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occasionally and pleasingly varied by large and separate flocks of sheep, collected and managed by the shepherds and their dogs. The turf of the Plain is smooth and verdant, and very agreeably diversified with various wild flowers. Went about two miles out of the way to view Stonehenge; got out of the carriage, and fully examined the wonderful ruins, which occupied a less compass of ground than I had supposed. But the size of the vast stones greatly exceeded my imagination, and their positions were singular and striking. Arrived at Salisbury after one; dined, procured lodgings in the High-street, near the Cathedral. On the evening proving very rainy, I could only take a short turn in the Close, so they call the Cathedral-yard, which is so far from being close, that it is large and spacious. (To be continued.)
July 3. THE HE Population of Bombay is supposed by Mr. Hamilton, in the East India Gazette, from such imperfect sources as he was able to obtain, "to be above 220,000; of this number there are supposed to be 8000 Parsees, nearly as many Mahometans, and 3 or 4000 Jews; the remainder are Portuguese and Hindoos; the latter composing more than three-fourths of the whole population." By a more correct census, however, lately made by the direction of the Government, it would appear, that the whole number of native inhabitants in Bombay, not in cluding the persons who periodically visit the Presidency, as the Emporium for the commerce of the Western side of India, does not exceed 161,550.
Of the native Christians in Bombay the far greater part are what are usually termed Portuguese, chiefly from their frequenting the Portuguese chapels; for, excepting a few, constituting the higher and more respectable classes, the great mass of Portuguese population throughout India, forming the lower orders of Christians, are in general the spurious descendants of the several European settlers by native women, and the numerous converts who have united with them; these, from neglect, and the want of a decent education, are but little acquainted with the Holy Religion they profess; and through ignorance, and a blind at
tachment to prevailing usages, retain many Pagan customs which are a source of regret to their spiritual guides.
Of the five Romish Churches on the island of Bombay, the Archbishop of Goa for many years claimed and exercised an ecclesiastical jurisdiction over two; in consequence, however, of its having been asserted in a manner that created considerable agitation among the parishioners, complaints were made to the Government, and the pretensions of the Archbishop having been satisfactorily proved not to have been founded on any legiti mate basis, the Bombay Government determined, in 1813, to enforce the orders of the Hon. Court, received in 1793, founded on similar complaints, made at that period by the Portuguese inhabitants, in which such jurisdiction was virtually disallowed, and the parishioners were left to the choice of their own pastors.
The other three are under the ti
tular Bishop of Antiphile, who is the Apostolic Vicar of the Pope; he derives his mission from the congregation de propagandâ fide, and is attended by four Italian Carmelite Friars.
The Armenians form a part of those Eastern societies of Christians who differ in points of faith, discipline, and worship, both from the Greek and Latin Churches, and have shown an inviolable attachment to the opinions and institutions of their ancestors, under the severest trials from their Mahometan rulers. They are not numerous in Bombay, but form a very respectable class of Christians, and have one Church within the fort; they are occasionally visited by one of the forty-two Archbishops who are subject to the patriarch of Echmiazin; the far greater part of these Archbishops are only titular Prelates, each of whom may claim the obedience of four or five suffragans, and whose chief duty is the visiting of their numerous Churches dispersed over the Eastern world. Beside the Church at Bombay,they have Churches at Surat, Bussora, Bagdat, and Bushire.
There are many native Christians on the islands of Salsette and Caraujah; on the former the population is estimated at 50,000, of which probably one-fifth are Christian, professedly members of the Portuguese
Church; and the few more respectable inhabitants among them are the remains of the Portuguese families who settled on the island: the lower orders consist of fishermen, cultivators of the land, and bhaudaries, or draw ers of toddy; these, as may be supposed, are but indifferent Christians; and, while they are in the habit of attending any Christian sanctuary, still retain in their houses many symbols of the Hindoo mythology, and enter indiscriminately into the pernicious usages of a deplorable superstition.
Besides these, there are also resident at Tannrah, the capital of the island, about 100 or more European soldiers, with their families, who have been invalided, or have retired from the service, and who prefer spending the remainder of their lives in India to returning to their native country.
On Caraujah, at Surat, at Kaira in Guzerat, and at Seroor in the neigbbourhood of Poonah, one English clergyman is now stationed. Southward of Bombay, at Cananore, Mahé, and at Cochin, there are numerous Christians.
Including the islands, the Portuguese territory round Goa is about 40 miles in length, by 20 in breadth; and within the province there are computed to be 200 Churches and Chapels, and above 2000 Priests.
