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1819.] On Contagion. - Chesterfield described. 497 is justified by the result of his per. Mr. URBAN,
Nov, 27. sonal observations at Alexandria in
THE Town of Chesterfield, co. 1803. “ The fever there," says Mr. Derby, is supposed by Dr. Pegge; Diomore, “burst out in the lower to have originated in a Roman stå. parts of the town, near the marshes, tion on the road from Derby to York. and the diseased parts thereof might It is noticed in Domesday Book as a have been surrounded by a lioe. It bailiwick only belonging to Newbold, was not contagious, for in that case DOW a small hamlet at a short dis. the effect must have been general. tance from it on the North. After It only affected those who lived in, or this period it rapidly increased. A occasionally visited that part of the Church, erected here towards the contown which it afflicted. 'l'he air con- clusion of the 11th century, was given tained an increased quantity of azote, by William Rufus to the Cathedral which was proved by the following of Lincoln. In the reigo of John, fact. The store of the British Con- the manor was granted to William sul at Alexandria being in the dis. de Briwere, or Bruere, his particular eased part of the town, was nol open favourite, through whose influence during the continuance of the fever, with the Monarch the town was in. and contained several casks of lime. corporated, and an anoual fair, of When the town was restored to health, eight days continuance, and two and the store opened, the casks were weekly markets obtained. From the found burst by the swelling of the De Brueres it passed in marriage to lime, which had absorbed so much the family of Wake, and afterwards azote as evidently to possess the taste to Edward Plantagenet, Earl of Kent, of saltpetre.”
(who married a female of that name,) The question which I would beg whose descendants continued possesleave to suggest is, whether such sors for several generations. In 26 statement of Mr. Dinmore be corro- Edward III. it was held by John, seborated by the observation of others; cond son of Edmund of Woodstock ; and if there be any thing in that gen- and in 1386, by Sir Thomas Holland, tleman's reasoning upon it, which is from whom it passed to the Nevilles. opposed by the commonly received in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, it notions respecting the origin of putrid belonged to George Earl of Shrews diseases ! For my own part, the evi- bury; and afterwards became the prodence of Sir Robert Wilson before periy of the Cavendishes by purchase, the Committee of the House of Com- from whom it descended to the premons alone, even if it had not had the seot Duke of Portland; but has since able support of other testimony of passed, in exchange, to the Duke of undoubied credit and iinpartiality, Devonshire. The Staobopes, Earls would have been sufficient to con. of Chesterfield, derive their title from vipce me, that prejudice and want of this town. a clear, candid, philosophical view of A battle was fought here in 1266 the subject, could only have led to between Henry, nepbew of King any other conclusion than that which Henry Ill. and Robert de Ferrers, is fairly deducible from his able and the last Barl of Derby, who was de acute description of the progress and feated, and was taken prisoner in the effects of the Plague ; and could alone Church, where he had concealed himbave occasioned the persisting in the self. During the Civil Wars another old unfounded notion of contact be battle was fought here, in which the ing the source of a disease, which evi- troops of the Parliament werë dedently arises independent of contactį seated by the Earl of Newcastle. and as certainly disappears under cers The Church is a spacious and handtain changes, and in certain states of some building'; but more particularly the atmosphere, notwithstanding the remarkable for the appearance of its closest coinmunication with the sick spire, which rises to the height of 280 and diseased; and under circum- feet; and is so singularly twisted and stances the most favourable for the distorted, that it seems to lean io whalcontinuance and spread of the disease ever direction it may be approached. thereby. I shall be glad, however, I send a drawing of it, (see Plate 16.) to be corrected by any of your learn- taken in a different point of view from ed Correspoodents. G. COMBE. onealready inserted in your vol.LXIII. GENT. MAG. December, 1819.
p. 977, by Mr. Malcolm ; in which portion of time, which once existed page, and in vol. LXIV, p. 17, will in the views and apprehensions of be found several particulars relative men, approximating the nearest to to the Church, and the Monuments their own,--when the eyes of postewithin it.
rity shall, divested of all ephemeThe best account of the Grammar ral influence, upon the mere strength School in this Town will be found in of reason alone, judge, discriminate, Mr. Carlisle's “ Endowed Schools,” compare, and combine,-then will vol. I.
