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fruth, is another arduous task. There have its own Historian. If a oative, is one still grealer, which, though not so much the better, as he will, from . arduous, is a task the most unplea. his situativn and long acquaintance , sant. From the great inass of mat. with the scenes he is describing, be ter which must pass through his bands, enabled to paint more correctly the something may arise that will not als manners and customs of his neighways accord wild his feelings. He will bourhood, than an accidental travel. meet with facts, wbich in some way ler can, who, flying from place to or other touch upon the ancestors of place, must be content with the old many of his acquaintances, and, as sayings and quaint observations of a in the actions of every man's life, Sexton or Parish Clerk, not much particularly public men, there is als belter informied than bimself. Loways some sore part which cannot cal History seems now to be the be passed over, if he set out with the rage, and the more publications of firin resolution of brioging before the that nalure are brought before the community nothing but truth, in public, the more are they sought after whatever "shape it may appear, he and read. Most heartily do I wish will have to encoupler a host of ene every success to those, who, having mies. This must be expected, and leisure and abilities to describe the an author must prepare himself for scenes of their native home, devote such an encounter. Some from pri- their time to the production of works, vale pique, others from not being which, wbilst they afford amusement, able to start any thing new. them- convey instruction to future generaselves, have the greatest pleasure in tions. runding down and blasting, as far as That great and Herculean Work, their private influence extends, the the History of Yorkshire, a work, fair fame of others; and as it is an which I should suppose would fully easy matter to find fault, without being fill up the whole time of three inde able to correct, the tempting op fatigable Historians, even if they lived portunity cannot be resisted. Oihers, to a tolerable good old age, and each from motives not more honourable, took a Riding, may seem in some stifle all sources of information, and measure to swallow up all minor pubwith cold indifference, or sarcastic lications of that nature; but as it malevolence, enjoy the disappoint. cannot be expected that the minuments of an author, whose only ub tiæ of every lown within that large ject is truth.
district, even if interesting, will be I have been led into these reflec. entered into, Local History, from its tions on considering how very ably being confined to one particular place, many of the principal Towos of my will have its attractions. The advan. native County have been described. tages of Works of this sort I cannot We have a History of York, Scar. better describe than is set forth in the borough, Ripon, Knaresborough, Preface to the History of Whitby. Northallerton, Whilby, and many “The advantages of Local History other Towns which do not immedi. are generally acknowledged. Correct ately occur to my memory. There views of a country are not to be gaioare announced prospectuses of a His ed from the hasty remarks of the tory of Sheffield, and an improved Tourist, who skims over its surface Quarto Edition of the History of in a few days; but from the patient Richmond. By the bye, I am always researches and mature observations a friend to Second Editions. They of Local Writers, each of whom, degive authors an opportuoity of core voting his attention to objects within recting any errors which may have his reach, and collecting what is incrept unawares into First Editions, of teresting in his own vicinity, furmaking alterations, and of enlarging nishes his quota to the common fund their plan, by extending the subjects of Statistical knowledge. In general, almost under every head. Judicious Topographical works will be more observations by candid critics also or less correct, in proportion as the epable them to revise those parts field of view is contracted or enwhich seemed to them capable of larged ; and he who attempts to take aineadment. I have uo doubt but in too much endangers the whole. that every town in this large and po What is gained in extent is lost in pulous Couqty will ia a little tiine
accuracy. The fore-ground of the
landscape is distinctly perceived, while person who brought it to the market the distant objects are involved in is one whose property is in the fuods ; shades."
Civis. he carries ou no trade, and therefore
has nothing to sell; he is, according Mr. URBAN, London, Sept. 3. to the proportion of bis stock, in a FOR POR the last twenty-five years I betler situation than one who has a
have been in the habit of share in a mine. This man we may tending with my friends that the Na suppose to lay out his twenty shilling tional debt and laxes are not oppres- piece in the purchase of clothing; sive or injurious, but quite the con ihe second, or seller of the clothing, trary. The consequence is, that I am buys wool; the third, who is the sel. considered an eccentric, and my vi- ler of the wool, purchases corn; the sions are laughed at. But, Mr. Urban, fourth, who was the seller of the corn, I have lalely received great pleasure, buys coals; the fifth, who was a seller and assumed much confidence, from of the coals, lays out the twenty piece baving read the opinions of that very to buy wine; and the piece may still excellent judge, Mr. Justice Bailey, circulate, making different purchases, in his late address to the Grand Jury till at last it is paid away for taxes ; of the County of York. These opi- then it is carried to the King's Exchenions are so exactly in uoison with quer, is again paid out in dividends to my own, that I venture to send you The slock-holder, and again repeats the following essay, in hopes you will the same line of purchases which I give it publicity; for if the world has have before exbibited. By means of hitherto been io error, it surely be the Taxes the great mass is collected, comes a matter of great consequence by means of the Funds it is again put to remove the prejudice.