The dialect most prevalent is a mixture of the European with the Kanara and Mahratta languages; but the European is still well understood, and spoken by a great proportion, and from every account of their dispositions, it is conceived that the lower orders, and even the Priests, 'will readily accept copies of the Scrip
But of all these places, Cochin is the most interesting-here the ancient Syrian Churches, as well as the more recent remnants of the Dutch, claim peculiar favour and protection. The Christians of St. Thomas had been long seated on the coast of Malabar when the Portuguese first opened the navigation of India: they were probably converted to Christianity about the middle of the 5th century by the Syrian Mar-Thomas, a Nestorian, who has been confounded with the apostle St. Thomas; during the 7th century their Church was considerably increased by the labours
of two Syrians, Marsapor and Manpedosis. "On the arrival of the Portuguese, these Christians," says Mr. Gibbon, "in arms, in arts, and possibly in virtue, excelled the natives of Hindostan; the husbandman cultivated the palm-tree, the merchants were enriched by the pepper trade, the soldiers preceded the Nairs or Nobles of Malabar, and their hereditary privileges were respected by the gratitude or the fear of the King of Cochin, and the Zamorin himself. They acknowledged a Gentoo Sovereign; but they were governed, even in temporal concerns, by the Bishop of Angarwala or Cranganore. He still asserted his ancient title of Metropolitan of India; but his real jurisdiction was exercised in 1400 Churches, and he was intrusted with the care of 200,000 souls. It was the first care of the Ministers of Rome to intercept all correspondence with the Nestorian Patriarch; and several of his Bishops expired in the pri sons of the holy office. The flock without a shepherd was assaulted by the power of the Portuguese, the arts of the Jesuits, and the zeal of Alexes de Menezes, Archbp. of Goa, in his personal visitation of the coast of Malabar. The trading companies of Holland and England are the friends of toleration, but if oppres sion be less mortifying than contempt, the Christians of St. Thomas have reason to complain of the cold and silent indifference of their brethren of Europe."
The Syrian Churches have been presented with a few copies of the Syriac Gospels from England. Before the French Revolution the congregation de propagandâ fide used to furnish such of them as adopted the doctrine, and acknowledged the jurisdiction of the Roman Pontiff, with copies of the Syriac Testament; but the distracted state of Europe has a long time deprived them of this source. Beside the Syrian Churches there are at Cochin a great population of Protestants-the remains of the Dutch colonists. Among the Christians who have settled in India the Dutch have very justly the merit of having done a great deal towards the promotion of Christianity; wherever they went they established and provided funds for the maintenance of public schools; they caused the New Testament, and a great part of the Old, to be translated
into the Malabar languages. In the several school-houses divine service was performed on Sundays, and always well attended. To every ten schools was a superintending master, who made his monthly visitations. Clergymen presided over districts, and made their annual visitations at the schools. These religious and scholastic establishments are now neglected and fallen into decay, on their baving fallen into the hands of the English. The Clergymen, the Catechists, and the Schoolmasters have lost their pittance of salary; the duties of the one are feebly discharged for want of proper persons, and the laborious employment of the other has entirely ceased. It is hoped that the zeal and Christian philanthropy of the English character will not long delay to remedy these defects.
There is another race of people at Cochin particularly interesting, viz. the white and black Jews, but no very correct account has yet been procured concerning them.
I bave extracted the foregoing observations from a report received from the Bible Society at Bombay, under the Presidency of Geo. Brown, esq. dated in September 1816. Some account of these Syrian Christians may be found in La Croze Hist. du Christianisme des Indes-and Asimanni Biblioth. Orient.; and also in the Asiatic Researches, aud Buchanan's Christian Researches, &c.-And there is a complete and circumstantial account of the religion of the Abyssinians in the Theol. Ethiop. of Gregory the Assyrian, published by Fabricius in his Lux Evan.
Yours, &c. Mr. URBAN, Hackney, July 19. OUR Readers, very many, must feel themselves obliged by the account given of Collegiate Schools by your Correspondent M. H. of Crosby-square. The subject is interesting, and particularly to the lovers of Church Music and the Cathedral service. Having had the opportunity of attending Divine service in every Cathedral in England, I confess I have experienced a gratification from M.H.'s observations, and a pleasure to find so much attention paid to those who afford us such satisfaction by their harmonious voices.
