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1819.) The River Wye.--Old Queen's Head and Artichoke. 401 expence of the whole would, no the bank into the boat; and, as to doubt, be soon repaid by the addi- foot passengers and ferrymen, they tional conveyance of carriages with are often drowned by the stream so much ease. The cost of a horse · forcing the boat from the

rope.

Loss or carriage ferry-boat over the Se- of life among the bargemen is an ocvern, is about seventy pounds; and currence of enormous

frequency. In of the foot-passengers' boat, between short, the river as it now is, through five aud ten. What the additional want of bridges, is hurtful to life and expense of throwing up two piers property, which it ill becomes an enand side causeways, with the move- lightened age like this to endure pa. able bridges would be, the writer of tiently; and therefore it is hoped; this paper cannot say; but he is in- philanthropically and humbly only, clined to think that the sum expended' that gentlemen who have property in would return ten per cent. interest Ferries on the Wye and elsewbere, from the increased trapsit.

will take the opinion of Engioeers What the advantage of such a plan, upon the ideas suggested in this rude or of one superior, might be to the sketch. If the untimely decease of a proprietors of estates in Hereford, descendant of the Man of Ross's fashire, it is impossible to say. The mily should fortunately, though uncounty, says Marshall, is known to expected by the writer, suggest any be one which contains every thing thing which would not have failed to desirable ; but the communication is produce the approbation of that illusmost grievously interrupted bŷ the trious character, the loss of a fine Wye. There are only three bridges young man, bowever deplorable, may for forty miles, from Ross to Chep-. become a providential good. stow, where for the purposes of com- Yours, &c. A CONSTANT READER. merce, there ought to be twenty. Humavity also prompts the erection Mr. URBAN,

Nov. 4. of better modes of passage than the

THE

THE annexed sketch, if inserted in present. A gentleman, well acquaint- your Repository, will preserve ed with the Newcastle navigation, the resemblance of a well-known and a vative of the county of Dur- house of public entertainment, the ham, about Sunderland and Shields, Old Queen's Head and Artichoke, assured the Author that, notwith- pow destroyed. It was situated in a standing the immense number of lane nearly opposite Portland Road, bands employed in the coal trade, and about five hundred yards from there were more lives anộually lost the road that leads from Paddington in the Wye, than in the Tyne. Tour- to Finsbury; and very near to the ists who see the river only in the present new house of that name. The summer, when it is a mere pellucid view in the print (see Plate II.) is brook, know nothing of its charac. opposite to the entrance of the ter in winter, or when it is swelled by house, as the door was on the other a fresh from the rivers of supply. It side of the bow-window. The barn is then a tremendous torrent, eddying along-side was well known by the like the Thames at London Bridge; name of Edmondson's Barn ; it beand the bottoin is full of immense longing to Mr. Edmondson, coach

the sides, and deep holes, painter to the Queen, in Warwick, some of which, called salmon-holes, street, Golden-square, where he used are from thirty to forty feet in depth. to execute the first part of his coachImmersion at such a period is, even to painting. The lane was not any excellent swimmers, almost certain public road, only for foot-passengers, death. The rapidity of the current, as it led into the fields, towards Chalk prevents their making a short cut Farm, Jews Harp house, Hampstead, across to the bank ; and the cold of &c. On the other side the pailing, the water in the winter season, mostly was the lane, and a skittle-ground beproduces the cramp. If a horse is longing to the house. It was surupaccustomed to enter the boat, he is rounded at the back and one side by sometimes so restive, as to jerk bis an artificial stone manufactory, and rider overboard by a sudden pull of several small houses with gardens atthe bridle, as he is being driven from tached to them.

B. L. Gent. Mag. October, 1819.

HERU.

rocks upon

1

I

HERODOTUS AND DIODORUS SICULUS. and erroneous sentiment raised and " Verum quam multi, risum dum cap. ontorlained against the credit aud vetant levem,

racity of these historians. Illiberal Gravi destringunt alios contumelia,

Fame ascribes to them as their own Et sibi nocivum concitant dicterium !!"

belief, and declared opinion, what is Mr. URBAN, Liverpool, Oct. 9. expressly told by themselves to be

AM certain you subscribe and the tradition, belief, or information,

give publicity to the opinion that of others. They are pointedly guardtruth is the first aud most desirable ed in expressing this distinction. object in all antiquarian research ;

On opening the History of Heroand inasmuch as we are afforded help dotus, we observe his relation of the and guidance towards this rare attain. Trojan war, and the causes of the meni, by the authors of antiquity, so early hostilities of Persia and Greece. our regard for them ought to be in All This history, he plainly states as proportion to the advantage we de resting for the most part on tradition. sire. We should ourselves abstain He emphatically says (Lib. 1, 5,) ; from all incautious censure of their