History, under the hands of a writer In the Market-place is a neat Town- competent to view with comprehenhall, built a few years ago, under the sive eye its various parts, and draw direction of Mr. Carr, of York; on the proper corollaries, - assume the ground floor is a gaol for debt. higher philosophical importance. So ors, and a residence for debtors; and it is in Poetry, when all the pelty on the second floor, a large room for jealousies, antipathies, and consideraholding the Sessions, &c. Several tions of personal attachment and of alms-houses have been endowed in party motives shall have died away, different parts of the town.
and the occasions be forgotten,—then, The present Corporation consists and then only, perbaps, will the meof a Mayor, six Aldermen, six Breth- rits of many be determined who are ren, and twelve capital Burgesses ; as- to occupy a place in the bright hesisted by a Town Clerk.
misphere of our native genius. Many At the Castle-inn, an elegant As- things wbich have, in a present ara, sembly-room was built a few years excited high enthusiasm, and often ago.
unqualified praises, may, it is possiThe Town contained in 1801, 920 ble, in a future, be thought, by a houses, and 4267 inhabitants. The rigid and discriinioating posterity, to chief employments for the labouring merit only a cold neglect,--and the classes are, the iron - works in the flattering testimonials be imputed to neighbourhood; the stocking manu- little more than a fortunate concur. facture; the polteries ; a carpet ma. rence of adventitious circumstances, nufactory; and the making of shoes* not altogether dictated by the genuine Yours, &c.
N. R. S. warmth of heartfelt sentiments, or
the pure emanations of a judgment REMARKS PHILOSOPHICAL AND
sound by nature, and enlarged by baLITERARY.
bits of reading and reflection.”
Such, may we suppose to be the (Continued from p. 400.)
style in which the opinion of certain THE
of various contemporary Cric propriety of which others, and not tics may joduce them to reply in the themselves, must be admitted to negative, ---but it may on the other judge. hand be fairly assumed, that a con- Poetry, as it now exists in our istemporary age, however distinguished land, presents perhaps a more diverby talent or discernment, affords not sified aspect than at any former pea criterion for judging of the future riod. The wide licence which the fame of a living Poet. It may be genius and mixed character of our assumed to be pretty much the same language affords, has ever served to in the department of Poetry as in that legalize combinations the most dissiof History ;-and here, when the ge- inilar, sometimes the most imbarmo. neration who were themselves the nious, which variety and discordactors or the spectators in the great ance certainly prevails in the present drama of political, moral, and social day to un unlimited extent. Jife which is transacting before the Amidst however the wide misceleyes of mankind shall have passed Jany whicb, dedicated to the Muses, away, and given place to a new race weekly, monthly, and annually bas, of successors, wbo shall look back during the 19th century, issued from upon the past age only as upon that the Press, the general predilections
iu favour of rhimes, whatever be the * The above particulars, are chiefly subjects or the nature of the verse, abridged from vol. III. of the “ Beauties seems pretty conspicuous. The apof England and Wales."
probation, likewise, which they bave
'On the Propriety of Rhimes in Epic Poetry: 4,99 obtained among all classes of read- English Poets, and elsewhere, must ers, as being more peculiarly adapted be so stranger to his opinions in this to the beauty and idiom of the En respect. Whenever the subjects of glish language, may be inferred from hiş Poetical disquisitions affords him ihe decided success and patrowagę opportunity for displaying it, this which have attended productions iq preference or this prejudice is plainly which they have been employed ;-as, discernible, so much so indeed that on the other hand, froin the flat and from the nature of some of bis relanguid complexion which has been marks we are almost inclived to think shed over the compositions of some that he does not willingly award the authors, who have adopted this inea- palm of beauty or of merit to those sure, Blank verse has exbibited an performances which do not chime in aspect of inferiority which is not its the regular couplet. Inheriting a genuine characteristic. The frequent fondness for the smoothness, barmoand indiscriminate adoption of chimes, nious cadence and modulalion, and however, may be thought not on the alternate pauses of rhined measure, whole auspicious to the vigour, dig. his ear could not endure the irregunity, aud elevation of the aspirings lar and abrupt pause, and the wide of genius, in a future age. It may
and unbouoded licence, which the obviously be thought, to perpetuate, floring nature of blank verse affords among others, a wish tov blindly to to the excursions of fancy, or the exemulate the style of models which pression of passion. has been perceived to raise its vota. If Joboson, an authority of such ries to distinguished reputation and weight, dignity, and authority, as to favour, and from the unprecedented command attention and respect, if it avidity which productions of a cer- does not insure conviction upon the tain school have been sought after, strength of his arguments, seems such emulation is not likely, in its almost to consider the essentials of operation, to be confined to a narrow Poetry to be involved in its metre; sphere.