There is something in the whole of
a Cathedral, both with respect to its appearance and its manner of public worship, that fails not to strike the beholder with a solemnity and awe that produces the most pleasing effects-hence innovation should be avoided-and it is painful to observe, too frequently, architectural barbarisms in our chaste Gothic buildings, and too many modern monuments implaced in those beautiful groupes of pillars to destroy in some measure their effect.
The venerable fabric of Winchester Collegiate Church is now undergoing some repairs-and the choir is occupied by the workmen so as to prevent Divine service. In the mean time the Lady Chapel,' at the East end is appropriated to the purpose; where, without the aid of the organ, the human voice is found to produce the most charming harmony, and the correct and sweet performances are such as to afford considerable delight to the hearer. I need scarcely observe, that it is well attended, and affords another proof of the laudable attention paid to the Choirs in their venerable structures. Your Readers who attend, as I have done, from Carlisle to Chichester, and from Norwich to Exeter, will feel a satisfaction in this recital.
July 20. HOUGH in the account which your Literary Notices of last month contains of the reasons of my delay in publishing the Privileges of the University of Cambridge, there is nothing incorrect, yet the statement is not, I think, so explicit and exact as to satisfy my subscribers. The articles noticed are the same as those mentioned in my original proposals; whereas those which have been principally the occasion (to say nothing of other reasons) of delay in publishing this work, did not enter at all into my first design; they are varieties, indeed, but of such a nature as to give almost a different charac ter to the undertaking. The new articles are as follow:-A Second Dissertation on the Charters, and Queen Elizabeth's Statutes: the History of Printing, with that of the Books printed at Cambridge, and of the Printers (with occasional Remarks down to the time of printing the Bezæ Codex, on which inany observations are introduced):
introduced): an Account of some of the more curious College Libraries, with occasional extracts from books and MSS. Lists of the English, Latin, Greek, and Oriental MSS. in the Public Library: an Account of some Eminent Men formerly of the Town of Cambridge; together with 200 pages of Cambridge Fragments, consisting of remarks made in the course of the work, and criticisms, and various Literary Anecdotes, Pleasantries, and Epigrams, with other pieces of
exceptions) by the author or other persons formerly of Cambridge.
All that you have said beside, in reply to your Correspondents, is correct, except that, of the improvements proposed in and about Cambridge it should be added, that the greatest part originated with the late well-known Improver, Mr. Brown. G. DYER.
P.S. The Work is nearly printed off, but cannot be published for some time.
All Graduates (clergymen) certainly ought to wear their respective hoods, which would effectually and properly distinguish them from those clergy who have not had an University education (often termed Northern Lights, many of them having been born in the North parts of England) and from those Dissenting Ministers, who, withont any authority, wear gowns. But though it is one of the articles of enquiry, at Episcopal Visitations, whether the Churchwardens have provided "a large and fitting surplice and Hood for the Minister to wear when he officiates in the Church," yet the hood is, I apprehend, never provided; and though Bishops and Archdeacons expect and require the Clergy to appear before them, in their "Canonical" habits; yet those clergymen who are graduates appear at the Visitations without hoods; notwithstanding the hood is certainly a
part of the canonical habit of a graduate clergyman. Some further regulation for the purpose of enforc ing the general use of the hood by graduate clergymen seems, therefore, to be essentially requisite; and pa rishes ought to be compelled to provide such hood, which is positively prescribed by the Canon. J. B.
CURIOUS COATS OF ARMS, CRESTS, MOTTOS, AND CORONET DEVICES.
HENRY III. King of England, commanded the following line, by the way of device, to be written over his chamber at Woodstock: QUI NON DAT QUOD AMAT, NON ACCIPIT ILLE
QUOD OPTAT—(Unless presented with an article held in high esteem by the giver of it, he values not the gift.)
Edward III. bore for his device the rays of the sun streaming from a cloud, without any motto.
Edmund Duke of York bore a falcon in a fetter-lock, implying that he was locked up from all hope and possibility of the kingdom.
Henry V. carried a burning crosset, sometimes a beacon-his motto, UNE SANS PLUS-(One and no more.)
Edward IV. bore the sun after the battle of Mortimer's Cross, where three suns were said to have been seen conjoining in one.
Henry VII. on account of the union of the houses of York and Lancaster
in him, used the white rose united with the red, and placed in the sun.
In the reign of Henry VIII. devices grew more familiar, and somewhat more perfect by the addition of mottos to them, in imitation of the Italians and French, among whom there is hardly a private family without a particular device, many of them very antient.
At the celebrated interview between the Emperor Charles V. and the Kings Henry VIII. and Francis I. the English Monarch used for his device, an English archer in a green coat drawing his arrow up to the head, with this motto, CUI ADHEREO PREEST-(He succeeds whom I join.)
