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- truth, is another arduous task. There have its own Historian. If a oalive,

is one still greater, which, though pol so much the better, as he will, from .arduous, is a task the most unplea. his situativn and long acquaintance sant. From the great inass of mat. , with the scenes he is describing, be ter which must pass through his bands, enabled to paint more correctly the . something mag arise that will not al- manners and customs of his neighways accord with his feelings. He will bourhood, than an accidental travelmeet with facts, which in some way ler can, who, ilging from place to or other touch upon the ancestors of place, must be content with the old many of his acquaintances, and, as sayings and quaint observations of a in the actions of every man's life, Sexton or Parish Clerk, not much particularly public men, there is als better informed than himself. Loways some sore part which cannot cal History seems now to be the be passed over, if he set out with the rage, and the more publications of ,firin resolution of brioging before the that nalure are brought before the community nothing but truth, in public, the more are they sought after .whatever shape it may appear, he and read. Most heartily do I wish will have to encoupler a host of ene- every success to those, who, having mies. This must be expected, and leisure and abilities to describe the an author must prepare himself for scenes of their native home, devote such an encounter. Some from pri- their time to the production of works, vale pique, others from not being which, wbilst they afford amusement, able to start any thing new. them- convey instruction to future generaselves, have the greatest pleasure in tions. rupping down and blasting, as far as That great and Herculean Work, their private influence extends, the the History of Yorkshire, a work, fair fame of others; and as it is an which I should suppose would fully easy matter to find fault, without being fill up the whole time of three inde able to correct, the tempting op. fatigable Historians, even if they lived portunity cannot be resisted. Others, to a tolerable good old age, and each from motives not more honourable, took a Riding, may seem in some stifle all sources of information, and measure to swallow up all minor pubwith cold indifference, or sarcastic lications of that nature; but as it malevolence, enjoy the disappoint- cannot be expected that the miourents of an author, whose only ube tiæ of every town within that large ject is truth.

district, even if interesting, will be I have been led into these reflec., entered into, Local History, from its tions on considering how very ably being confiued to one particular place, many of the principal Towns of my will have its attractions. The ad van. native County have been described. tages of Works of this sort I cannot We have a History of York. Scar. better describe than is set forth in the borough, Ripon, Knaresborough, Preface to the History of Whitby. Northallerton, whilby, and many “ The advantages of Local History other Towns which do not immedi. are generally acknowledged. Correct ately occur to my niemory. There views of a country are not to be gaioare andounced prospectuses of a His- ed from the hasty remarks of the tory of Sheffield, and an improved Tourist, who skims over its surface Quarto Edition of the History of in a few days; but from the patient Richmond. By the bye, I am always researches and mature observations a friend to Second Editions. They of Local Writers, each of whom, degive authors an opportunity of cor. voting his attention to objects within recting any errors which may have his reach, and collecting what is incrept unawares into First Editions, of teresting in his owu vicinity, fur. making alterations, and of enlarging nishes his quota to the common fund their plan, by extending the subjects of Statistical koowledge. In general, almost under every head. Judicious Topographical works will be more observations by candid critics also or less correct, in proportion as the epable them to revise those parts field of view is contracted or enwhich seemed to them capable of larged ; and he who attempts to take anneadment. I have no doubt but in too much endangers the whole. that every town in this large and po- What is gained in extent is lost in pulous County will ia a little tiine accuracy. . The fore-ground of the



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1819.) On Circulation, Taxation, &c.

227 landscape is distinctly perceived, while person who brought it to the market the distant objects are involved in is one whose property is in the funds ; shades."

Civis. he carries on no trade, and therefore

has nothing to sell; he is, according Mr. URBAN, London, Sept. 3. to the proportion of bis stock, in a FOR NOR the last twenty-five years I betler situation than one who has a

i bave been in the habit of share in a mine. This man we may tending with my friends that the Na- suppose to lay out his twenty shilling tional debt and taxes are not oppres- piece in the purchase of clothing : sive or injurious, but quite the con- ihe second, or seller of the clothing, trary. The consequence is, that I am buys wool , the third, who is the sel. considered an eccentric, and my vi- ler of the wool, purchases corn ; the sions are laughed at. But, Mr. Urban, fourth, who was the seller of the corn, I have lately received great pleasure, buys coals; the fifth, who was a seller and assumed much confidence, from of the coals, lays out the twenty piece baving read the opinions of that very to buy wine; and the piece may still excellent judge, Mr. Justice Bailey, circulate, making different purchases, in his late address to the Grand Jury till at last it is paid away for taxes ; of the County of York. These opi- then it is carried to the King's Exchenions are so exactly in unison with quer, is again paid out in dividends to my own, that I venture to send you The slock-holder, and again repeats the following essay, in hopes you will the same line of purchases which I give it publicity; for if the world has have before exbibited. By means of hitherto been in error, it surely be- the Taxes the great mass is collected, comes a matter of great consequence by means of the Funds it is again put to remove the prejudice.