the classical taste of another autboDiversified opinions, however, upon rity declares himself of opinions widethe merits and propriety of rhimes, ly opposite, and not only recommends as a vehicle in Poetry of imparting blank verse in Epic and Tragic Poepleasure, have always existed among try, but sanctions its use in all comspeculative Critics, --certain writers positions of any dignity: He, on the have taught that rhimed verse is the other hand, considers rhime as only Irue and genuine form of metrical adapted to the subordinate offices of composition, as opposed to those who metrical composition, bad it not been talk of the expediency or eligibility importalized in the works of Dryden of blauk verse. Authorities may be and Pope. His sentiments on these adduced on either side,—but whilst points inay be comprehensively dewe tiod some wbo have investigated duced from the following remarks. these topics of the true source of aie- “ The strongest deinonstration," trical harmony and beauty oppos- says Dr. Young, in his very judicious ing others advocating the cause of Conjectures on Original Composirhimes,--we may suppose most of tion,' “ of Dryden's false taste for the them to be actuated, each by a se- buskio are his tragedies fringed with cret biąs or predilection in favour of rbime, which in Epic Poetry is a sore the one or the other, more than from disease, in Tragic is an absolute death. any conviction of their abstract clainis To Dryden's enormity Pope's was a of superiority. One or two of these light offence. As lacemen are foes authorities inay be not improperly to mourning, these two authors, rich. noticed, as they serve to show that in rhime, were no great friends to such influences may be supposed to those solemn ornaments which the guide those who are respectively in noble nature required. Must rhime, the habit of giving their attention, then," he continues, " be banished ? or have attained any decided excel. I wish the nature of our language lence to the one or the other.
would bear its entire expulsion,-but Johnson's predilections in favour our lesser Poetry stands in need of a of rhime were uniform and strong. toleration for it,-it raises that, but Whoever has attentively studied his - sinks the greater, as spangles adorn various Criticising in his Lives of the children, but expose men.
That Dryden and Pope felt pecu. pear lingeriog and languid in pertiar partialities for rhime, is best plexity and sorrow, is capable of e viuced by their constantly employ- varying its accepts and adapting its ing it in their most elevated per- language to the sentiments it should formances, although indeed their convey, and the passion it would ex. opinious were somewhat different. cite in all the charms of musical Pope would, it is to be presuined, expression. The charms,” observes have thought rhime traoscendautly Mrs. Montague, “ arising from Eng. excellent for every species of Poetry, lish blank verse cannot be felt by when he replied to Vollaire, who a foreigoer who vever perfectly aclooked with a sort of contempt on quires the pronuuciation of our lanall other measure, that Milton did guage, and is but rarely acquaiuted not write his Paradise Lost'in rhine with its idiom and force of expresbecause he could not. Dryden, how. sion.” ever, has acknowledged, that “what If, however, in Tragic the use of rhime adds to sweetness it takes rhines appears unnatural and imaway from seose.” The sentiments proper, tbeir legitimacy in Epic Poeof La Fontaine, equally with those iry may yet be advocated by some, of Voltaire, and likewise of the most who may plead that their subject or eminent of the French Puets, were in epopee being the recital of great and favour of rhime, which indeed is not dignified actious, not varied or broken much a source of wonder, as the ge- bý thuse sudden changes in sentiment nius and structure of their language, and passion which mark the conduct which rendered rhimes almost essen. 'of the dialogue, or the developement tial to their metrical composition, of the plot in the fornier, only reseemed to theni to involve the saine quires that the style of narration be necessity in all others. An eminent uniforinly elevated, aud pot debased writer and critic, however, of their by the pelty ornaments of composiowo soil, Fenelon, has expressed him- tion. of the possibility of rhines self of a different opinion, and there being made, with very high success, is, doublless, much truth in what he subservient to the deliveation of great says. “La rime," says he, io bis actives and the utterance of sublime correspondence with M. De lá Motte, thoughts, our literature has already * gêne plus qu'elle s'orne les vers. afforded one or more splendid ex. Elle les charge d'epitheles ; elle reud amples,- for instance, the Iliad of souvent la dictiou forcé et pleine d'une Pope, to which we may add the Lavaine parure. En allongeant les dis. ciad of Mickle, but in geveral it is cours elle les affoiblit. Souvent on out 80, and the performances, where a recours à un vers inutile pour en the uniformity of termination which amener uo boo."