joto circulation ; and by this pever Part of the speech, as I have it from ceasing rotation, a man of monied the Newspapers, ruos tbus :-“It was wealth is enabled, iö the course of a a favourite opinion with many, that moderately lengthened life, to spend taxation was the cause of all the dis the amount of his fortune THREE tress experienced in any part of the TINES Over, and still to leave it uncountry, but if it could be shown that impaired for his beirs and successors the lower classes derived their em. to repeat for ever the same beneficial ployment and comforts from taxation, operations ; whereas, if he had not the it could not be fairly alleged that power of placing out his money to inthey were prejudiced by taxation.” terest, as into a reservoir, he must Towards this showing, I send the fol- draw upon bis capital, and every pound lowing Essay on Circulation, Tax he spent would be a diminution of it, ation, &c.
until at last it would be exhausted. It is easy to conccive that a twenty So it is with the mine ; every ounce shilling piece, now called a Sovereigo, taken away makes the remainder less, may be brought into a market or fair, for it never returns again. But as a and circulate through a hundred hands wealthy man in Great Britain may in the course of one day. The first always place his money in the funds, person that uses it, parts with the be is enabled, as before stated, to piece of price, all the rest part with spend treble its amount, and still leave some commodity for the price, and an undiminished property. again buy commodity with the price. It is proper in this place to point If the last person has no need of any the reader's attention to one particucommodity, he keeps the piece of price; lar feature in the transactions before but he must have had some commo stated, that all the changes, except the dity to sell or he could not have ob- first and the last, were of barter, but tained it.
made through the medium of buying This instance is an epitome of all and selling by means of one piece of commercial transactions, whether fo money. The first person that used it reign or domestic. It will likewise in the morning, and parted with the exemplify the true operation of the piece of price, was a buyer and confunding system, and show its un. sumer only; the second, and all the bounded benefits.
others down to the last, were traders, Suppose we take five out of the but the last, having sold his commohundred changes made by the suve dity, retains the price ; each trader reign piece before inentivned; the bas used the coin to bis advantage,
but the changes could not have been ney, which in Great Britain is from
nothing to sell, or labour to perform,
Before I dismiss my circulating The taxes are of the nature of a piece, I beg leave to remark, that if rent paid for the use and collecting by any means it had become deficient of the money which people of for- in weight, it might throughout the tune are continually sending into cir- market have passed for only nineteen culation; or rather, of the bire which shillings, in which case, each of the each trader might pay for the use of parties would have had somewbat scales, weights, and measures, if he less of quantity and measure thap if had none of his own; for it must be the piece had been of full weights the consumer who pays the taxes. froni which it is clear, that all coin, The trader uses the money to bis for the sake of common justice, profit, but the map of fortune having should never be suffered to pass curnothing to sell, must be always a rent beveath a certain weight. The buyer, always disseminating bis mo same may be said of Bank Notes :
while they are exchangeable for the # If this assertion is true, the National same weight of bullion, specified in Debt alone gives constant employment to their amount, they are of equal value very nearly one million of persons. with full weight coio; if they will not
procure so much, they are the same To a Peer of the Realm, in the as light money:
county of Gloucester, I am equally No man can be compelled to buy: indebied; and not less so, for his but when be dues buy, he ought to be commendation and approbation of compelled to give good money, both the act in question. For, freely do I in weight and quality.
confess, that exquisite is the gratifiNo man can be compelled to sell : cation of pleasure a viro taudato but when he does sell, he ought to be laudari. compelled to give full weight and The Rector of the parish (Beau
A LOMBARD. champ Roding), whom the Poor have
reason to bless, claims his reward; SEQUEL OF THE CASE OF ANNE and I trust in God, that he will abun. CHANDLER.
dantly receive it. “Feet was I to the lame."--JOB.
[In like manner our benevolent, Abbotts Roding, Correspondent enumerates Mr. URBAN,
very Aug. 18. considerable number of other BeneTROM the publicity of the severe factors, which would fill some puges ; dler, with the narration of which you rative.] indulged me (see Part i. p. 518), I am Did I here close this address of desirous of circulating this public Thanks to the numerous friends of acknowledgment,-in order that it bumanity, it would be highly unsamay meet the eye of many, to whom tisfactory, were I not to add someI cannot by any other means express thing relative to the state and condi. how much I feel myself indebted to tion of the unhappy sufferer, since them for their humanity and bene- the sad operation which has disabled volence
upon this truly melancholy ber for life. Hitherto the end has subject.
been answered in the fullest measure I deem it to be satisfactory to ob- of relief. It has contributed literally serve, that as the greater part of my to raise an unhappy fellow-creature charitable Correspondents wished to from the dust of the earth to some conceal their real names,-not suf. degree of comfort and happiness. fering their left band to know what Her comparative state at this present their right hand doeth ;-and, since time, with what it was some few weeks many, whose liberality I should have ago, is that of comfort and support been happy to have announced, as a from a condition of extreme poverty light shining before men, leading them and want, of pain and suffering. to exemplary imitation, did express · Under this happy change of cirtheir positive desire, totidem verbis, cuinstances, when I took my leave of not to be publicly known ; I shall her on the preceding day of her be-' not only strictly comply with their ing removed to Yarmouth, there was request, but shall forbear from bring- visibly an air of health, a counteing forward to public potice any nance of expressive pleasure, gratiother memorial, than what I hope tude at beart, and a mind, I trust, may be iodulged to me as a feeling sincerely devoted to God.