In honour of Queen Jane, who died willingly to save her child, Edward VI. a phoenix was represented in a funeral fire, with this motto, NASCATUR UT ALTER-(That another might be born.)
When the Dauphin of France was paying his addresses to Mary Queen
of Scots, he sent her a rich tablet of gold, in which was her picture, set with precious stones; among these were on one side a fair amethyst, and under it as fair an adamant, with this motto, AMAT-ISTA ADAMANTEM(She loves her lover) — alluding, at the same time, to the names of these diamonds. This is what the French call a "Picardy Rebus.”
Queen Mary bore-winged Time drawing Truth out of a pit, with the motto, VERITAS TEMPORIS FILIA (Truth is the daughter of Time.) How ill such a wretched bigot deserved their bearing, her bloody reign has testified. Her acts tended to smother and bury truth, rather than permit time to draw it forth for the benefit of the world.
Queen Elizabeth used many heroic devices and mottos. Sometimes the words VIDEO TACEO-(I see and am silent); at others, SEMPER EADEM— (Always the sume); which latter has, in our own times, been appropriated by Mr. Plowden, the lawyer, to the Popish religion.
The Earl of Essex, when he was cast down with sorrow, and yet employed in arms, bore a sable shield without any figure, but inscribed, PAR NULLA FIGURA DOLORI - (No figure is adequate to the expression of grief.)
Sir Philip Sidney, denoted that be persisted always one, bore, "the Caspian sea, surrounded with its shores," alluding to this body of water neither ebbing or flowing; his motto was, BINE REFLUXv-(Without an ebb).
King James I. used a thistle and a rose united, with this motto, HENRICUS ROSAS, REGNA JACOBUS (Henry united the roses, James the kingdoms.) Archbishop Usher had the following motto inscribed on his episcopal seal, VE MIHI SI NON EVANGELIZAVERO-(Woe unto me if I preach not the Gospel).
Bishop Bedell took an ingenious device to remind him of the woeful effect of the fall of Adam on the heart of man. It was "a flaming crucible," with this motto, in Hebrew, TAKE FROM ME ALL MY TIN. The word in Hebrew which signifies tin being bedil, which imported that he thought every thing in him but base alloy, and therefore prayed that God would deliver him from it.
The motto chosen by King Charles
the First was, CHRISTO AUSPICE REGNo-(I reign under the auspices of Christ).
During the civil wars in this reign almost every man, of what rank soever, assumed devices. On the King's party, one bore for his coronet device St. Michael killing the dragon; motto, QUIS UT DEUS? (Who like God?) Another bore the picture of a King crowned and armed, with his sword drawn, and this motto, MELIUS EST
MORI IN BELLO QUAM VIDERE MALA GENTIS NOSTRE (Better is it to die than behold the wickedness of our people). A third bore the figure of the beast called the ermyn, which, it is said, will rather choose to die than to defile its fur; motto, MALO MORI QUAM FŒDARI-(Death before dishonour)-alluding to the Covenant. A fourth represents five hands snatching at a crown, defended by an armed hand and sword from a cloud, with this motto, REDDITE CÆSARI-(Render unto Cæsar the things that are Cæsar's). A sixth chose a landscape of a pleasant country, with houses, churches, corn, cattle, &c. &c. invaded by a savage and beggarly people, and for motto, BARBARUS HAS SEGETES?-(Shall a barbarian possess these crops?)
The coronet device of his Majesty's own Troop or Life Guard of Horse, was a lion passant crowned Or, with, DIEU ET MON DROIT-(God and my right)—for motto.
The Marquis of Winchester bore, and not improperly, only the motto of his own family arms, which was, AIMEZ LOYAULTE-(Love loyalty).
The heroic Marquis of Montrose bore for figure a laurel of gold in a field argent, and for motto, MAGNIS AUT EXCIDAM AUSIS (I shall accomplish my great enterprises, or perish in the effort)—words but too fatally prophetic to him. His family motto was, NE OUBLIE-(Forget not).
The Earl of Carnarvon bore a lion, and six dogs barking at him; one of the six was somewhat larger than the rest, and from his mouth issued a little scroll, whereon was written KIMBOZTON; on like scrolls from the others were written PYM, &c. The lion seemed to utter this motto, QUOUSQUE TANDEM ABUTERIS PATIENTIA NOSTRA?—(How long will you persist in abusing our patience?)
Lord Capel's device was, for figure, a sceptre