juto circulation ; and by this never Part of the speech, as I have it from ceasing rotation, a man of monied the Newspapers, runs tbus :-“It was wealth is enabled, in the course of a a favourite opinion with many, that moderately lengthened life, to spend taxation was the cause of all the dis- the amount of his fortune THREE tress experienced in any part of the TINES OVER, and still to leave it un. country, but if it could be shown that impaired for his beirs and successors the lower classes derived their em. to repeat for ever the same beneficial ployment and comforts from taxation, operations ; whereas, if he had not the it could not be fairly alleged that power of placing out his money to inthey were prejudiced by taxalion.”- terest, as into a reservoir, he most Towards this showing, I send the fol- drawupon bis capital, and every pound lowing Essay on Circulation, Tax. he spent would be a diminution of it,

, ation, &c.

until at last it would be exhausted. It is easy to conccive that a twenty So it is with the mine ; every ounce shilling piece, now called a Sovereign, taken away makes the remainder less, way be brought into a market or fair, for it never returns again. But as a and circulate through a hundred hands wealthy man in Great Britain may in the course of one day. The first always place his money in the funds, person that uses it, parts with lhe be is enabled, as before stated, to piece of price, all the rest part with spend treble its amount, and still leave some commodity for the price, and an undiminished property. again buy commodity with the price. It is proper in this place to point If the last person has no need of any the reader's attention to one particucommodity, he keeps the piece of price; lar feature in the transactions before but he must have had some commo- stated, that all the changes, except the dity to sell or he could not have ob- first and the last, were of barter, but tained it.

made through the medium of buying This instance is an epitome of all and selling by means of one piece of commercial transactions, whether fu- money. The first person that used it reign or domestic. It will likewise in the morning, and parted with the exemplify the true operation of the piece of price, was a buyer and confunding system, and show ils un. sumer only; the second, ayd all the bounded bepefits.

others down to the last, were traders, Suppose we take five out of the but the last, having sold his commohundred changes made by the sove- dity, retains the price ; each trader reigo piece before inentioned; the bas used the coin to his advantage,



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but the changes could not have been ney, which in Great Britain is from
made with so much rapidity, nor a periodical source amounting to full
without immense trouble, if there had twelve millions each quarter of the
been no money in the markets for year, and which, like the gracious
even the first, and the last, and all of rain from heaven when poured upon
them must then have been traders. the earth, insinuates itself into the
If the first, instead of money, had 'most minute channels, producing food
brought commodity, he must have and raiment, and paying for rent, and
buúted for some one who wanted his wages and taxes, until, like the raio,
com maodity, and at the same time had it is again exhaled, and again renews
clothing to exchange for it; so the its bountiful progress. Yet the la-
second, after he had exchanged his bouring man and the middling trader
clothing for the other's commodity, retains none of it; its visits to them
(let us suppose it to have been hay), are transient, but salutary; they drink,
must have been under the necessity of and are refreshed by the stream as
finding some person who was in want it flows, yet scarce know whence it
of hay, and had wool to exchange cometh, or whither it goeth.
for it, and this same trouble and In all the transactions of trade
delay would have attended through before mentioned, the pound is vever
out the hundred exchanges; whereas, identified with commodity; it stalks
by one single piece of money from through the market a sovereign in-
the hands of one who was a consumer deed, always the buyer or price, but
only, all the other exchanges were never becomes commodity; hence it
effected. Without the money there appears, that no map can possess the
could bave been peither buying por precious metals, but through the me-
selling - it would have been barter dium of commerce, for he who has

nothing to sell, or labour lo perform,
Every person living upon his for- cannot obtaiu ihem.
tune puts into circulation every day The commerce of nations is similar
a certain quantity of money. He who to that of the home market: goods
spends an income of 365l. per annum, are sent out, and goods are brought
puts into circulation one pound per in, and the balance, on which ever
day, but he who has 11,0001. per an- side it may predominate, must be
num, puts into circulation every day liquidated by portions of the pre-
at least 301. The first gives employ- cious metals : bullion being the mo-
ment constantly to seven labouring ney of the world, as coin or Bank
men, at a pound a week; the last em. Notes is of particular states and
ploys at the same rate, at least two their accumulation, in every country,
hundred and ten ! * If the generality is the reward of industry, which, as
of the people were convinced of this the proverb truly says, always pro-
operation of the taxes, they would duces riches. They may be, it is true,
cease to complain of their enormity, acquired by rapine and plunder-the
and hail them collectively, as the former possession will prove a bles-
best friend of themselves and of their sing, the latter a scourge.