" So affirm the Persians and Phæni. character, and defend them against cians ; for my part, I shall not say with the unjust attacks of others. Tbis regard to these affairs, whether they so duty is incumbeut in cominon justice happened or otherwise; but having pointto ihem as fellow men, io gratitude ed out the individual whom I know to to them as literary benefactors, in have been the first aggressor against the charity from the consideration of Greeks, I shall go on with my bistory,” their limited means of information, &c. compared with the advantages and

Not only this, but numerous simiexperience of the present day. Their writings are the torches, by this author to show, that while he

lar passages might be quoted from the aid of which we may see our way, confidently states what he considers and trace events down from the truth, he is careful to discriminate gloom which surrouoded primeval between fact and fiction.

lu Book 7, 152, he writes,The antient writers often prove most persuasive collateral evidence “ I engage to report what is said, but I to the truth of the Holy Scriptures, do not engage my belief in all; and let and in this point of view deserve our

this obserration apply to my entire Hisespecial regard.

These reflections are excited by This is not the language of one the perusał of an article in your anxious to propagate " idle tales." Number for June last, page 529. He had at hand abundant materials Your Correspondent A. N. in his for a general History, in the detached own extract, and the observations historical labours of his predecessors; and quotations of the Rev. G. S. nevertheless, he deemed as indispenFaber's remarks on the Pyramid of sible, a tour through the different Cephreves, affirms that the recent countries, the history of which he indiscovery of the bones of a bull in the tended to write. This personal visit sarcophagus of this pyramid, " has certainly manifests a desire of origiawakened the surprise of the chrono- nality, and attainment of truth. -loger, that Herodotus has now met Much of his history bears the features with another testimony to contradict of geographical relation, in which it his idle tale, and that " Diodorus cor- is always considered incumbent to roborales the same.” With these an- describe what is seen,

and report local tient historians, your Correspondent information, as to the face of the connects the celebrated Rollin, and country, inhabitants, manners, cuseven Depun, as dupes to the same toms, and traditions, however ridicucredulity. When your Readers see lous or incredible they may appear. the extracts from these two histo. As well, on the score of apparent rians, which it is indispensibly requi- probability, may we call in question site to furuish themn, it will appear the veracity of Captain Ross, in his that A. H. and even the Rey. Mr. relation of the late Voyage towards Faber, had not perused them, or that the Pole, when he details the ridicuthese passages had escaped their me. lous, and almost incredible, potions mories. I am very reluctant to sup- and manners of the inhabitants of pose that they join the common cry those unexplored regions, as, on the

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1819.) Defence of Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus. 403 mere consideration of novelty, to let cach adopt as 'It appoars oredible withbold our credence from Hero. With me it is an established maxim

throughout the History, all that is said Let us suppose time about a dozen on every subject, I write from oral report." centuries in advance from the present Next it niay be noted, that the His. æra, let us picture to ourselves this torian, by the expression “ interval marked by a second inunda- γην οικημαία,” connected in a former tion of vandalism over the literary passage with “ ty vnow," clearly conworld ;-among the few precious relics destined to float over to à suc.

vegthe notion

these subterraneous ceeding age of learning, imagine the of the Pyranids. A singular, though

vaults extending far beyond the bases lately-published, and to us well and natural, and not unprecedented, acreally authenticated Arclic · Voyage, ceptation of the word ynoos in this which reporls the phænomenon of Red Snow 3-lastly, at this supposed passage must be remarked. It not

only implies “ land surrounded by juncture, let us have Herodotus on the earth again, and the Arctic Voyage blance ; thus a robe surrouoded by a

waler,” an island, but any reseinin Greek before him, in this supposed border of purple, is yngos ;- see the state of the world, deprived of all

Lexicons. Our judgment instanly contemporary proof or evidence, on the perasal of this Voyage, might acquiesces in the analogy of this term not he, too, think the Red Snow, the

νησος,

as applied to that subterraneous formerly authenticated fact, an “idle space (under and around the Pyra. tale!"

mids) occupied by the vaults, and Modern discovery has fixed the surrounded by the aqueduct from the

Nile. stamp of truth on that which had before been considered and cried down Let us now proceed to Diodorus as fabulous. Prejudice seems still to Siculus, and raise up our feeble shield call for further investigation; and

in his protection against the shafts of this leads me to examine whether

slapder. Herodotus and Diodorus really hold

Lib. 1. cap. 64, after mentioning out any expectation that the remains Cheops and Cephrenes as the builders of Cephrenes might be found in the of the Pyramids, he observes ; pyramid bearing his name? Perhaps “ But it happened that neither of these the supposed tomb of this Sovereign kings was buried in the Pyramids which may prove the real monument of they intended for their tombs. For the their veracity!