Three of gratitude, proclaiming the secret weeks had now scarcely passed since and inward pleasure of my mind. the amputation of her legs,—and this
Though nothing that I could say in at the advanced age of sixty-two, praise of the humane and liberal man when she performed this journey of ner in which my Diocesan answered more than one hundred miles. The my request, can add to the real and same long journey she was obliged, genuine worth of character so de- in a few days, again to undertake, servedly due to his Lordship, yet I and a further journey back again to should ill reconcile to my own feel- Yarmouth, comprehending altogeiogs a passive silence on this occasion. ther above three hundred miles. With great pleasure I acknowledge To explain the cause of this pain- , the act itself, and the courteous man- ful and arduous undertaking, which ner in which it was done.
opened those sores wbich had scarcely Not less obliged do I feel to one been cicatrized, I have to observe, of our spiritual Lords in Langham- that the parish of Yarmouth brought place, distinguished by great worth her to the Quarter Sessions at Chelmsof character.
ford, on an appeal, endeavouring to
I mondates car the Withat the com
prove that, as a parishioner, she did and pain ; without a mixture of the latter, not belong to Yarmouth.
the former would have no relief.". Dispensing, as the steward of your
FORDYCE. -“Many things must conCharity, the riches of your bepevo
spire to complete the happiness of man ; Jence to her comfort, i indulge tbe that state most. desirable, in which the hope that she may pass the remain
fewest competitions and disappointments
can happen, which least of all impairs any ing years of her life, be they few or
sense of pleasure, and opens an inexmany, in rest and quietness; and end
hausted source of lasting enjoyments; her days in peace with Heaven.
this will be found ju Virtue-therefore VirWILLIAM CHARLES DYER. tue is the truest happiness."
All these authorities, though they Doctors' Commons, Mr. URBAN,
may differ in their definitions, we may Sept. 14.
clearly observe unanimously agree in O Happiness ! our being's end and aim !
attributing happiness to the active Good, pleasure, ease, content, whate'er
exercise of our noblest faculties, in thy name.
which we have not only the fairest S Happiness is the professed ob
prospect of atlaining as much happi
pess here as this world affords, but various or mistaken may be the means
have the much higher satisfaction of pursued towards its aitaipment: to
being conscious that we are therein ibose, who do not seek it in the in
best fulfilling the intentions of our toxicating cup of pleasure, the al
Creator, and fitting ourselves for that lurements of ambition, or the indul.
state which is promised to those who gence of appetite, the following opi
do justly, love mercy, and walk hompions on the subject, collected from
bly before their God. some of the most eminent modern
J. S. philosophers, may not be uninteresting:
Mr. URBAN, Lincoln, Aug. 24. HUTCHESON.--" Jo virtuous action alone THINK I can show that the comwe can find the highest happiness; but to make it complete, there must be a mu
the Poet are wrong, but I cannot so , derate degree of external prosperity.”
confidently promise to say wbat is Ferguson. -" Happiness is not that
the right year; although I have made state of repose or freedom from care, but arises more from the pursuit than the at.
out a proof to my own satisfaction,
and shall now submit it to your judgtainment of any end, and depends more on the degree in which our minds are em. ment, and that of your Readers. ployed, than in the circumstances in which Dr. Johnson says, Nicholas Rowe we are destined to act; it consists in a was born at Liltle Beckford in Bedcandid, active, and strenuous mind.” fordshire, in 1673. He calls his fa
PALEY. ,-“ Happiness consists, 1. In ther Joho Rowe; mentions that he the exercise of social affections.-2. In
professed the law, and became a serthe exercise of our faculties in pursuit of jeant before his death, which hapsome end.--3. On the prudent constitu.
pened in 1692; and that be was butiou of the habits.-4. In healtb ;--and it
ried in the Temple Church. does not consist in an exemption from
· The Compendium of County Hiscare, labour, pain, ar business.” BURGH.-" The foundation of happi.
tory in your Magazine gives 1673 as ness is a conscious being finding itself in
the date of Rowe's birth, but panies that state, and furnished with those ad. the village more properly Little vantages which are the most suitable to Berkford. its nature, and most conducive to its im. Mr. Lysons, in his “ Bedfordshire,” provement.”
very strangely makes Rowe to bave ADAM SMITH.-" Happiness consists in been born in 1661. tranquillity and enjoyment; without tran. All these dates are, I believe, wrong. quillity there can be no enjoyment; but
The name of the village is Berkwhere there is perfect tranquillity, there ford, now more ordinarily written is scarce any thing which is not capable
Barford, according to the pronunciaof amusing." LORD Kaimes " considered that man
tion, and called Little Barford, to disfinds his chief happiness when he most tinguish it from a neighbouring place, effectually promotes the welfare and hap
of which the real name is Barford. piness of his fellow-creatures."
The oldest registers of the parish are NETTLETON. - Happiness consists in nearly all lost or destroyed ; but a a due mixture and alternation of pleasure copy of the fragments was made by