation,”--and with ance on him is his only true consolation.” this view she states the necessity of
In the best part of her subject, the prayer to the statesman, the hero,
hope at least, that it has made our shall be exceedingly surprized if his hearts better ;-and this is the best literary physiognomy is not already effect of our criticism, and the best dreadfully cicatrized. We wish not assurance that as it travels into the to see him. world, and into otber countries as If people will then run away from well as our own, it will be the means Mr. Bentham, as most certainly they of recalling many wandering souls will, we can only regret, that Mr. from error, and placing them in a Rose has displayed much ingenuity, more prepared situation to meet their reason, and reading, io confuting a God: that God whose discerning eye work which ought never to have is over them, from whom no secrets been seriously treated. It is a monare hidden !
A. H. strous birth, of which the publick
would have demanded the suffocation, 99. A Critical Examination of those Parts
if it had not been suffered to grow of Mr. Beutham's “ Church of Eng
into an adult by the maternal parlandism” which relate to the Sacraments tiality of party. and the Church Catechism. By the Rev. Hugh James Rose, A. B. Scholar of Tri
100. The Christianity of the New Testanity College, Cambridge, and Chaplain
ment impregnable and imperishable: An to the Earl of Sheffield. 8vo. Porter, Address, occasioned by the Trial of Mr. 1819. pp. 136,
Richard Carlile, for the Re-publication of WE have read with much plea- Paine's Age of Reason, and delivered sure, though perhaps all readers have October 24, 1819, in behalf of a Sunday not, Warburton's famous “ Doctrine School, (containing nearly one hundred of Grace,” in which is included his ex
Children of both Sexes), at Worshipcellent Commentary on the text of
street Chapel, Finsbury.square. Ву Solomon, about answering a “ Fool
John Evans, LL. D. 8vo. pp. 36. in bis folly.” Mr. Bentham is a man
THIS well-timed Discourse of a of in vincible propensity to projects; conscientious Dissenter may be read and though there is an evident ab- with pleasure by all who sincerely stract fairness in his positions, con- profess and call themselves Chriscerning interest of money, and the tians," whatever may be their shades tax on stamps, we doubt whether of difference, or their respective deHistory will not affirm, that the con- nominations. The authenticity of the sequences of usury have been ever Sacred Scriptures, and the sublime bad, often intolerable, and that the truths which they inculcate, are, or tax wbich is in certain degree op- ought to be, alike interesting to all; tional is best. The fact is, that a and they are ably supported by Mr. legalized quota of interest prevents Evans; who, in his Preface, observes, mioney being lent at all on bad secu
“ When the enemy is at the gate, interrity, and thus checks waste and pro- nal dissensions cease. Fervently it is fligacy, wbile, according to Mr. Burke, hoped that the friends of Revelation, rethe
expense of Law impedes frivolous linquishing an excessive attachment to vexation. Still Mr. Benthain is cor- minor articles, both of faith and of prac. rect in the abstract ; but all abstract tice, and insisting on the facts of the New positions are subject to the correc
Testament, in which all agree, will unite tion of circumstances. Thus nothing
niore closely together in the hallowed is better than broad wheels to wag
bands of love and charity.” gons; yet, from the structure of vil. For the undeniable proofs' of the Jage roads, and the insulated sites of authenticity of the Gospel, we refer farm-houses, which will not afford
to the Sermon itself; and shall only superior highways, farmers would not take from it a single remark: be able with broad wheels to approach
* One trait in the conduct of unbe. their dwellings. Mr. B. treats ne.
lievers is deserving of special reprehencessity and circumstances only as
sion. In assailing Revealed Religion they white and red billiard balls, with
put forth their objections, as if they were which he is to make a successful
perfectly new, and had never been urged
on any former occasion. This is disin.' hazard, not as detonating balls, com
genuous in the extreme. The fact is, that posed of chemical preparations, which, nothing fresh can be started on the subby their explosion, may disfigure ject. The same monotonous tone of combim. Such a ball, however, is the plaint has been coulinued from CeIsus “ Church of Evglaudism ;" aod we aud Porphyry down to the preseul times.