people, by reason of their oppression dur.

ing the works, and these sovereigns baving At his decease (i. e. Cheop's), his bro. perpetrated many cruel and tyrannical ther Cephrenes succeeded to the throne; acis, were incensed at the authors of their and pursued a similar conduct ; among sufferings, and threatened to mangle their other acts, he also constructed a Pyra. corpses, and ignominiously drag them out mid, though not rising to the magnitude of their tombs. Whereupon, both of ihém of the other, neither are there subterra- at their decease enjoined each bis rela. neous chambers, nor is there any stream lives secretly to inter their bodies in some flowing therein from the Nile, as into the obscure grave.other ; but, entering through a walled

Thus both Herodotus and Diodorus channel, it flows round an inclosure of subterraneous structures (yngov, subintel. stand clearly acquitted of the chargo lige twee úmo yny oixnyatay), where THEY

of credulity, wiih regard to the by. sax Cheops is deposited."

rial-place of Cephrenes.

The persevering reiterated curiosity Now permit me, Mr. Urban, first to remark, that had this description ravages of time, may not have left an

of past ages, to say nothing of the of the Pyranid, contrary to what we

atom of the royal relicks for modern sec, been accompanied with the most

gratification. improbable assertions, yet the author,

Indeed, it has been asserted by re. as said before, justifies the relation, spectable and intelligent visitors, that and is constaotly pointing out to our notice in his historical tablet, the dig.

the sarcophagi in tlie Pyrainids bear

manifest appearance of past violence. criminating line of truth and tradi- The deposit of human bodies in these tion. Just before be enters on the subject of these Pyramids, we notice - festly proved and admitted. But' !

subterraneous receptacles is as mani• What is affirmed by the Egyptians ; sear I am transgressiug the limits of

your

This instead of separate teeth

in

your indulgence, and shall reserve where one is poticed, wbich swept my opinion on the discovery of the away whole ranks of the enemy:]þónes of the sacred Bull, the repre- The serpent's bide was sent to Rome, sentative of Osiris, for the first leisure and measured one hundred and twenty that more urgent avocations may af- fect in length.-Lib. 1, 8, E.ct. 19. ford. Let it suffice, for the present, It is well known that the ancient to remark that this discovery is pal- Romans lay reclined on couches or pable; ocular proof of the truth of a sofas at their meals. But, during the portion of the Books of Moses, of early ages of the city, while the men some allusions of the Prophets, and took their repast in that recumbent additional evidence of the VERACITY posture, the women, from consideraof Herodotus and Diodorus. The tions of decency, sat upright-[which silence of the former, as to the Tomb custom, however, was not observed of Cephrenes, and the positive denial by the ladies in succeeding ages.].of the latter, as to the burial of either Lib. 2, 1, 2. of the forementioned Kings in these No case of divorce ever occurred Pyramids, by no means justify the at Rome before the year five hundred obloquy of your Correspondent A. H. and twenty from the foundation of Dor even the expectations of Signor the city. The first instance was that Belzoni, or the Rev. Mr. Faber. of Spurius Carvilius, who dismissed Yours, &c.

J. W. his wife, because she bore him no

children : which motivo, however Ancient Anecdotes, &c. reasonable in his own opinion, did from VALERIUS Maximus,

not screen him from the censure of

his fellow citizens, who did not con. by Dr. CAREY, West Square.

sider his partner's ipfecundity, or his (Continued from p. 328.) own desire of having children, as a 'HE son of Prusias, king of Bithy. sufficient cause to justify a rupture of

the matrimonial tie.--Lib. 2, 1, 4. his upper jaw, had 'one solid undi- At Rome, in summoning a matron vided pièce from side to side, un- to

appear in a court of justice, it was attended with either unsightliness or not lawful to touch her person ; the inconvenience.-Lib. 1, 8, Ext. 12. touch, in such case, being esteemed a

Dripetinė, daughter of the famous breach of decorum, and a violation of Mithridates, king of Pontus, who was the respect due to her character. conquered by Pompey, had a double Lib. 2, 1, 5. row of teeth, productive of consider- ' In the early ages of Rome, the able deformity.-Ibid. 13.

women were debarred from the use The poet Antipaler was aneually of wine.-Ibid. visited by a periodic fever, which Among the Romans, it was consi. continued no longer than one day, dered as highly indecent for a father viz. the anniversary of his nativity ; to bathe in company with his son, on which precise day it at length car- after he bad attained to the age of ried him off at a very advanced age.- puberty-or for a father-in-law. to Ibid. 16.