Before I dismiss my circulating The taxes are of the nature of a piece, I beg leave to remark, that if rent paid for the use and collecting by any means it had become deficient of the money which people of fore in weight, it might throughout the tune are continually sending into cir- market have passed for only nineteen culation; or rather, of the bire which shillings, in which case, each of the each trader might pay for the use of parties would have had somewbat scales, weights, and measures, if he less of quantity and measure thap if had none of his own; for it must be the piece had been of full weights the consumer who pays the taxes. from which it is clear, that all coin, The trader uses the money to his for the sake of common justice, profit, but the man of fortune having should never be suffered to pass curnothing to sell, must be always a rent beneath a certain weight. The buyer, always disseminatiog his mo- same may be said of Bank Notes :

while they are exchangeable for the # If this assertion is true, the National same weight of bullion, specified in Debt alone gives constant employment to their amount, they are of equal value very nearly one million of persons. with full weight coio; if they will not


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1819.) Sequel of the Case of Anne Chandler. 229 procure so much, they are the same To à Peer of the Realm, in the as light money.

county of Gloucester, I'am equally No man can be compelled to buy: indebted ; and not less so, for his but when he does buy, he ought to be commendation and approbation of compelled to give good money, both the act in question. For, freely do I in weigbt and quality.

confess, that exquisite is the gratifiNo man can be compelled to sell : cation of pleasure a viro laudato but when he does sell, he ought to be laudari. compelled to give full weight and The Rector of the parish (Beau

A LOMBARD. champ Roding), whom the Poor have

reason to bless, claims his reward; SEQUEL OF THE CASE OF ANNE and I trust in God, that he will abun. CHANDLER.

dantly receive it. « Feet was I to the lame."--JOB.

[In like manner our benevolent Abbotts Roding, Correspondent enumerates a very Mr. URBAN,

Aug. 18. considerable number of other BeneTROM the publicity of the severe factors, which would fill some puges ;

Nar dler, with the narration of which you rative.] indulged me (see Part i. p. 518), I am Did I here close this address of desirous of circulatiog this public Thanks to the numerous friends of acknowledgment,-in order that it bumanity, it would be bighly unsamay meet the eye of many, to whom tisfactory, were I not to add someI cannot by any other means express thiog relative to the state and condi. how much I feel myself indebted to tion of the unhappy sufferer, since them for their humanity and bene- the sad operation which has disabled volence upon this truly melancholy ber for life. Hitherto the end has subject.

been answered in the fullest measure I deem it to be satisfactory to ob- of relief. It has contributed literally serve, that as the greater part of my to raise an unhappy fellow-creature charitable Correspondents wished to from the dust of the earth to some conceal their real names,not suf. degree of comfort and happiness. fering their left band to know what Her comparative state at this present their right hand doeth ;-and, since time, with what it was some few weeks many, whose liberality I should have ago, is that of comfort and support been happy to have announced, as a from a condition of extreme poverty light shining before men, leading them and want, of pain and suffering. to exemplary imitation, did express Under this happy change of cirtheir positive desire, totidem verbis, cuinstances, when I took my leave of not to be publicly known ; I shall her on the preceding day of her bes' not only strictly comply with their ing removed to Yarmouth, there was request, but shall forbear from bring- visibly an air of health, a counteing forward to public notice any nance of expressive pleasure, gratiother memorial, than what I hope tude at beart, and a mind, I trust, may be indulged to me as a feeling sincerely devoted to God. Three of gratitude, proclaiming the secret weeks had now scarcely passed since and inward pleasure of my mind. the amputation of her legs, and this

Though nothing that I could say in at the advanced age of sixty-two, praise of the humane and liberal man- when she performed this journey of ner in which my Diocesan answered more than one hundred miles. The my request, can add to the real and

same long journey she was obliged, genuine worth of character so de- in a few days, again to undertake, servedly due to his Lordship, yet I and a further journey back again to should ill reconcile to my own feel. Yarmouth, comprehending, altogeings a passive silence on this occasion. ther above three hundred miles. With great pleasure I acknowledge To explain the cause of this pain- , the act itself, and the courteous man- ful and arduous undertaking, which per in which it was done.