characterizes the couplet has been For the Dramatic uses in Poetry, rejected, have, it is observable, however, scarcely any critic of re- been far superior in point of bold spectability in our own language, has and nervous imagery and description, ever pleaded for the propriety of io free, forcible, and expansive elorhimes, the artificial and constrain- quence. Milton, although his skill ed dress in which they involved both tu eliciting dignity froin the couplet the speakers and the sentiments, has had equalled that which strikes the appeared alike to their judgments and mind in the English Iliad, or the their feelings, altogether incompati- Essay on Man, would clearly have ble with the ullerance of sudden emo- outraged every sentiment of taste tion, or the risings of passion. The and propriety if he had sought to superiority which blank verse pos. einbody the conceptions of his soarsesses over the shackled restraints of ing genius in the smooth and mearhine has been happily expressed by sured numbers of Dryden or Dena Critic of modesi, bui accomplished ham. “ An Epic Poem in rhimne," fame. “ Blank verse,” says the ele- · says Dr. Thomas Warlon," appears gant Mrs. Montagne, “is finely adapło to be such a sort of thiog as the ed to the Dramatic offices. It rises Æniad would have been if it bad gracefully into the sublime, it cau been written, like Ovid's Fasti, in slide happily into the familiar, hastevs hexameters and pentameters, and the its career if impelled by passion, cau reading of it would have been as tepause in the perplexity of doubl, ap. dious as travelling through that one,
1819.] - Superiority of Blank Verse in Epic Poetry. 501 Song, straight avenue of firs which leads under the hands of British genius, from Moscow to St. Petersburg."
has made it the vebicle of many noGoldsmith, however, appears to ble performances, it is not assuredly proscribe this measure, from all kinds the form which Nature dictates, or of Poetry, when he states himself to enthusiasm points out for the expresbe of opinion, that it is barbarous and sion of the more lofty thoughts of uncouth, and that all authors, who aspiring genius. The expansive and in the least pretend to elegance and redundant flow which marks the extaste, should write in rhime. A Poet pression and cadence of blapk verse, of inimitable beauty, sweetness, and ibe unbounded scope and variety of delicacy, he seeing to bave been him. its termination, its copiousness, and self conscious of the purity and has. the facility it gives to the utterance mony of his rhines, when he asserts of passion or of fancy in all tbeir that nothing but the highest subli- associated shapes, offer it peculiarly nity of style can render this measure as a proper language for the imayi. pleasing, and alleges, in favour of the nation teeming with great and noble latter, this extraordinary reason, that ideas, for the intellectual sight which the difficulty of writing in rhipe en- looks above the pursuits, converse, hances its merit.
and geueral views of ordinary manof sentiments somewhat singilar kind. It may, theo, Dot without reamay be thought to have been a late son, be concluded, that Warton spoke Poet and Critic of emioence. In op- with truth when he observed, “ position to Dr. Warton, he is of opi- haps rhime may be properest for nion that, “in the hands of a skilful shorter pieces, for Lyric, Elegiac, master, one who knows how to bad. and Satiric Poems, for pieces where, dle the tools of his profession, rhimes closeness of expression and smarloess are not so fitted for the epopee as blank of style are expected, but for subjects verse, and that the dissimilarity of of a higher order, wbere any enthuPope's translation to the original siasm or emotion is to be expressed, might arise from his imperfect koow- or for Poems of a greater length, ledge of the Greek idiom, 'from a blapk verse is undoubtedly prefermere sportive fancy, or from care- able.” lessness, but rarely, if ever, from the At the commencement of the 19th inadequacy of his numbers, and the century, an æra distinguished by the
, inappropriateness of rhimed measure accuracy and extent of 118 kuowledge to the exigencies of heroic narrative." in arts and in elegant literature, more
Such appears to have been the disa discriminating care was exercised in ference of opinion which prevailed in the choice and arrangement of works the minds or the tastes of writers who destined not only to amuse and ineach, both by nature and education, struct the present age, but to become, might be supposed to be capable of in some degree, the classical preceappreciating the genuine principles of dents of succeeding days — poets, harmony and beauty. It is, doubt- whose influence and whose power, less, the duty of all who write for the in these enlightened limes of disceroainusement and instruction of the ment and wisdom, would, perhaps, public and of posterity, to inquire obtain equal credit, and more frehow far they are by nature fitted for quently impart durable and ratioval the one or the other. If their bent pleasures--pleasures which must ever or constitution of genius strongly in- retain their ascendancy in the buinan clines them to use rhime above any breast. It is not enough, or it ought other measure, they would, of course, not to be enough, that they possess act highly injudicious, were they to genius alove,-this may prove, as in put a constraint ou native talent, in science, an ignis fatuus to lead those order to accommodate any pre-con- astray who implicitly follow its wanceived potions of beauty, but this, on derings,—the performances to which the other hand, it may be observed, it gives birth ought to be conformed does not by any means supersede this to the rules of reason and fine exbeauty. Eligibility must still immu- pression. Were the critical opinions
. tably remain with blank verse, as con- of other days inore frequently connecied with all the higher offices of sulted by those who assume the proPoetry. Whilst the perfection aod vince of sustaining the credit and redigoity which rhime has acquired putation of this department of our