bathe with his son-in-law.--Lib. 2, When the Roman general, Regu. 1,, 7. lus, was waging war against the Car- During several centuries from the tbaginians in Africa, he had to con- foundation of Rome, the proceedings tend with a huge serpent, which in- of the seoate were never divulged, so fested the bank of a river whence his long as there existed any motive for soldiers had to fetch water, and de- secrécy: and, in the year of the city stroyed several of them, on their ap- six hundred and three, when that asproaching to procure it. That mon- sembly resolved to declare war ster was invulnerable to darts or jave. gainst Carthage, Fabius Maximus lins, and was at length with difficulty was severely reprimanded by the copsubdued by showers of ponderous suls, for having inadvertently disstones hurled against him from the closed that resolution, even to a man artillery, [if I may venture to give who had held a high office in the that name to the Ballistæ, or great state, but was not yet chosen a memcross-bows on carriages, almost equal, ber of the senate; though Fabius in execution, to our modern cannon; made the disclosure under the misas appears from Tacitus, Hist. 3, 23, taken supposition that the person in

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Antient Anecdotes.

405 question actually was a member.- Prætexta, or boyish dress *, which Lib. %, 2, 1.

he wore.-So far Gellius ; and MacroOn this same subject of senatorial bius (who has copied him almost versecrecy, I here introduce (for the pur- butim in his Saturnalia, lib. I, 6) pose of refutation) a scandalous anec- makes this further addition, that the dote, related by Aulus Gellius, lib. 1, suroame of Prætextatus became, from 23, and quoted (as he says) from a that circumstance, an hereditary faspeech of the elder Cato - quoted, mily name. Such is the story told however, from memory, not from by Gellius and Macrobius. But, for book. The story is as follows. The the bonor of the fair sex, I would senators (according to this account) willingly consider the whole as a fa. were permitted to take with them bricated tale, for the following reainto the senate their sons yet under

Ist. The time when Cato is age: in consequence of which permis- said to have made the speech in quession, one of those youths, of the Pa- tion, was only about a couple of years pirian family, happened to be present posterior to the abovementioned reduring an ioteresting debate on a sub- primand of Fabius.-2. The admisject of high importance : and the sion of boys into the house is hardly further discussion of the business be- 'reconcileable with the anxious attening adjourned to the following day, a tion to secrecy evinced in Fabius'es strict injunction was laid on all the case.-3. If they were admitted, Papersons present, not to disclose any pirius would probably not have been part of the proceedings, until the the only one present;

and, from some question should be finally determined. of the others, the ladies might have On young Papirius'es return home, learoed the truth.-4. The name of þis mother inquired of him what had Prætestatus never once occurs in Livy, been done in the house : and, on his Tacitus, Florus, or Paterculus, tho' refusal to violate the enjoined secrecy, the Papirian family make a conspishe continued to urge him so far, cuous figure in history through sucthat, at length, to escape her further cessive generations: nor is it menimportunity, he told her a fictitious tioned by Cicero, in his genealogic tale, that it had been debated, wbich enumeration of the family, in lib. 9, would be the more advantageous to 21, of bis Epist. ad Fam.--5. If the the state, that each man should have story had been known and believed two wives, or each woman two hus- in ihe time of Valerius Maximus bands. Startled at this information, (who wrote pearly a hundred years the mother hastily ran to communi- earlier than Gellius and who searchcate it to all the matrons of her ac- ed through such a multiplicity of quaintance; and such was the gene- books, to make up his collection of ral alarm excited among them by the

near a thousand anecdotes) we can intelligence, that, at the meeting of bardly doubt that he would have inthe senate on the following day, the troduced it among the number. house was besieged by a multitude I now return to him. of women, earvestly entreating the During the early age of Rome, members they entered, that they and long after, persons, not possessed would rather allow two busbands to of a certain (though small) amount each woman, than two wives to each of property registered in the Censors'

The senators were, of course, list, were exempted from serving in astonished and shocked at ihis strange the army; though we ought, per. behaviour, and utterly at a loss to haps, to consider that ostensible exaccount for it, until young Papirius emption in the light rather of an exexplained the cause. They com- clusion, under the idea, no doubt, mended the youth for his faithful ob- that men, who had little or no pro. servance of secrecy, but decreed, that thenceforward the young sons of se

* I would not be understood as conpators should not be allowed to wit. fiuing to boys alone the use of the Preness the debates ; with an exception, is sufficiently known to have been the offi

texta, or purple-bordered garment, which however, in favor of Papirius, to

cial dress of Consuls, and others in high whom, in commemoration of his office, though allowed to be worn by the youthful prudence, they gave the sons of the nobility, until they reached the şurname of Prætextatus, from the

age of manhood.

perly

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