opened those sores wbich had scarcely Not less obliged do I feel to one been cicatrized, I have to observe, of our spiritual Lords in Langham- that the parish of Yarmouth brought place, distinguished by great worth her to the Quarter Sessions at Chelmsof character.

ford, on an appeal, endeavouring to


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prove that, as a parishioner, she did and pain ; without a mixture of the latter, not belong to Yarmouth.

the former would have no relief." Dispensing, as the steward of your

FORDYCE. “Many things must conCharity, the riches of your benevo- spire to complete the happiness of man; lence io her comfort, i indulge the

that state most desirable, in which the

fewest competitions aud disappointments hope that she may pass the remain

can happen, which least of all impairs any ing years of her life, be they few or

sense of pleasure, and opens an inexmany, in rest and quietness; and end

hausted source of lasting enjoyments ;her days in peace with Heaven. this will be found in Virtue-therefore VirWILLIAM CHARLES DYER. tue is the truest happiness.”

All these authorities, though they Mr. URBAN, Doctors' Commons,


differ in their definitions, we may Sept. 14.

clearly observe unanimously agree in O Happiness ! our being's end and aim! !

attributing happiness to the active Good, pleasure, ease, content, whate'er

exercise of our noblest faculties, in thy name.

which we have not only the fairest S Happiness is the professed ob- prospect of attaining as much happiS

ness here as this world affords, but various or mistaken may be the means

have the much higher satisfaction of pursued towards its altaioment: to

being conscious that we are therein those, who do not seek it in the in

best fulfilling the intentions of our toxicating cup of pleasure, the al. Creator, and fitting ourselves for that

, lurements of ambition, or the indul.

state which is promised to those who gence of appetite, the following opi do justly, love mercy, and walk hompions on the subject, collected from

bly before their God. some of the most eminent modern

Yours, &c.

J. S. philosophers, may not be uninteresting :

Mr. URBAN, Lincoln, Aug. 24. HutcheSON.- Jo virtuous action alone we can find the highest happiness; but inon dates of the birth of Rowe to make it complete, there must be a mu

the Poet are wrong, but I cannot so derate degree of external prosperity.”

confidently promise to say what is Ferguson.- .“ Happiness is not that state of repose or freedom from care, but

the right year; although I have made arises more from the pursuit than the at.

out a proof to my own satisfaction, tainment of any end, and depends more

and shall now submit it to your judgon the degree in which our minds are em. ment, and that of your Readers. ployed, than in the circumstances in which Dr. Johosop says, Nicholas Rowe we are desiined to act; it consists in a was born at Liltle Beckford in Bedcandid, active, and strenuous mind.” fordshire, in 1673. He calls his fa

Paley. Happiness consists, 1. In ther Joho Rowe; mentions that he the exercise of social affections.-2. In

professed the law, and became a serthe exercise of our faculties in pursuit of jeant before his death, which hapsome end.-3. On the prudent constitu

pened in 1692 ; and that be was, butiou of the habits.-4. In healtb ;--and it does not consist in an exemption from

ried in the Temple Church.

· The Compendium of County Hiscare, labour, pain, ar business." BURGH.- -" The foundation of happi.

tory in your Magazine gives 1673 as ness is a conscious being finding itself in

the date of Rowe's birth, but panies that state, and furnished with those ad. the village more properly Little vantages which are the most suitable to Berkford. its nature, and most conducive to its im. Mr. Lysons, in his “ Bedfordshire,” provement."

very strangely makes Rowe to bave ADAM SMITH.-" Happiness consists in been born in 1661. tranquillity and enjoyment; without tran- All these dates are, I believe, wrong. quillity there can be no enjoyment; but The name of the village is Berkwhere there is perfect tranquillity, there

ford, now more ordinarily written is scarce any thing which is not capable

Barford, according to the pronunciaof amusing." Lord KAIMES " considered that man

tion, and called Little Barford, to disfinds his chief happiness when he most tinguish it from a neighbouring place, effectually promotes the welfare and hap

of which the real name is Barford. piness of his fellow-creatures."

The oldest registers of the parish are NETTLETON. .“ Happiness consists in nearly all lost or destroyed; but a a due mixture and alternation of pleasure copy of the fragments was made by


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